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Full text of "The passing of the great race; or, The racial basis of European history. 4th rev. ed., with a documentary supplement, with prefaces by Henry Fairfield Osborn"

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he passing of 
he great race 



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C -i 

Copyright, 1916, 1918, 1921, by 

Printed in the United States of America 

Published October, 1916 
Reprinted December, 1916 

Published March, 1918 
Reprinted March, 1919 

Pubb'shed May, 1920 


Published August, 1921 

Reprinted February, July, 1922 

February, September, 1923 

November, 1924; December, 1926 

May, 1930; May, 1932 

All rights reserved. No part of this book 

c\\\ may ^ e ^froduced in any form without 

*\H * the permission of Charles Scribner's Sons 



European history has been written in terms of 
nationality and of language, but never before in 
terms of race; yet race has played a far larger part 
than either language or nationality in moulding the 
destinies of men; race implies heredity and hered- 
ity implies all the moral, social and intellectual 
characteristics and traits which are the springs of 
politics and government. 

Quite independently and unconsciously the au- 
thor, never before a historian, has turned this 
historical sketch into the current of a great bio- 
logical movement, which may be traced back to 
the teachings of Gal ton and Weismann, beginning 
in the last third of the nineteenth century. This 
movement has compelled us to recognize the 
superior force and stability of heredity, as being 
more enduring and potent than environment. 
This movement is also a reaction from the teach- 
ings of Hippolyte Taine among historians and of 
Herbert Spencer among biologists, because it proves 
that environment and in the case of man educa- 
tion have an immediate, apparent and temporary 
influence, while heredity has a deep, subtle and 

permanent influence on the actions of men. 



Thus the racial history of Europe, which forms 
the author's main outline and subject and which 
is wholly original in treatment, might be para- 
phrased as the heredity history of Europe. It is 
history as influenced by the hereditary impulses, 
predispositions and tendencies which, as highly 
distinctive racial traits, date back many thousands 
of years and were originally formed when man was 
still in the tribal state, long before the advent of 

In the author's opening chapters these traits 
and tendencies are commented upon as they are 
observed to-day under the varying influences of 
migration and changes of social and physical en- 
vironment. In the chapters relating to the racial 
history of Europe we enter a new and fascinating 
field of study, which I trust the author himself 
may some day expand into a longer story. There 
is no gainsaying that this is the correct scientific 
method of approaching the problem of the past. 

The moral tendency of the heredity interpreta- 
tion of history is for our day and generation and 
is in strong accord with the true spirit of the 
modern eugenics movement in relation to patriot- 
ism, namely, the conservation and multiplication 
for our country of the best spiritual, moral, intel- 
lectual and physical forces of heredity; thus only 
will the integrity of our institutions be maintained 
in the future. These divine forces are more or 


less sporadically distributed in all races, some of 
them are found in what we call the lowest races, 
some are scattered widely throughout humanity, 
but they are certainly more widely and uniformly 
distributed in some races than in others. 

Thus conservation of that race which has given 
us the true spirit of Americanism is not a matter 
either of racial pride or of racial prejudice; it is a 
matter of love of country, of a true sentiment 
which is based upon knowledge and the lessons of 
history rather than upon the sentimentalism which 
is fostered by ignorance. If I were asked: What 
is the greatest danger which threatens the American 
republic to-day? I would certainly reply: The grad- 
ual dying out among our people of those hereditary 
traits through which the principles of our religious, 
political and social foundations were laid down and 
their insidious replacement by traits of less noble 

Henry Fairfield Osborn. 

July i|, 1916. 


History is repeating itself in America at the 
present time and incidentally is giving a convinc- 
ing demonstration of the central thought in this 
volume, namely, that heredity and racial predis- 
position are stronger and more stable than envi- 
ronment and education. 

Whatever may be its intellectual, its literary, 
its artistic or its musical aptitudes, as compared 
with other races, the Anglo-Saxon branch of the 
Nordic race is again showing itself to be that upon 
which the nation must chiefly depend for leader- 
ship, for courage, for loyalty, for unity and har- 
mony of action, for self-sacrifice and devotion to 
an ideal. Not that members of other races are 
not doing their part, many of them are, but in no 
other human stock which has come to this country 
is there displayed the unanimity of heart, mind 
and action which is now being displayed by the 
descendants of the blue-eyed, fair-haired peoples 
of the north of Europe. In a recent journey in 
northern California and Oregon I noted that, in 
the faces of the regiments which were first to leave 
for the city of New York and later that, in the 
wonderful array of young men at Plattsburg, the 


Anglo-Saxon type was clearly dominant over every 
other and the purest members of this type largely 
outnumbered the others. In northern California I 
saw a great regiment detrain and with one or two 
exceptions they were all native Americans, de- 
scendants of the English, Scotch and north of 
Ireland men who founded the State of Oregon 
in the first half of the nineteenth century. At 
Plattsburg fair hair and blue eyes were very no- 
ticeable, much more so than in any ordinary crowds 
of American collegians as seen assembled in our 

It should be remembered also that many of the 
dark-haired, dark-eyed youths of Plattsburg and 
other volunteer training camps are often three- 
fourths or seven-eighths Nordic, because it only re- 
quires a single dark-eyed ancestor to lend the dark 
hair and eye color to an otherwise pure Nordic 
strain. There is a clear differentiation between the 
original Nordic, the Alpine and the Mediterranean 
strains; but where physical characters and char- 
acteristics are partly combined in a mosaic, and to 
a less degree are blended, it requires long experience 
to judge which strain dominates. 

With a race having these predispositions, ex- 
tending back to the very beginnings of European 
history, there is no hesitation or even waiting for 
conscription and the sad thought was continually 
in my mind in California, in Oregon and in Platts- 


burg that again this race was passing, that this 
war will take a very heavy toll of this strain of 
Anglo-Saxon life which has played so large a part 
in American history. 

War is in the highest sense dysgenic rather than 
eugenic. It is destructive of the best strains, spiri- 
tually, morally and physically. For the world's 
future the destruction of wealth is a small matter 
compared with the destruction of the best human 
strains, for wealth can be renewed while these strains 
of the real human aristocracy once lost are lost 
forever. In the new world that we are working 
and fighting for, the world of liberty, of justice and 
of humanity, we shall save democracy only when 
democracy discovers its own aristocracy as in the 
days when our Republic was founded. 

Henry Fairfield Osborn. 

Decemter, 191 7. 




I. Race and Democracy 3 

II. The Physical Basis or Race 13 

III. Race and Habitat 37 

IV. The Competition of Races 46 

V. Race, Language and Nationality ... 56 

VI. Race and Language 69 

VII. The European Races in Colonies ... 76 


I. Eolithic Man 97 

II. Paleolithic Man 104 

III. The Neolithic and Bronze Ages . . . . 119 

IV. The Alpine Race 134 

V. The Mediterranean Race 148 

VI. The Nordic Race 167 




VII. Teutonic Europe 179 

VIII. The Expansion of the Nordics .... 188 

DC. The Nordic Fatherland 213 

X. The Nordic Race Outside of Europe . . 223 

XL Racial Aptitudes 226 

XII. Arya 233 

XIII. Origin of the Aryan Languages . . . 242 

XIV. The Aryan Language in Asia .... 253 

Appendix with Colored Maps .... 265 

Bibliography 275 

Index 281 



Chronological Table Pages 132-133 

Classification or the Races of Europe 

Facing page 123 

Provisional Outline of Nordic Invasions and 
Metal Cultures Facing page 191 


Maximum Expansion of Alpines with Bronze Cul- 
ture, 3000-1800 B. C Facing page 266 

Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics, 1800- 
100 B. C Facing page 268 

Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic 
Alpines, 100 B. C.-noo A. D. . . Facing page 270 

Present Distribution of European Races 

Facing page 272 


The following pages are devoted to an attempt 
to elucidate the meaning of history in terms of 
race; that is, by the physical and psychical char- 
acters of the inhabitants of Europe instead of by 
their political grouping or by their spoken lan- 
guage. Practically all historians, while using the 
word race, have relied on tribal or national names 
as its sole definition. The ancients, like the mod- 
erns, in determining ethnical origin did not look 
beyond a man's name, language or country and 
the actual information furnished by classic lit- 
erature on the subject of physical characters is 
limited to a few scattered and often obscure 

Modern anthropology has demonstrated that 
racial lines are not only absolutely independent of 
both national and linguistic groupings, but that in 
many cases these racial lines cut through them at 
sharp angles and correspond closely with the divi- 
sions of social cleavage. The great lesson of the 
science of race is the immutability of somatological 
or bodily characters, with which is closely asso- 
ciated the immutability of psychical predisposi- 
tions and impulses. This continuity of inheri- 


tance has a most important bearing on the theory 
of democracy and still more upon that of socialism, 
for it naturally tends to reduce the relative im- 
portance of environment. Those engaged in social 
uplift and in revolutionary movements are there- 
fore usually very intolerant of the limitations 
imposed by heredity. Discussion of these limita- 
tions is also most offensive to the advocates of 
the obliteration, under the guise of international- 
ism, of all existing distinctions based on national- 
ity, language, race, religion and class. Those indi- 
viduals who have neither country, nor flag, nor 
language, nor class, nor even surnames of their 
own and who can only acquire them by gift or 
assumption, very naturally decry and sneer at the 
value of these attributes of the higher types. 

Democratic theories of government in their mod- 
ern form are based on dogmas of equality formu- 
lated some hundred and fifty years ago and rest 
upon the assumption that environment and not 
heredity is the controlling factor in human develop- 
ment. Philanthropy and noble purpose dictated 
the doctrine expressed in the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, the document which to-day constitutes 
the actual basis of American institutions. The men 
who wrote the words, "we hold these truths to be 
self-evident, that all men are created equal," were 
themselves the owners of slaves and despised 
Indians as something less than human. Equality 


in their minds meant merely that they were just 
as good Englishmen as their brothers across the 
sea. The words "that all men are created equal" 
have since been subtly falsified by adding the 
word "free," although no such expression is found 
in the original document and the teachings based 
on these altered words in the American public 
schools of to-day would startle and amaze the men 
who formulated the Declaration. 

It will be necessary for the reader to divest his 
mind of all preconceptions as to race, since mod- 
ern anthropology, when applied to history, involves 
an entire change of definition. We must, first of 
all, realize that race pure and simple, the physical 
and psychical structure of man, is something en- 
tirely distinct from either nationality or language. 
Furthermore, race lies at the base of all the mani- 
festation of modern society, just as it has done 
throughout the unrecorded eons of the past and 
the laws of nature operate with the same relentless 
and unchanging force in human affairs as in the 
phenomena of inanimate nature. 

The antiquity of existing European populations, 
viewed in the light thrown upon their origins by 
the discoveries of the last few decades, enables us 
to carry back history and prehistory into periods 
so remote that the classic world is but of yester- 
day. The living peoples of Europe consist of layer 
upon layer of diverse racial elements in varying 


proportions and historians and anthropologists, 
while studying these populations, have been con- 
cerned chiefly with the recent strata and have 
neglected the more ancient and submerged types. 

Aboriginal populations from time immemorial 
have been again and again swamped under floods 
of newcomers and have disappeared for a time 
from historic view. In the course of centuries, 
however, these primitive elements have slowly re- 
asserted their physical type and have gradually bred 
out their conquerors, so that the racial history of 
Europe has been in the past, and is to-day, a story 
of the repression and resurgence of ancient races. 

Invasions of new races have ordinarily arrived in 
successive waves, the earlier ones being quickly 
absorbed by the conquered, while the later arrivals 
usually maintain longer the purity of their type. 
Consequently the more recent elements are found 
in a less mixed state than the older and the more 
primitive strata of the population always contain 
physical traits derived from still more ancient pred- 

Man has inhabited Europe in some form or 
other for hundreds of thousands of years and 
during all this lapse of time the population has 
been as dense as the food supply permitted. Tribes 
in the hunting stage are necessarily of small size, 
no matter how abundant the game and in the 
Paleolithic period man probably existed only in 


specially favorable localities and in relatively 
small communities. 

In the Neolithic and Bronze periods domesti- 
cated animals and the knowledge of agriculture, 
although of primitive character, afforded an en- 
larged food supply and the population in conse- 
quence greatly increased. The lake dwellers of 
the Neolithic were, for example, relatively numer- 
ous. With the clearing of the forests and the 
draining of the swamps during the Middle Ages 
and, above all, with the industrial expansion of 
the last century the population multiplied with 
great rapidity. We can, of course, form little or 
no estimate of the numbers of the Paleolithic 
population of Europe and not much more of those 
of Neolithic times, but even the latter must have 
been very small in comparison with the census of 

Some conception of the growth of population in 
recent times may be based on the increase in Eng- 
land. It has been computed that Saxon England 
at the time of the Conquest contained about 
1,500,000 inhabitants, at the time of Queen Eliz- 
abeth the population was about 4,000,000, while 
in 191 1 the census gave for the same area some 

The immense range of the subject of race in con- 
nection with history from its nebulous dawn and 
the limitations of space, require that generaliza- 


tions must often be stated without mention of 
exceptions. These sweeping statements may even 
appear to be too bold, but they rest, to the best of 
the writer's belief, upon solid foundations of facts 
or else are legitimate conclusions from evidence 
now in hand. In a science as recent as modern 
anthropology, new facts are constantly revealed 
and require the modification of existing hypotheses. 
The more the subject is studied, the more pro- 
visional even the best-sustained theory appears, 
but modern research opens a vista of vast interest 
and significance to man, now that we have dis- 
carded the shackles of former false viewpoints and 
are able to discern, even though dimly, the solu- 
tion of many of the problems of race. In the future 
new data will inevitably expand and perhaps 
change our ideas, but such facts as are now in 
hand and the conclusions based thereupon are 
provisionally set forth in the following chapters 
and necessarily often in a dogmatic form. 

The statements relating to time have presented 
the greatest difficulty, as the authorities differ 
widely, but the dates have been fixed with ex- 
treme conservatism and the writer believes that 
whatever changes in them are hereafter required 
by further investigation and study, will result in 
pushing them back and not forward in prehistory. 
The dates given in the chapter on "Paleolithic 
Man" are frankly taken from the most recent 


authority on this subject, "The Men of the Old 
Stone Age," by Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn and 
the writer desires to take this opportunity to 
acknowledge his great indebtedness to this source 
of information, as well as to Mr. M. Taylor Pyne 
and to Mr. Charles Stewart Davison for their as- 
sistance and many helpful suggestions. 

The author also wishes to acknowledge his 
obligation to Prof. William Z. Ripley's "The 
Races of Europe," which contains a large array of 
anthropological measurements, maps and type 
portraits, providing valuable data for the present 
distribution of the three primary races of Europe. 

The American Geographical Society and its 
staff, particularly Mr. Leon Dominian, have also 
been of great help in the preparation of the maps 
herein contained and this occasion is taken by the 
writer to express his appreciation for their assist- 


The addition of a Documentary Supplement to 
the latest revision of this book has been made in re- 
sponse to a persistent demand for "authorities." 

The author has endeavored to make the references 
and quotations in this Supplement very full and, 
so far as possible, interesting in themselves as well 
as entirely distinct from the text, which stands 
substantially unchanged, and the authorities quoted 
are not necessarily the sources of the views herein 
expressed but more often are given in support of 
them. The contents of the book, since its first 
appearance, have had the advantage of the criticism 
of virtually every anthropologist in America and in 
England, France and Italy — many of whom have 
furnished the author with valuable corroborative 
material. Some of this material appears in the 
notes, but accessible authorities and the classical 
writers have been given the more prominent place. 
The supplement covered, as first prepared, substan- 
tially every statement in the book, but much was 
afterward omitted because it would seem that some 
things could be taken without proof. 


"The Passing of the Great Race," in its original 
form, was designed by the author to rouse his fellow- 
Americans to the overwhelming importance of race 
and to the folly of the "Melting Pot" theory, even 
at the expense of bitter controversy. This purpose 
has been accomplished thoroughly, and one of the 
most far-reaching effects of the doctrines enunciated 
in this volume and in the discussions that followed 
its publication was the decision of the Congress of 
the United States to adopt discriminatory and re- 
strictive measures against the immigration of unde- 
sirable races and peoples. 

Another of the results has been the publication in 
America and Europe of a series of books and ar- 
ticles more or less anthropological in character 
which have sustained or controverted its main 
theme. The new definition of race and the control- 
ling role played by race in all the manifestations of 
what we call civilization are now generally accepted 
even by those whose political position depends upon 
popular favor. 

It was to be expected that there would be bitter 
opposition to those definitions of race which are 
based on physical and psychical characters that are 
immutable, rather than upon those derived from 
language or political allegiance, that are easily 

To admit the unchangeable differentiation of race 
in its modern scientific meaning is to admit inevi- 


tably the existence of superiority in one race and of 
inferiority in another. Such an admission we can 
hardly expect from those of inferior races. These 
inferior races and classes are prompt to recognize 
in such an admission the very real danger to 
themselves of being relegated again to their former 
obscurity and subordinate position in society. The 
favorite defense of these inferior classes is an un- 
qualified denial of the existence of fixed inherited 
qualities, either physical or spiritual, which cannot 
be obliterated or greatly modified by a change 
of environment. Failing in this, as they must 
necessarily fail, they point out the presence of 
mixed or intermediate types, and claim that in 
these mixtures, or blends as they choose to call them, 
the higher type tends to predominate. In fact, of 
course, the exact opposite is the case and it is 
scarcely necessary to cite the universal distrust, 
often contempt, that the half-breed between two 
sharply contrasted races inspires the world over. 
Belonging physically and spiritually to the lower 
race, but aspiring to recognition as one of the higher 
race, the unfortunate mongrel, in addition to a dis- 
harmonic physique, often inherits from one parent 
an unstable brain which is stimulated and at times 
overexcited by flashes of brilliancy from the other. 
The result is a total lack of continuity of purpose, 
an intermittent intellect goaded into spasmodic out- 
bursts of energy. Physical and psychical dishar- 


monies are common among crosses between Indians, 
negroes and whites, but where the parents are more 
closely related racially we often obtain individuals oc- 
cupying the border-land between genius and insanity. 

The essential character of all these racial mixtures 
is a lack of harmony — both physical and mental — in 
the first few generations. Then, if the strain sur- 
vives, it is by the slow reversion to one of the par- 
ent types — almost inevitably the lower. 

The temporary advantage of mere numbers en- 
joyed by the inferior classes in modern democracies 
can only be made permanent by the destruction of 
superior types — by massacre, as in Russia, or by taxa- 
tion, as in England. In the latter country the finan- 
cial burdens of the war and the selfish interests of 
labor have imposed such a load of taxation upon 
the upper and middle classes that marriage and chil- 
dren are becoming increasingly burdensome. 

The best example of complete elimination of a 
dominant class is in Santo Domingo. The horrors 
of the black revolt were followed by the slow death 
of the culture of the white man. This history should 
be studied carefully because it gives in prophetic 
form the sequence of events that we may expect to 
find in Mexico and in parts of South America where 
the replacement of the higher type by the resurgent 
native is taking place. 

In the countries inhabited by a population more 
or less racially uniform the phenomenon of the mul- 


tiplication of the inferior classes fostered and aided 
by the noble but fatuous philanthropy of the well- 
to-do everywhere appears. Nature's laws when 
unchecked maintain a relatively fixed ratio between 
the classes, which is greatly impaired in modern 
society by humanitarian and charitable activities. 
The resurgence of inferior races and classes through- 
out not merely Europe but the world, is evident in 
every despatch from Egypt, Ireland, Poland, Ru- 
mania, India and Mexico. It is called nationalism, 
patriotism, freedom and other high-sounding names, 
but it is everywhere the phenomenon of the long- 
suppressed, conquered servile classes rising against 
the master race. The late Peloponnesian War in the 
world at large, like the Civil War in America, has 
shattered the prestige of the white race and it will 
take several generations and perhaps wars to re- 
cover its former control, if it ever does regain it. 
The danger is from within and not from without. 
Neither the black, nor the brown, nor the yellow, nor 
the red will conquer the white in battle. But if the 
valuable elements in the Nordic race mix with in- 
ferior strains or die out through race suicide, then 
the citadel of civilization will fall for mere lack of 

One of the curious effects of democracy is the 
unquestionable fact that there is less freedom of the 
press than under autocratic forms of government. 
It is well-nigh impossible to publish in the Amer- 


ican newspapers any reflection upon certain religions 
or races which are hysterically sensitive even when 
mentioned by name. The underlying idea seems 
to be that if publication can be suppressed the facts 
themselves will ultimately disappear. Abroad, con- 
ditions are fully as bad, and we have the authority 
of one of the most eminent anthropologists in France 
that the collection of anthropological measurements 
and data among French recruits at the outbreak of 
the Great War was prevented by Jewish influence, 
which aimed to suppress any suggestion of racial 
differentiation in France. In the United States also, 
during the war, we were unable to obtain complete 
measurements and data, in spite of the self-devo- 
tion of certain scientists, like Drs. Davenport, Sulli- 
van and others. This failure was due to lack of time 
and equipment and not to racial influences, but in 
the near future we may confidently expect in this 
country strenuous opposition to any public discus- 
sion of race as such. 

The rapidly growing appreciation of the impor- 
tance of race during the last few years, the study of 
the influence of race on nationality as shown by the 
after-war disputes over boundaries, the increasing 
complexity of our own problems between the whites 
and blacks, between the Americans and Japs, and 
between the native Americans and the hyphenated 
aliens in our midst upon whom we have carelessly 
urged citizenship, and, above all, the recognition 


that the leaders of labor and their more zealous fol- 
lowers are almost all foreigners, have served to arouse 
Americans to a realization of the menace of the im- 
pending Migration of Peoples through unrestrained 
freedom of entry here. The days of the Civil War 
and the provincial sentimentalism which governed or 
misgoverned our public opinion are past, and this 
generation must completely repudiate the proud 
boast of our fathers that they acknowledged no 
distinction in "race, creed, or color," or else the na- 
tive* American must turn the page of history and 






Failure to recognize the clear distinction be- 
tween race and nationality and the still greater 
distinction between race and language and the easy 
assumption that the one is indicative of the other 
have been in the past serious impediments to an 
understanding of racial values. Historians and 
philologists have approached the subject from the 
viewpoint of linguistics and as a result we are 
to-day burdened with a group of mythical races, 
such as the Latin, the Aryan, the Indo- Germanic, 
the Caucasian and, perhaps, most inconsistent of 
all, the Celtic race. 

Man is an animal differing from his fellow in- 
habitants of the globe not in kind but only in 
degree of development and an intelligent study of 
the human species must be preceded by an extended 
knowledge of other mammals, especially the pri- 
mates. Instead of such essential training, an- 
thropologists often seek to qualify by research 
in linguistics, religion or marriage customs or in 
designs of pottery or blanket weaving, all of which 
relate to ethnology alone. As a result the influence 



of environment is often overestimated and over- 
stated at the expense of heredity. 

The question of race has been further com- 
plicated by the effort of old-fashioned theologians 
to cramp all mankind into the scant six thousand 
years of Hebrew chronology as expounded by Arch- 
bishop Ussher. Religious teachers have also main- 
tained the proposition not only that man is some- 
thing fundamentally distinct from other living 
creatures, but that there are no inherited dif- 
ferences in humanity that cannot be obliterated 
by education and environment. 

It is, therefore, necessary at the outset for the 
reader to appreciate thoroughly that race, lan- 
guage and nationality are three separate and 
distinct things and that in Europe these three 
elements are found only occasionally persisting 
in combination, as in the Scandinavian nations. 

To realize the transitory nature of political 
boundaries one has but to consider the changes 
which have occurred during the past century 
and as to language, here in America we hear daily 
the English language spoken by many men who 
possess not one drop of English blood and who, a 
few years since, knew not one word of Saxon speech. 

As a result of certain religious and social 
doctrines, now happily becoming obsolete, race 
consciousness has been greatly impaired among 
civilized nations but in the beginning all differ- 


ences of class, of caste and of color marked actual 
lines of race cleavage. 

In many countries the existing classes rep- 
resent races that were once distinct. In the city 
of New York and elsewhere in the United States 
there is a native American aristocracy resting upon 
layer after layer of immigrants of lower races 
and these native Americans, while, of course, dis- 
claiming the distinction of a patrician class and 
lacking in class consciousness and class dignity, 
have, nevertheless, up to this time supplied the 
leaders in thought and in the control of capital as 
well as of education and of the religious ideals and 
altruistic bias of the community. 

In the democratic forms of government the 
operation of universal suffrage tends toward the 
selection of the average man for public office rather 
than the man qualified by birth, education and 
integrity. How this scheme of administration 
will ultimately work out remains to be seen but 
from a racial point of view it will inevitably in- 
crease the preponderance of the lower types and 
cause a corresponding loss of efficiency in the 
community as a whole. 

The tendency in a democracy is toward a stand- 
ardization of type and a diminution of the in- 
fluence of genius. A majority must of necessity 
be inferior to a picked minority and it always 
resents specializations in which it cannot share. 


In the French Revolution the majority, calling 
itself "the people," deliberately endeavored to 
destroy the higher type and something of the 
same sort was in a measure done after the Amer- 
ican Revolution by the expulsion of the Loyalists 
and the confiscation of their lands, with a resultant 
loss to the growing nation of good race strains, 
which were in the next century replaced by immi- 
grants of far lower type. 

In America we have nearly succeeded in de- 
stroying the privilege of birth; that is, the intellec- 
tual and moral advantage a man of good stock 
brings into the world with him. We are now en- 
gaged in destroying the privilege of wealth; that 
is, the reward of successful intelligence and in- 
dustry and in some quarters there is developing 
a tendency to attack the privilege of intellect 
and to deprive a man of the advantage gained from 
an early and thorough classical education. Simpli- 
fied spelling is a step in this direction. Ignorance 
of English grammar or classic learning must not, 
forsooth, be held up as a reproach to the political 
or social aspirant. 

Mankind emerged from savagery and barbar- 
ism under the leadership of selected individuals 
whose personal prowess, capacity or wisdom gave 
them the right to lead and the power to compel 
obedience. Such leaders have always been a mi- 
nute fraction of the whole, but as long as the 


tradition of their predominance persisted they were 
able to use the brute strength of the unthinking 
herd as part of their own force and were able to 
direct at will the blind dynamic impulse of the 
slaves, peasants or lower classes. Such a despot 
had an enormous power at his disposal which, if 
he were benevolent or even intelligent, could be 
used and most frequently was used for the general 
uplift of the race. Even those rulers who most 
abused this power put down with merciless rigor 
the antisocial elements, such as pirates, brigands 
or anarchists, which impair the progress of a com- 
munity, as disease or wounds cripple an individual. 
True aristocracy or a true republic is govern- 
ment by the wisest and best, always a small mi- 
nority in any population. Human society is like 
a serpent dragging its long body on the ground, 
but with the head always thrust a little in advance 
and a little elevated above the earth. The ser- 
pent's tail, in human society represented by the 
antisocial forces, was in the past dragged by 
sheer strength along the path of progress. Such has 
been the organization of mankind from the begin- 
ning, and such it still is in older communities than 
ours. What progress humanity can make under 
the control of universal suffrage, or the rule of the 
average, may find a further analogy in the habits of 
certain snakes which wiggle sideways and dis- 
regard the head with its brains and eyes. Such 


serpents, however, are not noted for their ability 
to make rapid progress. 

A true republic, the function of which is ad- 
ministration in the interests of the whole com- 
munity — in contrast to a pure democracy, which in 
last analysis is the rule of the demos or a majority 
in its own interests — should be, and often is, the 
medium of selection for the technical task of 
government of those best qualified by antecedents, 
character and education, in short, of experts. 

To use another simile, in an aristocratic as 
distinguished from a plutocratic or democratic 
organization the intellectual and talented classes 
form the point of the lance while the massive 
shaft represents the body of the population and 
adds by its bulk and weight to the penetrative 
impact of the tip. In a democratic system this 
concentrated force is dispersed throughout the 
mass. It supplies, to be sure, a certain amount 
of leaven but in the long run the force and genius 
of the small minority is dissipated, and its effi- 
ciency lost. Vox populi, so far from being Vox 
Dei, thus becomes an unending wail for rights and 
never a chant of duty. 

Where a conquering race is imposed on another 
race the institution of slavery often arises to com- 
pel the servient race to work and to introduce 
it forcibly to a higher form of civilization. As 
soon as men can be induced to labor to supply 


their own needs slavery becomes wasteful and 
tends to vanish. From a material point of view 
slaves are often more fortunate than freemen when 
treated with reasonable humanity and when their 
elemental wants of food, clothing and shelter are 

The Indians around the fur posts in northern 
Canada were formerly the virtual bond slaves of 
the Hudson Bay Company, each Indian and his 
squaw and pappoose being adequately supplied 
with simple food and equipment. He was pro- 
tected as well against the white man's rum as the 
red man's scalping parties and in return gave the 
Company all his peltries — the whole product of his 
year's work. From an Indian's point of view this 
was nearly an ideal condition but was to all in- 
tents serfdom or slavery. When through the open- 
ing up of the country the continuance of such an 
archaic system became an impossibility, the Indian 
sold his furs to the highest bidder, received a large 
price in cash and then wasted the proceeds in 
trinkets instead of blankets and in rum instead of 
flour, with the result that he is now gloriously free 
but is on the highroad to becoming a diseased out- 
cast. In this case of the Hudson Bay Indian the 
advantages of the upward step from serfdom to 
freedom are not altogether clear. A very similar 
condition of vassalage existed until recently among 
the peons of Mexico, but without the compensa- 


tion of the control of an intelligent and provident 
ruling class. 

In the same way serfdom in mediaeval Europe 
apparently was a device through which the land- 
owners repressed the nomadic instinct in their 
tenantry which became marked when the fertility 
of the land declined after the dissolution of the 
Roman Empire. Years are required to bring land 
to its highest productivity and agriculture cannot 
be successfully practised even in well-watered and 
fertile districts by farmers who continually drift 
from one locality to another. The serf or villein 
was, therefore, tied by law to the land and could 
not leave except with his master's consent. As 
soon as the nomadic instinct was eliminated 
serfdom vanished. One has but to read the 
severe laws against vagrancy in England just 
before the Reformation to realize how wide- 
spread and serious was this nomadic instinct. 
Here in America we have not yet forgotten the 
wandering instincts of our Western pioneers, which 
in that case proved beneficial to every one except 
the migrants. 

While democracy is fatal to progress when two 
races of unequal value live side by side, an aris- 
tocracy may be equally injurious whenever, in 
order to purchase a few generations of ease and 
luxury, slaves or immigrants are imported to do the 
heavy work. It was a form of aristocracy that 


brought slaves to the American colonies and the 
West Indies and if there had been an aristocratic 
form of governmental control in California, Chinese 
coolies and Japanese laborers would now form the 
controlling element, so far as numbers are con- 
cerned, on the Pacific coast. 

It was the upper classes who encouraged the 
introduction of immigrant labor to work American 
factories and mines and it is the native American 
gentleman who builds a palace on the country side 
and who introduces as servants all manner of 
foreigners into purely American districts. The 
farming and artisan classes of America did not 
take alarm until it was too late and they are now 
seriously threatened with extermination in many 
parts of the country. In Rome, also, it was the ple- 
beian, who first went under in the competition with 
slaves but the patrician followed in his turn a few 
generations later. 

The West Indian sugar planters flourished in the 
eighteenth century and produced some strong 
men; to-day from the same causes they have van- 
ished from the scene. 

During the last century the New England manu- 
facturer imported the Irish and French Canadians 
and the resultant fall in the New England birth- 
rate at once became ominous. The refusal of the 
native American to work with his hands when he 
can hire or import serfs to do manual labor for him 


is the prelude to his extinction and the immigrant 
laborers are now breeding out their masters and 
killing by filth and by crowding as effectively as by 
the sword. 

Thus the American sold his birthright in a con- 
tinent to solve a labor problem. Instead of re- 
taining political control and making citizenship an 
honorable and valued privilege, he intrusted the 
government of his country and the maintenance of 
his ideals to races who have never yet succeeded in 
governing themselves, much less any one else. 

Associated with this advance of democracy and 
the transfer of power from the higher to the lower 
races, from the intellectual to the plebeian class, we 
find the spread of socialism and the recrudescence 
of obsolete religious forms. Although these phe- 
nomena appear to be contradictory, they are in real- 
ity closely related since both represent reactions 
from the intense individualism which a century 
ago was eminently characteristic of Americans. 



In the modern and scientific study of race we 
have long since discarded the Adamic theory that 
man is descended from a single pair, created a few 
thousand years ago in a mythical Garden of Eden 
somewhere in Asia, to spread later over the earth 
in successive waves. 

It is a fact, however, that Asia was the chief 
area of evolution and differentiation of man and 
that the various groups had their main development 
there and not on the peninsula we call Europe. 

Many of the races of Europe, both living and 
extinct, did come from the East through Asia 
Minor or by way of the African littoral, but most 
of the direct ancestors of existing populations 
have inhabited Europe for many thousands of 
years. During that time numerous races of men 
have passed over the scene. Some undoubtedly 
have utterly vanished and some have left their 
blood behind them in the Europeans of to-day. 

We now know, since the elaboration o f the 
Mendelian Laws of Inheritance, that certain bodfr^ 
characters, such as skull shape, stature, eye color, 
hair color and nose form, some of which are so« 



called unit characters, are transmitted in accordance 
with fixed laws, and, further, that various char- 
acters which are normally correlated or linked 
together in pure races may, after a prolonged 
admixture of races, pass down separately and 
form what is known as disharmonic combinations. 
Such disharmonic combinations are, for example, a 
tall brunet or a short blond; blue eyes associated 
with brunet hair or brown eyes with blond hair. 

The process of intermixture of characters has 
gone far in existing populations and through the 
ease of modern methods of transportation this 
process is going much further in Europe and in 
America. The results of such mixture are not 
blends or intermediate types, but rather mosaics 
of contrasted characters. Such blends, if any, as 
ultimately occur are too remote to concern us here. 

The crossing of an individual of pure brunet race 
with an individual of pure blond race produces in 
the first generation offspring which are distinctly 
dark. In subsequent generations, brunets and 
blonds appear in various proportions but the former 
tend to be much the more numerous. The blond is 
consequently said to be recessive to the brunet be- 
cause it recedes from view in the first generation. 
This or any similar recessive or suppressed trait is 
not lost to the germ plasm, but reappears in later 
generations of the hybridized stock. A similar rule 
prevails with other physical characters. 


In denning race in Europe it is necessary not 
only to consider pure groups or pure types but 
also the distribution of characters belonging to 
each particular subspecies of man found there. 
The interbreeding of these populations has pro- 
gressed to such an extent that in many cases such 
an analysis of physical characters is necessary to 
reconstruct the elements which have entered into 
their ethnic composition. To rely on averages 
alone leads to misunderstanding and to disregard 
of the relative proportion of pure, as contrasted 
with mixed types. 

Sometimes we find a character appearing here 
and there as the sole remnant of a once numer- 
ous race, for example, the rare appearance in 
European populations of a skull of the Neander- 
thal type, a race widely spread over Europe 40,000 
years ago, or of the Cro-Magnon type, the pre- 
dominant race 16,000 years ago. Before the fossil 
remains of the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon races 
were studied and understood such reversional 
specimens were considered pathological, instead 
of being recognized as the reappearance of an 
ancient and submerged type. 

These physical characters are to all intents and 
purposes immutable and they do not change dur- 
ing the lifetime of a language or an empire. The 
skull shape of the Egyptian fellaheen, in the un- 
changing environment of the Nile Valley, is 


absolutely identical in measurements, proportions 
and capacity with skulls found in the predy- 
nastic tombs dating back more than six thousand 

There exists to-day a widespread and fatuous 
belief in the power of environment, as well as of 
education and opportunity to alter heredity, which 
arises from the dogma of the brotherhood of man, 
derived in its turn from the loose thinkers of the 
French Revolution and their American mimics. 
Such beliefs have done much damage in the past 
and if allowed to go uncontradicted, may do even 
more serious damage in the future. Thus the view 
that the Negro slave was an unfortunate cousin 
of the white man, deeply tanned by the tropic 
sun and denied the blessings of Christianity and 
civilization, played no small part with the senti- 
mentalists of the Civil War period and it has 
taken us fifty years to learn that speaking English, 
wearing good clothes and going to school and to 
church do not transform a Negro into a white 
man. Nor was a Syrian or Egyptian freedman 
transformed into a Roman by wearing a toga and 
applauding his favorite gladiator in the amphi- 
theatre. Americans will have a similar experience 
with the Polish Jew, whose dwarf stature, peculiar 
mentality and ruthless concentration on self-in- 
terest are being engrafted upon the stock of the 


Recent attempts have been made in the in- 
terest of inferior races among our immigrants to 
show that the shape of the skull does change, not 
merely in a century, but in a single generation. 
In 1 9 10, the report of the anthropological expert 
of the Congressional Immigration Commission 
gravely declared that a round skull Jew on his way 
across the Atlantic might and did have a round 
skull child; but a few years later, in response to 
the subtle elixir of American institutions as ex- 
emplified in an East Side tenement, might and 
did have a child whose skull was appreciably 
longer; and that a long skull south Italian, breed- 
ing freely, would have precisely the same experi- 
ence in the reverse direction. In other words the 
Melting Pot was acting instantly under the in- 
fluence of a changed environment. 

What the Melting Pot actually does in prac- 
tice can be seen in Mexico, where the absorption 
of the blood of the original Spanish conquerors 
by the native Indian population has produced 
the racial mixture which we call Mexican and 
which is now engaged in demonstrating its inca- 
pacity for self-government. The world has seen 
many such mixtures and the character of a mon- 
grel race is only just beginning to be understood 
at its true value. 

It must be borne in mind that the specializa- 
tions which characterize the higher races are of 


relatively recent development, are highly unstable 
and when mixed with generalized or primitive 
characters tend to disappear. Whether we like 
to admit it or not, the result of the mixture of 
two races, in the long run, gives us a race re- 
verting to the more ancient, generalized and lower 
type. The cross between a white man and an In- 
dian is an Indian; the cross between a white man 
and a Negro is a Negro; the cross between a white 
man and a Hindu is a Hindu; and the cross be- 
tween any of the three European races and a Jew 
is a Jew. 

In the crossing of the blond and brunet ele- 
ments of a population, the more deeply rooted 
and ancient dark traits are prepotent or dominant. 
This is matter of every-day observation and the 
working of this law of nature is not influenced or 
affected by democratic institutions or by religious 
beliefs. Nature cares not for the individual nor 
how he may be modified by environment. She 
is concerned only with the perpetuation of the spe- 
cies or type and heredity alone is the medium 
through which she acts. 

As measured in terms of centuries these char- 
acters are fixed and rigid and the only benefit to be 
derived from a changed environment and better 
food conditions is the opportunity afforded a 
race which has lived under adverse conditions 
to achieve its maximum development but the 


limits of that development are fixed for it by 
heredity and not by environment. 

In dealing with European populations the best 
method of determining race has been found to lie 
in a comparison of proportions of the skull, the so- 
called cephalic index. This is the ratio of maximum 
width, taken at the widest part of the skull above 
the ears, to maximum length. Skulls with an index 
of 75 or less, that is, those with a width that is three- 
fourths of the length or less, are considered doli- 
chocephalic or long skulls. Skulls of an index of 
80 or over are round or brachycephalic skulls. 
Intermediate indices, between 75 and 80, are con- 
sidered mesaticephalic. These are cranial indices. 
To allow for the flesh on living specimens about 
two per cent is to be added to this index and the 
result is the cephalic index. In the following 
pages only long and round skulls are considered 
and the intermediate forms are assigned to the 
dolichocephalic group. 

This cephalic index, though an extremely im- 
portant if not the controlling character, is, never- 
theless, but a single character and must be checked 
up with other somatological traits. Normally, a 
long skull is associated with a long face and a 
round skull with a round face 

The use of this test, the cephalic index, enables 
us to divide the great bulk of the European pop- 
ulations into three distinct subspecies of man, 


one northern and one southern, both dolicho- 
cephalic or characterized by a long skull and a 
central subspecies which is brachycephalic or char- 
acterized by a round skull. 

The first is the Nordic or Baltic subspecies. This 
race is long skulled, very tall, fair skinned with 
blond or brown hair and light colored eyes. The 
Nordics inhabit the countries around the North 
and Baltic Seas and include not only the great 
Scandinavian and Teutonic groups, but also other 
early peoples who first appear in southern Europe 
and in Asia as representatives of Aryan language 
and culture. 

The second is the dark Mediterranean or Iberian 
subspecies, occupying the shores of the inland sea 
and extending along the Atlantic coast until it 
reaches the Nordic species. It also spreads far 
east into southern Asia. It is long skulled like 
the Nordic race but the absolute size of the skull 
is less. The eyes and hair are very dark or black 
and the skin more or less swarthy. The stature is 
distinctly less than that of the Nordic race and the 
musculature and bony framework weak. 

The third is the Alpine subspecies occupying 
all central and eastern Europe and extending 
through Asia Minor to the Hindu Kush and the 
Pamirs. The Armenoids constitute an Alpine sub- 
division and may possibly represent the ancestral 
type of this race which remained in the mouu- 


tains and high plateaux of Anatolia and western 

The Alpines are round skulled, of medium 
height and sturdy build both as to skeleton and 
muscles. The coloration of both hair and eyes was 
originally very dark and still tends strongly in that 
direction but many light colored eyes, especially 
gray, are now common among the Alpine popula- 
tions of western Europe. 

While the inhabitants of Europe betray as a 
whole their mixed origin, nevertheless, individuals' 
of each of the three main subspecies are found in 
large numbers and in great purity, as well as sparse 
remnants of still more ancient races represented 
by small groups or by individuals and even by 
single characters. 

These three main groups have bodily characters 
which constitute them distinct subspecies. Each 
group is a large one and includes several well- 
marked varieties, which differ even more widely 
in cultural development than in physical diver- 
gence so that when the Mediterranean of England 
is compared with the Hindu, or the Alpine Savoy- 
ard with the Rumanian or Turcoman, a wide gulf 
is found. 

In zoology, related species when grouped to- 
gether constitute subgenera and genera and the 
term species implies the existence of a certain 
definite amount of divergence from the most closely 


related type but race does not require a similar 
amount of difference. In man, where all groups 
are more or less fertile when crossed, so many- 
intermediate or mixed types occur that the word 
species has at the present day too extended a 

For the sake of clearness the word race and 
not the word species or subspecies will be used in 
the following chapters as far as possible. 

The old idea that fertility or infertility of races 
of animals was the measure of species is now 
abandoned. One of the greatest difficulties in 
classifying man is his perverse predisposition to 
mismate. This is a matter of daily observation, 
especially among the women of the better classes, 
* probably because of their wider range of choice. 

There must have existed many subspecies and 
species, if not genera, of men since the Pliocene and 
new discoveries of their remains may be expected 
at any time and in any part of the eastern hemi- 

The cephalic index is of less value in the classi- 
fication of Asiatic populations but the distribu- 
tion of round and long skulls is similar to that in 
Europe. The vast central plateau of that con- 
tinent is inhabited by round skulls. In fact, Thibet 
and the western Himalayas were probably the 
centre of radiation of all the round skulls of the 
world. In India and Persia south of this central 


area occurs a long skull race related to Mediter- 
ranean man in Europe. 

Both skull types occur much intermixed among 
the American Indians and the cephalic index is 
of little value in classifying the Amerinds. No 
satisfactory explanation of the variability of the 
skull shape in the western hemisphere has as yet 
been found, but the total range of variation of 
physical characters among them, from northern 
Canada to southern Patagonia, is less than the 
range of such variation from Normandy to Provence 
in France. 

In Africa the cephalic index is also of small 
classification value because all of the populations 
are characterized by a long skull. 

The distinction between a long skull and a 
round skull in mankind probably goes back at 
least to early Paleolithic times, if not to a period 
still more remote. It is of such great antiquity 
that when new species or races appear in Europe 
at the close of the Paleolithic, between 10,000 and 
7,000 years B. C, the skull characters among 
them are as clearly defined as they are to-day. 

The fact that two distinct species of mankind 
have long skulls, as have the north European and 
the African Negro, is no necessary indication of 
relationship and in that instance is merely a case 
of parallel specialization, but the fact, however, that 
the Swede has a long skull and the Savoyard a 


round skull does prove them to be racially dis- 

The claim that the Nordic race is a mere vari- 
ation of the Mediterranean race and that the lat- 
ter is in turn derived from the Ethiopian Negro 
rests upon a mistaken idea that a dolichocephaly in 
common must mean identity of origin, as well as 
upon a failure to take into consideration many so- 
matological characters of almost equal value with 
the cephalic index. Indeed, the cephalic index, 
being merely a ratio, may be identical for skulls 
differing in every other proportion and detail, as 
well as in absolute size and capacity. 

Eye color is of very great importance in race 
determination because all blue, gray or green 
eyes in the world to-day came originally from the 
same source, namely, the Nordic race of northern 
Europe. This light colored eye has appeared no- 
where else on earth, is a specialization of this 
subspecies of man only and consequently is 
of extreme value in the classification of European 
races. Dark colored eyes are all but universal 
among wild mammals and entirely so among the 
primates, man's nearest relatives. It may be 
taken as an absolute certainty that all the original 
races of man had dark eyes. 

One subspecies of man and one alone specialized 
in light colored eyes. This same subspecies also 
evolved light brown or blond hair, a character far 


less deeply rooted than eye color, as blond children 
tend to grow darker with advancing years and 
populations partly of Nordic extraction, such as 
those of Lombardy, upon admixture with darker 
races lose their blond hair more readily than their 
light colored eyes. In short, light colored eyes 
are far more common than light colored hair. In 
crosses between Alpines and Nordics, the Alpine 
stature and the Nordic eye appear to prevail. 
Light color in eyes is largely due to a greater or 
less absence of pigment but it is not associated 
with weak eyesight, as in the case of Albinos. In 
fact, among marksmen, it has been noted that 
nearly all the great rifle-shots in England or Amer- 
ica have had light colored eyes. 

Blond hair also comes everywhere from the 
Nordic subspecies and from nowhere else. When- 
ever we find blondness among the darker races of 
the earth we may be sure some Nordic wanderer has 
passed that way. When individuals of perfect 
blond type occur, as sometimes in Greek islands, 
we may suspect a recent visit of sailors from a 
passing ship but when only single characters re- 
main spread thinly, but widely, over considerable 
areas, like the blondness of the Atlas Berbers or 
of the Albanian mountaineers, we must search in 
the dim past for the origin of these blurred traits 
of early invaders. 

The range of blond hair color in pure Nordic 


peoples runs from flaxen and red to shades of chest- 
nut and brown. The darker shades may indicate 
crossing in some cases, but absolutely black hair 
certainly does mean an ancestral cross with a 
dark race — in England with the Mediterranean 

It must be clearly understood that blondness of 
hair and of eye is not a final test of Nordic race. 
The Nordics include all the blonds, and also those 
of darker hair or eye when possessed of a preponder- 
ance of other Nordic characters. In this sense the 
word "blond" means those lighter shades of hair 
or eye color in contrast to the very dark or black 
shades which are termed brunet. The meaning 
of "blond" as now used is therefore not limited 
to the lighter or flaxen shades as in colloquial 

In England among Nordic populations there are 
large numbers of individuals with hazel brown 
eyes joined with the light brown or chestnut hair 
which is the typical hair shade of the English and 
Americans. This combination is also common in 
Holland and Westphalia and is frequently associated 
with a very fair skin. These men are all of "blond" 
aspect and constitution and consequently are to 
be classed as members of the Nordic race. 

In Nordic populations the women are, in gen- 
eral, lighter haired than the men, a fact which 
points to a blond past and a darker future for 


those populations. Women in all human races, 
as the females among all mammals, tend to exhibit 
the older, more generalized and primitive traits of 
the past of the race. The male in his individual 
development indicates the direction in which the 
race is tending under the influence of variation and 

It is interesting to note in connection with the 
more primitive physique of the female, that in 
the spiritual sphere also women retain the an- 
cient and intuitive knowledge that the great mass 
of mankind is not free and equal but bond and 

The color of the skin is a character of impor- 
tance but one that is exceedingly hard to measure 
as the range of variation in Europe between 
skins of extreme fairness and those that are 
exceedingly swarthy is almost complete. The 
Nordic race in its purity has an absolutely fair 
skin and is consequently the white man par 

Many members of the Nordic race otherwise 
apparently pure have skins, as well as hair, more 
or less dark, so that the determinative value of 
this character is uncertain. There can be no 
doubt that the quality of the skin and the ex- 
treme range of its variation in color from black, 
brown, red, yellow to ivory-white are excellent 
measures of the specific or subgeneric distinctions 


between the larger groups of mankind but in deal- 
ing with European populations it is sometimes 
difficult to correlate the shades of fairness with other 
physical characters. 

In general, hair color and skin color are linked 
together, but it often happens that an individual 
with all other Nordic characters in great purity- 
has a skin of an olive or dark tint. Even more 
frequently we find individuals with absolutely pure 
brunet traits in possession of a skin of almost ivory 
whiteness and of great clarity. This last combi- 
nation is very frequent among the brunets of the 
British Isles. That these are, to some extent, dis- 
harmonic combinations we may be certain but be- 
yond that our knowledge does not lead. Women, 
however, of fair skin have always been the objects 
of keen envy by those of the sex whose skins are 
black, yellow or red. 

Stature is another character of greater value 
than skin color and, perhaps, than hair color and 
is one of much importance in European classi- 
fication for on that continent we have the most 
i extreme variations of human height. 

Exceedingly adverse economic conditions may 
inhibit a race from attaining the full measure of 
its growth and to this extent environment plays its 
part in determining stature but fundamentally it 
is race, always race, that sets the limit. The tall 
Scot and the dwarfed Sardinian owe their respec- 


tive sizes to race and not to oatmeal or olive oil. 
It is probable, however, that the fact that the stat- 
ure of the Irish is, on the average, shorter than 
that of the Scotch is due partly to economic con- 
ditions and partly to the depressive effect of a 
considerable population of primitive short stock. 

The Mediterranean race is everywhere marked 
by a relatively short stature, sometimes greatly 
depressed, as in south Italy and in Sardinia, and 
also by a comparatively light bony framework and 
feeble muscular development. 

The Alpine race is taller than the Mediterranean, 
although shorter than the Nordic, and is char- 
acterized by a stocky and sturdy build. The Al- 
pines rarely, if ever, show the long necks and grace- 
ful figures so often found in the other two races. 

The Nordic race is nearly everywhere distin- 
guished by great stature. Almost the tallest stature 
in the world is found among the pure Nordic pop- 
ulations of the Scottish and English borders while 
the native British of Pre-Nordic brunet blood 
are for the most part relatively short. No one 
can question the race value of stature who ob- 
serves on the streets of London the contrast 
between the Piccadilly gentleman of Nordic race 
and the cockney costermonger of the old Neolithic & 


In some cases where these three European races 
have become mixed stature seems to be one of 


the first Nordic characters to vanish, but wherever 
in Europe we find great stature in a population 
otherwise lacking in Nordic characters we may 
suspect a Nordic crossing, as in the case of a 
large proportion of the inhabitants of Burgundy, 
of the Tyrol and of the Dalmatian Alps south to 

These four characters, skull shape, eye color, 
hair color and stature, are sufficient to enable 
us to differentiate clearly between the three main 
subspecies of Europe, but if we wish to discuss the 
minor variations in each race and mixtures between 
them, we must go much further and take up other 
proportions of the skull than the cephalic index, as 
well as the shape and position of the eyes, the 
proportions and shape of the jaws, the chin and 
other features. 

The nose is an exceedingly important character. 
The original human nose was, of course, broad 
and bridgeless. This trait is shown clearly in 
new-born infants who recapitulate in their devel- 
opment the various stages of the evolution of the 
human genus. A bridgeless nose with wide, flaring 
nostrils is a very primitive character and is still 
retained by some of the larger divisions of man- 
kind throughout the world. It appears occasion- 
ally in white populations of European origin but is 
everywhere a very ancient, generalized and low 


The high bridge and long, narrow nose, the so- 
called Roman, Norman or aquiline nose, is char- 
acteristic of the most highly specialized races of 
mankind. While an apparently unimportant char- 
acter, this feature is one of the very best clews to 
racial origin and in the details of its form, and es- 
pecially in the lateral shape of the nostrils, is a 
race determinant of the greatest value. 

The lips, whether thin or fleshy or whether clean- 
cut or everted, are race characters. Thick, pro- 
truding, everted lips are very ancient traits and 
are characteristic of many primitive races. A high 
instep also has long been esteemed an indication of 
patrician type while the flat foot is often the test 
of lowly origin. 

The absence or abundance of hair and beard 
and the relative absence or abundance of body 
hair are characters of no little value in classifica- 
tion. Abundant body hair is, to a large extent, 
peculiar to populations of the very highest as 
well as the very lowest species, being characteristic 
of the north European as well as of the Australian 
savages. It merely means the retention in both 
these groups of a very early and primitive trait 
which has been lost by the Negroes, Mongols and 

The Nordic and Alpine races are far better 
equipped with head and body hair than the Medi- 
terranean, which is throughout its range a glabrous 


or relatively naked race but among the Nordics 
the extreme blond types are less equipped with 
body hair or down than are darker members of 
the race. A contrast in color between head hair 
and beard, the latter always being lighter than 
the former, may be one of the results of an ancient 
crossing of races. 

The so-called red haired branch of the Nordic 
race has special characters in addition to red 
hair, such as a greenish cast of eye, a skin of deli- 
cate texture tending either to great clarity or to 
freckles and certain peculiar temperamental traits. 
This was probably a variety closely related to the 
blonds and it first appears in history in associa- 
tion with them. 

While the three main European races are the 
subject of this book and while it is not the inten- 
tion of the author to deal with the other human 
types, it is desirable in connection with the dis- 
cussion of this character, hair, to state that the 
three European subspecies are subdivisions of one 
of the primary groups or species of the genus 
Homo which, taken together, we may call the 
Caucasian for lack of a better name. 

The existing classification of man must be 
radically revised, as the differences between the 
most divergent human types are far greater than 
are usually deemed sufficient to constitute separate 
species and even subgenera in the animal kingdom 


at large. Outside of the three European sub- 
species the greater portion of the genus Homo can 
be roughly divided into the Negroes and Negroids, 
and the Mongols and Mongoloids. 

The former apparently originated in south Asia 
and entered Africa by way of the northeastern corner 
of that continent. Africa south of the Sahara is 
now the chief home of this race, though remnants 
of Negroid aborigines are found throughout south 
Asia from India to the Philippines, while the very 
distinct black Melanesians and the Australoids 
lie farther to the east and south. 

The Mongoloids include the round skulled Mon- 
gols and their derivatives, the Amerinds or Amer- 
ican Indians. This group is essentially Asiatic 
and occupies the centre and the eastern half of 
that continent. 

A description of these Negroids and Mongoloids 
and their derivatives, as well as of certain ab- 
errant species of man, lies outside the scope of 
this work. 

In the structure of the head hair of all races 
of mankind we find a regular progression from 
extreme kinkiness to lanky straightness and this 
straightness or curliness depends on the shape of 
the cross section of the hair itself. This cross 
section has three distinct forms, corresponding 
with the most extreme divergences among human 


The cross section of the hair of the Negroes is 
a flat ellipse with the result that they all have 
kinky hair. This kinkiness of the Negroes' hair is 
also due somewhat to the acute angle at which the 
hair is set into the skin and the peppercorn form 
of hair probably represents an extreme specializa- 

The cross section of the hair of the Mongols 
and their derivatives, the Amerinds, is a complete 
circle and their hair is perfectly straight and lank. 

The cross section of the hair of the so-called 
Caucasians, including the Mediterranean, Alpine 
and Nordic subspecies, is an oval ellipse and con- 
sequently is intermediate between the cross sec- 
tions of the Negroes and Mongoloids. Hair of 
this structure is wavy or curly, never either kinky 
or absolutely straight and is characteristic of all the 
European populations almost without exception. 

Of these three hair types the straighter forms 
most closely represent the earliest human form of 

We have confined the discussion to the most 
important characters but there are many other 
valuable aids to classification to be found in the 
proportions of the body and the relative length 
of the limbs. In this latter respect, it is a matter 
of common knowledge that there occur two dis- 
tinct types, the one long legged and short bodied, 
the other long bodied and short legged. 


Without going into further physical details, it is 
probable that all relative proportions in the body, 
the features, the skeleton and the skull which are 
fixed and constant and lie outside of the range of 
individual variation represent dim inheritances 
from the past. Every generation of human beings 
carries the blood of thousands of ancestors, stretch- 
ing back through thousands of years, superim- 
posed upon a prehuman inheritance of still greater 
antiquity and the face and body of every living 
man offer an intricate mass of hieroglyphs that 
science will some day learn to read and interpret. 

Only the foregoing main characters will be used 
as the basis for determining race and attention 
will be called later to such temperamental and 
spiritual traits as seem to be associated with distinct 
physical types. 

We shall discuss only European populations and, 
as said, shall not deal with exotic and alien races 
scattered among them nor with those quarters of 
the globe where the races of man are such that 
other physical characters must be called upon to 
provide clear definitions. 

A fascinating subject would open up if we were 
to dwell upon the effect of racial combinations and 
disharmonies, as, for instance, where the mixed 
Nordic and Alpine populations of Lombardy usu- 
ally retain the skull shape, hair color and stature 
of the Alpine race, with the light eye color of the 


Nordic race, or where the mountain populations 
along the east coast of the Adriatic from the Tyrol 
to Albania have the stature of the Nordic race and 
an Alpine skull and coloration. 



The laws which govern the distribution of the 
various races of man and their evolution through 
selection are substantially the same as those con- 
trolling the evolution and distribution of the 
larger mammals. 

Man, however, with his superior mentality has 
freed himself from many of the conditions which 
impose restraint upon the expansion of animals. 
In his case selection through disease and social 
and economic competition has largely replaced se- 
lection through adjustment to the limitations of 
food supply. 

Man is the most cosmopolitan of animals and in 
one form or another thrives in the tropics and in 
the arctics, at sea level and on high plateaux, in 
the desert and in the reeking forests of the equa- 
tor. Nevertheless, the various races of Europe 
have each a certain natural habitat in which it 
achieves its highest development. 

The Nordic Habitat 

The Nordics appear in their present centre of 
distribution, the basin of the Baltic, at the close 



of the Paleolithic, as soon as the retreating glaciers 
left habitable land. This race was probably at 
that time in possession of its fundamental charac- 
ters, and its extension from the plains of Russia 
to Scandinavia was not in the nature of a radical 
change of environment. The race in consequence 
is now, always has been and probably always will 
be, adjusted to certain environmental conditions, 
chief of which is protection from a tropical sun. 
The actinic rays of the sun at the same latitude 
are uniform in strength the world over and con- 
tinuous sunlight affects adversely the delicate 
nervous organization of the Nordics. The fogs 
and long winter nights of the North serve as a pro- 
tection from too much sun and from its too direct 

Scarcely less important is the presence of a 
large amount of moisture but above all a constant 
* variety of temperature is needed. Sharp contrast 
between night and day temperature and between 
summer and winter are necessary to maintain the 
vigor of the Nordic race at a high pitch. Uniform 
weather, if long continued, lessens its energy. Too 
great extremes as in midwinter or midsummer in 
parts of New England are injurious. Limited but 
constant alternations of heat and cold, of moisture 
and dryness, of sun and clouds, of calm and cy- 
clonic storms offer the ideal surroundings. 

Where the environment is too soft and luxurious 


and no strife is required for survival, not only are 
weak strains and individuals allowed to survive 
and encouraged to breed but the strong types also 
grow fat mentally and physically, like overfed 
Indians on reservations or wingless birds on 
oceanic islands, which have lost the power of flight 
as a result of prolonged protective conditions. 

Men of the Nordic race may not enjoy the 
fogs and snows of the North, the endless changes 
of weather and the violent fluctuations of the 
thermometer and they may seek the sunny south- 
ern isles, but under the former conditions they 
flourish, do their work and raise their families. 
In the south they grow listless and cease to breed. 

In the lower classes in the Southern States of 
America the increasing proportion of "poor whites " 
and "crackers" are symptoms of lack of climatic 
adjustment. The whites in Georgia, in the Ba- 
hamas and, above all, in Barbadoes are excellent 
examples of the deleterious effects of residence out- 
side the natural habitat of the Nordic race. 

The poor whites of the Cumberland Mountains 
in Kentucky and Tennessee present a more dif- 
ficult problem, because here the altitude, even 
though moderate, should modify the effects of lati- 
tude and the climate of these mountains cannot 
be particularly unfavorable to men of Nordic 
breed. There are probably other hereditary forces 
at work there as yet little understood. 


No doubt bad food and economic conditions, 
prolonged inbreeding and the loss through emigra- 
tion of the best elements have played a large 
part in the degeneration of these mountaineers. 
They represent to a large extent the offspring of 
indentured servants brought over by the rich 
planters in early Colonial times and their names 
indicate that many of them are the descendants of 
the old borderers along the Scotch and English 
frontier. The persistence with which family feuds 
are maintained certainly points to such an origin. 
The physical type is typically Nordic, for the 
most part pure Saxon or Anglian, and the whole 
mountain population show somewhat aberrant but 
very pronounced physical, moral and mental char- 
acteristics which would repay scientific investiga- 
tion. The problem is too complex to be disposed 
of by reference to the hookworm, illiteracy or 
competition with Negroes. 

This type played a large part in the settlement 
of the Middle West, by way of Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee and Missouri. Thence they passed both up 
the Missouri River and down the Santa Fe trail 
and contributed rather more than their share of 
the train robbers, horse thieves and bad men of 
the West. 

Scotland and the Bahamas are inhabited by 
men of precisely the same race, but the vigor of 
the English in the Bahamas is gone and the beauty 


of their women has faded. The fact that they 
were not in competition with an autochthonous 
race better adjusted to climatic conditions has 
enabled them to survive, but the type could not 
have persisted, even during the last two hundred 
years, if they had been compelled to compete on 
terms of equality with a native and acclimated 

Another element entering into racial degenera- 
tion on many other islands and for that matter 
in many New England villages, is the loss through 
emigration of the more vigorous and energetic 
individuals, leaving behind the less efficient to 
continue the race at home. 

In subtropical countries where the energy of 
the Nordics is at a low ebb it would appear that 
the racial inheritance of physical strength and 
mental vigor was suppressed and recessive rather 
than destroyed. Many individuals born in unfa- 
vorable climatic surroundings, who move back to 
the original habitat of their race in the north, re- 
cover their full quota of energy and vigor. New 
York and other Northern cities have many South- 
erners who are fully as efficient as pure Northerners. 

This Nordic race can exist outside of its native 
environment as land owning aristocrats who are 
not required to do manual labor in the fields under 
a blazing sun. As such an aristocracy it continues 
to exist under Italian skies, but as a field laborer 


the man of Nordic blood cannot compete with 
his Alpine or Mediterranean rival. It is not to 
be supposed that the various Nordic tribes and 
armies, which for a thousand years after the fall of 
Rome poured down from the Alps like the glaciers 
to melt in the southern sun, were composed solely 
of knights and gentlemen who became the landed 
nobility of Italy. The man in the ranks also took 
up his land and work in Italy, but he had to com- 
pete directly with the native under climatic condi- 
tions which were unfavorable to his race. In this 
competition the blue eyed Nordic giant died and 
the native survived. His officer, however, lived in 
the castle and directed the labor of his bondsmen 
without other preoccupation than the chase and 
war and he long maintained his vigor. 

The same thing happened in our South before 
the Civil War. There the white men did not 
work in the fields or in the factory. The heavy 
work under the blazing sun was carried on by 
Negro slaves and the planter was spared ex- 
posure to an unfavorable environment. Under 
these conditions he was able to retain much of his 
vigor. When slavery was abolished and the 
white man had to plough his own fields or work 
in the factory deterioration began. 

The change in type of the men who are now 
sent by the Southern States to represent them in 
the Federal Government from their predecessors 


in ante-bellum times is partly due to these causes, 
but in greater degree it is to be attributed to the 
fact that a large portion of the best racial strains 
in the South were killed off during the Civil War. 
In addition the war shattered the aristocratic 
traditions which formerly secured the selection of 
the best men as rulers. The new democratic ideals, 
with universal suffrage in free operation among 
the whites, result in the choice of representatives 
who lack the distinction and ability of the leaders 
of the Old South. 

A race may be thoroughly adjusted to a cer- 
tain country at one stage of its development and 
be at a disadvantage when an economic change 
occurs, such as was experienced in England a cen- 
tury ago when the nation changed from an agri- 
cultural to a manufacturing community. The type 
of man that flourishes in the fields is not the type 
of man that thrives in the factory, just as the 
type of man required for the crew of a sailing 
ship is not the type useful as stokers on a modern 

The Habitat of the Alpines and 

The environment of the Alpine race seems to 
have always been the mountainous country of 
central and eastern Europe, as well as western 
Asia, but they are now spreading into the plains, 


notably in Poland and Russia. This type has 
never flourished in the deserts of Arabia or the 
Sahara, nor has it succeeded well in maintaining 
its early colonies in the northwest of Europe with- 
in the domain of the Nordic long heads. It is, 
however, a sturdy and persistent stock and, while 
much of it may not be overrefined or cultured, un- 
doubtedly possesses great potentialities for future 

The Alpines in the west of Europe, especially 
in Switzerland and the districts immediately sur- 
rounding, have been so thoroughly Nordicized and 
so saturated with the culture of the adjoining na- 
tions that they stand in sharp contrast to back- 
ward Alpines of Slavic speech in the Balkans and 
east of Europe. 

The Mediterranean race, on the other hand, is 
clearly a southern type with eastern affinities. 
It is a type that did not endure in the north of 
Europe under former agricultural conditions nor is 
it suitable to the farming districts and frontiers 
of America and Canada. It is adjusted to sub- 
tropical and tropical countries better than any 
other European type and will flourish in our 
Southern States and around the coasts of the Span- 
ish Main. In France it is well known that mem- 
bers of the Mediterranean race are better adapted 
for colonization in Algeria than are French Alpines 
or Nordics. This subspecies of man is notoriously 


intolerant of extreme cold, owing to its suscepti- 
bility to diseases of the lungs and it shrinks from 
the blasts of the northern winter in which the Nor- 
dics revel. 

The brunet Mediterranean element in the native 
American seems to be increasing at the expense of 
the blond Nordic element generally throughout the 
Southern States and probably also in the large 
cities. This type of man, however, is scarce on 
our frontiers. In the Northwest and in Alaska in 
the days of the gold rush it was in the mining 
camps a matter of comment if a man turned up 
with dark eyes, so universal were blue and gray 
eyes among the American pioneers. 



Where two races occupy a country side by side, 
it is not correct to speak of one type as changing 
into the other. Even if present in equal numbers 
one of the two contrasted types will have some 
small advantage or capacity which the other 
lacks toward a perfect adjustment to surround- 
ings. Those possessing these favorable variations 
will flourish at the expense of their rivals and 
their offspring will not only be more numerous, 
but will also tend to inherit such variations. In 
this way one type gradually breeds the other out. 
In this sense, and in this sense only, do races 

Man continuously undergoes selection through 
the operation of the forces of social environment. 
Among native Americans of the Colonial period 
a large family was an asset and social pressure 
and economic advantage counselled both early 
marriage and numerous children. Two hundred 
years of continuous political expansion and material 
prosperity changed these conditions and children, 
instead of being an asset to till the fields and guard 
the cattle, became an expensive liability. They 



now require support, education and endowment 
from their parents and a large family is regarded 
by some as a serious handicap in the social struggle. 

These conditions do not obtain at first among 
immigrants, and large families among the newly 
arrived population are still the rule, precisely as 
they were in Colonial America and are to-day in 
French Canada where backwoods conditions still 

The result is that one class or type in a popula- 
tion expands more rapidly than another and ul- 
timately replaces it. This process of replacement 
of one type by another does not mean that the 
race changes or is transformed into another. It 
is a replacement pure and simple and not a trans- 

The lowering of the birth rate among the most 
valuable classes, while the birth rate of the lower 
classes remains unaffected, is a frequent phe- 
nomenon of prosperity. Such a change becomes 
extremely injurious to the race if unchecked, unless 
nature is allowed to maintain by her own cruel 
devices the relative numbers of the different classes 
in their due proportions. To attack race suicide 
by encouraging indiscriminate reproduction is not 
only futile but is dangerous if it leads to an increase 
in the undesirable elements. What is needed in the 
community most of all is an increase in the desir- 
able classes, which are of superior type physically, 


intellectually and morally and not merely an in- 
crease in the absolute numbers of the population. 

The value and efficiency of a population are not 
numbered by what the newspapers call souls, but 
by the proportion of men of physical and intel- 
lectual vigor. The small Colonial population of 
America was, on an average and man for man, far 
superior to the present inhabitants, although the 
latter are twenty-five times more numerous. The 
ideal in eugenics toward which statesmanship should 
be directed is, of course, improvement in quality 
rather than quantity. This, however, is at present 
a counsel of perfection and we must face condi- 
tions as they are. 

The small birth rate in the upper classes is to 
some extent offset by the care received by such 
children as are born and the better chance they 
have to become adult and breed in their turn. The 
large birth rate of the lower classes is under nor- 
mal conditions offset by a heavy infant mortality, 
which eliminates the weaker children. 

Where altruism, philanthropy or sentimentalism 
intervene with the noblest purpose and forbid na- 
ture to penalize the unfortunate victims of reckless 
breeding, the multiplication of inferior types is 
encouraged and fostered. Indiscriminate efforts 
to preserve babies among the lower classes often 
result in serious injury to the race. At the existing 
stage of civilization, the legalizing of birth control 


would probably be of benefit by reducing the num- 
ber of offspring in the undesirable classes. Regula- 
tion of the number of children is, for good or evil, 
in full operation among the better classes and its 
recognition by the state would result in no further 
harm among them. 

Mistaken regard for what are believed to be 
divine laws and a sentimental belief in the sanctity 
of human life tend to prevent both the elimination 
of defective infants and the sterilization of such 
adults as are themselves of no value to the com- 
munity. The laws of nature require the oblitera- 
tion of the unfit and human life is valuable only 
when it is of use to the community or race. 

It is highly unjust that a minute minority should 
be called upon to supply brains for the unthinking 
mass of the community, but it is even worse to bur- 
den the responsible and larger but still overworked 
elements in the community with an ever increasing 
number of moral perverts, mental defectives and 
hereditary cripples. As the percentage of incom- 
petents increases, the burden of their support will 
become ever more onerous until, at no distant date, 
society will in self-defense put a stop to the sup- 
ply of feebleminded and criminal children of weak- 

The church assumes a serious responsibility 
toward the future of the race whenever it steps in 
and preserves a defective strain. The marriage of 


deaf mutes was hailed a generation ago as a tri- 
umph of humanity. Now it is recognized as an 
absolute crime against the race. A great injury is 
done to the community by the perpetuation of 
worthless types. These strains are apt to be meek 
and lowly and as such make a strong appeal to 
the sympathies of the successful. Before eugenics 
were understood much could be said from a Chris- 
tian and humane viewpoint in favor of indiscrimi- 
nate charity for the benefit of the individual. The 
societies for charity, altruism or extension of 
rights, should have in these days, however, in their 
management some small modicum of brains, other- 
wise they may continue to do, as they have some- 
times done in the past, more injury to the race than 
black death or smallpox. 

As long as such charitable organizations confine 
themselves to the relief of suffering individuals, 
no matter how criminal or diseased they may be, 
no harm is done except to our own generation and 
if modern society recognizes a duty to the humblest 
malefactors or imbeciles that duty can be harm- 
lessly performed in full, provided they be deprived 
of the capacity to procreate their defective strain. 

Those who read these pages will feel that there 
is little hope for humanity, but the remedy has been 
found, and can be quickly and mercifully applied. 
A rigid system of selection through the elimina- 
tion of those who are weak or unfit — in other words, 


Social failures — would solve the whole question in 
a century, as well as enable us to get rid of the 
undesirables who crowd our jails, hospitals and 
insane asylums. The individual himself can be 
nourished, educated and protected by the com- 
munity during his lifetime, but the state through 
sterilization must see to it that his line stops with 
him or else future generations will be cursed with 
an ever increasing load of victims of misguided sen- 
timentalism. This is a practical, merciful and in- 
evitable solution of the whole problem and can be 
applied to an ever widening circle of social dis- 
cards, beginning always with the criminal, the dis- 
eased and the insane and extending gradually to 
types which may be called weaklings rather than 
defectives and perhaps ultimately to worthless 
race types. 

Efforts to increase the birth rate of the genius 
producing classes of the community, while most 
desirable, encounter great difficulties. In such 
efforts we encounter social conditions over which 
we have as yet no control. It was tried two thou- 
sand years ago by Augustus and his efforts to 
avert race suicide and the extinction of the old Ro- 
man stock were singularly prophetic of what some 
far seeing men are attempting in order to preserve 
the race of native Americans of Colonial descent. 

Man has the choice of two methods of race im- 
provement. He can breed from the best or he can 


eliminate the worst by segregation or sterilization. 
The first method was adopted by the Spartans, 
who had for their national ideals military effici- 
ency and the virtues of self-control, and along these 
lines the results were completely successful. Under 
modern social conditions it would be extremely 
difficult in the first instance to determine which 
were the most desirable types, except in the most 
general way and even if a satisfactory selection 
were finally made, it would be in a democracy a 
virtual impossibility to limit by law the right to 
breed to a privileged and chosen few. 

Interesting efforts to improve the quality as well 
as the quantity of the population, however, will 
probably be made in more than one country after 
the war has ended. 

Experiments in limiting reproduction to the un- 
desirable classes were unconsciously made in medi- 
aeval Europe under the guidance of the church. 
After the fall of Rome social conditions were such 
that all those who loved a studious and quiet life 
were compelled to seek refuge from the violence of 
the times in monastic institutions and upon such 
the church imposed the obligation of celibacy and 
thus deprived the world of offspring from these 
desirable classes. 

In the Middle Ages, through persecution result- 
ing in actual death, life imprisonment and banish- 
ment, the free thinking, progressive and intellec- 


tual elements were persistently eliminated over 
large areas, leaving the perpetuation of the race to 
be carried on by the brutal, the servile and the 
stupid. It is now impossible to say to what ex- 
tent the Roman Church by these methods has im- 
paired the brain capacity of Europe, but in Spain 
alone, for a period of over three centuries from the 
years 147 1 to 1781, the Inquisition condemned to the 
stake or imprisonment an average of 1,000 persons 
annually. During these three centuries no less 
than 32,000 were burned alive and 291,000 were 
condemned to various terms of imprisonment and 
other penalties and 17,000 persons were burned in 
effigy, representing men who had died in prison or 
had fled the country. 

No better method of eliminating the genius pro- 
ducing strains of a nation could be devised and 
if such were its purpose the result was eminently 
satisfactory, as is demonstrated by the superstitious 
and unintelligent Spaniard of to-day. A similar 
elimination of brains and ability took place in 
northern Italy, in France and in the Low Countries, 
where hundreds of thousands of Huguenots were 
murdered or driven into exile. 

Under existing conditions the most practical 
and hopeful method of race improvement is through 
the elimination of the least desirable elements in 
the nation by depriving them of the power to con- 
tribute to future generations. It is well known to 


stock breeders that the color of a herd of cattle can 
be modified by continuous destruction of worth- 
less shades and of course this is true of other char- 
acters. Black sheep, for instance, have been prac- 
tically obliterated by cutting out generation after 
generation all animals that show this color phase, 
until in carefully maintained flocks a black indi- 
vidual only appears as a rare sport. 

In mankind it would not be a matter of great 
difficulty to secure a general consensus of public 
opinion as to the least desirable, let us say, ten per 
cent of the community. When this unemployed 
and unemployable human residuum has been elimi- 
nated together with the great mass of crime, pov- 
erty, alcoholism and feeblemindedness associated 
therewith it would be easy to consider the advis- 
ability of further restricting the perpetuation of 
the then remaining least valuable types. By this 
method mankind might ultimately become suffi- 
ciently intelligent to choose deliberately the most 
vital and intellectual strains to carry on the race. 

In addition to selection by climatic environ- 
ment man is now, and has been for ages, under- 
going selection through disease. He has been deci- 
mated throughout the centuries by pestilences such 
as the black death and bubonic plague. In our 
fathers' days yellow fever and smallpox cursed 
humanity. These plagues are now under control, 
but similar diseases now regarded as mere nui- 


sauces to childhood, such as measles, mumps and 
scarlatina, are terrible scourges to native popula- 
tions without previous experience with them. Add 
to these smallpox and other white men's diseases 
and one has the great empire builders of yester- 
day. It was not the swords in the hands of 
Columbus and his followers that decimated the 
American Indians, it was the germs that his men 
and their successors brought over, implanting the 
white man's maladies in the red man's world. 
Long before the arrival of the Puritans in New 
England, smallpox had nickered up and down the 
coast until the natives were but a broken remnant 
of their former numbers. 

At the present time the Nordic race is under- 
going selection through alcoholism, a peculiarly 
Nordic vice, and through consumption. Both 
these dread scourges unfortunately attack those 
members of the race that are otherwise most de- 
sirable, differing in this respect from filth diseases 
like typhus, typhoid or smallpox. One has only 
to look among the more desirable classes for the 
victims of rum and tubercule to realize that 
death or mental and physical impairment through 
these two causes have cost the race many of its 
most brilliant and attractive members. 


Nationality is an artificial political grouping 
of population usually centring around a single 
language as an expression of traditions and aspira- 
tions. Nationality can, however, exist indepen- 
dently of language but states thus formed, such as 
Belgium or Austria, are far less stable than those 
where a uniform language is prevalent, as, for ex- 
ample, France or England. 

States without a single national language are 
constantly exposed to disintegration, especially 
where a substantial minority of the inhabitants 
speak a tongue which is predominant in an ad- 
joining state and, as a consequence, tend to gravi- 
tate toward such state. 

The history of the last century in Europe has 
been the record of a long series of struggles to unite 
in one political unit all those speaking the same 
or closely allied dialects. With the exception of 
internal and social revolutions, every European 
war since the Napoleonic period has been caused 
by the effort to bring about the unification either 
of Italy or of Germany or by the desperate at- 
tempts of the Balkan States to struggle out of 



Turkish chaos into modern European nations on a 
basis of community of language. The unification 
of both Italy and Germany is as yet incomplete ac- 
cording to the views held by their more advanced 
patriots and the solution of the Balkan question 
is still in the future. 

Men are keenly aware of their nationality and 
are very sensitive about their language, but only 
in a few cases, notably in Sweden and Germany, 
does any large section of the population possess 
anything analogous to true race consciousness, al- 
though the term "race" is everywhere misused to 
designate linguistic or political groups. 

The unifying power of a common language works 
subtly and unceasingly. In the long run it forms a 
bond which draws peoples together — as the English- 
speaking peoples of the British Empire with those 
of America. In the same manner this linguistic 
sympathy will bring the German-speaking Austrians 
into a closer political community with the rest 
of Germany and will hold together all the German- 
speaking provinces. 

It sometimes happens that a section of the pop- 
ulation of a large nation gathers around language, 
reinforced by religion, as an expression of individu- 
ality. The struggle between the French-speaking 
Alpine Walloons and the Nordic Flemings of Low 
Dutch tongue in Belgium is an example of two 
competing languages in an artificial nation which 


was formed originally around religion. On the 
other hand, the Irish National movement centres 
chiefly around religion reinforced by myths of 
ancient grandeur. The French Canadians and 
the Poles use both religion and language to hold 
together what they consider a political unit. None 
of these so-called nationalities are founded on race. 

During the past century side by side with the ten- 
dency to form imperial or large national groups, 
such as the Pan- Germanic, Pan-Slavic, Pan-Ru- 
manian or Italia Irredenta movements, there has 
appeared a counter movement on the part of small 
disintegrating "nationalities" to reassert them- 
selves, such as the Bohemian, Bulgarian, Serbian, 
Irish, and Egyptian national revivals. The up- 
heaval is usually caused, as in the cases of the Irish 
and the Serbians, by delusions of former greatness 
now become national obsessions, but sometimes it 
means the resistance of a small group of higher cul- 
ture to absorption by a lower civilization. The 
reassertion of these small nationalities is associated 
with the resurgence of the lower races at the 
expense of the Nordics. 

Examples of a high type threatened by a lower 
culture are afforded by the Finlanders, who are try- 
ing to escape the dire fate of their neighbors across 
the Gulf of Finland — the Russification of the Ger- 
mans and Swedes of the Baltic Provinces — and by 
the struggle of the Danes of Schleswig to escape 


Germanization. The Armenians, too, have re- 
sisted stoutly the pressure of Islam to force them 
away from their ancient Christian faith. This 
people really represents the last outpost of Eu- 
rope toward the Mohammedan East and consti- 
tutes the best remaining medium through which 
Western ideals and culture can be introduced into 

In these as in other cases, the process of absorp- 
tion from the viewpoint of the world at large is 
good or evil exactly in proportion to the relative 
value of the culture and race of the two groups. 
The world would be no richer in civilization with 
an independent Bohemia or an enlarged Rumania; 
but, on the contrary, an independent Hungarian na- 
tion strong enough to stand alone, a Finland self- 
governing or reunited to Sweden, or an enlarged 
Greece would add greatly to the forces that make 
for good government and progress. An inde- 
pendent Ireland worked out on a Tammany model 
is not a pleasing prospect. A free Poland, apart 
from its value as a buffer state, might be actually a 
step backward. Poland was once great, but the 
elements that made it so are scattered and gone 
and the Poland of to-day is a geographical expres- 
sion and nothing more. 

The prevailing lack of true race consciousness 
is probably due to the fact that every important 
nation in Europe as at present organized, with the 


sole exception of the Iberian and Scandinavian 
states, possesses in large proportions representa- 
tives of at least two of the fundamental European 
subspecies of man and of all manner of crosses be- 
tween them. In France to-day, as in Caesar's 
Gaul, the three races divide the nation in unequal 

In the future, however, with an increased knowl- 
edge of the correct definition of true human races 
and types and with a recognition of the immuta- 
bility of fundamental racial characters and of the 
results of mixed breeding, far more value will be 
attached to racial in contrast to national or lin- 
guistic affinities. In marital relations the con- 
sciousness of race will also play a much larger part 
than at present, although in the social sphere we 
shall have to contend with a certain strange attrac- 
tion for contrasted types./ When it becomes thor- 
oughly understood that the children of mixed mar- 
riages between contrasted races belong to the lower 
type, the importance of transmitting in unim- 
paired purity the blood inheritance of ages will be 
appreciated at its full value and to bring half- 
breeds into the world will be regarded as a social 
and racial crime of the first magnitude.^ The laws 
against miscegenation must be greatly extended 
if the higher races are to be maintained. 

The language that a man speaks may be noth- 
ing more than evidence that at some time in the 


past his race has been in contact, either as con- 
queror or as conquered, with its original posses- 
sors. Postulating the Nordic origin and dissemi- 
nation of the Proto-Aryan language, then in Asia 
and elsewhere existing Aryan speech on the lips 
of populations showing no sign of Nordic charac- 
ters is to be considered evidence of a former dom- 
inance of Nordics now long vanished. 

One has only to consider the spread of the lan- 
guage of Rome over the vast extent of her Empire 
to realize how few of those who speak to-day 
Romance tongues derive any portion of their blood 
from the pure Latin stock and the error of talk- 
ing about a "Latin race" becomes evident. 

There is, however, such a thing as a large group 
of nations which have a mutual understanding and 
sympathy based on the possession of a common 
or closely related group of languages and on the 
culture of which it is the medium. This assemblage 
maybe called the "Latin nations," but never the 
"Latin race." 

"Latin America" is a still greater misnomer 
as the great mass of the populations of South 
and Central America is not even European and 
still less "Latin," being overwhelmingly of Amer- 
indian blood. 

In the Teutonic group a large majority of those 
who speak Teutonic languages, as the English, 
Flemings, Dutch, North Germans and Scandina- 


vians, are descendants of the Nordic race while 
the dominant class in Europe is everywhere of 
that blood. 

As to the so-called "Celtic race," the fantastic 
inapplicability of the term is at once apparent 
when we consider that those populations on the 
borders of the Atlantic Ocean, who to-day speak 
Celtic dialects, are divided into three groups, each 
one showing in great purity the characters of one of 
the three entirely distinct human subspecies found 
in Europe. To class together the Breton peasant 
with his round Alpine skull; the little, long-skulled, 
brunet Welshman of Mediterranean race, and 
the tall, blond, light-eyed Scottish Highlander of 
pure Nordic blood, in a single group labelled Celtic 
is obviously impossible. These peoples have nei- 
ther physical, mental nor cultural characteristics 
in common. If one be of "Celtic" blood then the 
other two are clearly of different origin. 

There was once a people who used the original 
Celtic language and they formed the western van- 
guard of the Nordic race. This people was spread 
all over central and western Europe prior to the ir- 
ruption of the Teutonic tribes and were, no doubt, 
much mixed with Alpines among the lower classes. 
The descendants of these Celts must be sought to- 
day among those having the characters of the 
Nordic race and not elsewhere. 

In England the short, dark Mediterranean Welsh- 


man talks about being "Celtic," quite unconscious 
that he is the residuum of Pre-Nordic races of im- 
mense antiquity. If the Celts are Mediterranean 
in race then they are absent from central Europe 
and we must regard as Celts all the Berbers and 
Egyptians, as well as many Persians and Hin- 

In France many anthropologists regard the 
Breton of Alpine blood in the same light and 
ignore his remote Asiatic origin. If these Alpine 
Bretons are Celts then there is no substantial 
trace of their blood, in the British Isles, as round 
skulls are practically absent there and all the 
blond elements in England, Scotland and Ireland 
must be attributed to the historic Teutonic inva- 
sions. Furthermore, we must call all the conti- 
nental Alpines "Celts," and must also include all 
Slavs, Armenians and other brachycephs of west- 
ern Asia within that designation, which would be 
obviously grotesque. The fact that the original 
Celts left their speech on the tongues of Mediter- 
raneans in Wales and of Alpines in Brittany must 
not mislead us, as it indicates nothing more than 
that Celtic speech antedates the Anglo-Saxons in 
England and the Romans in France. We must 
once and for all time discard the name "Celt"- 
for any existing race whatever and speak only of 
"Celtic" language and culture. 

In Ireland the big, blond Nordic Danes claim 


the honor of the name of "Celt," if honor it be, 
but they are fully as Nordic as the English and 
the great mass of the Irish are of Danish, Norse 
and Anglo-Norman blood in addition to earlier 
and Pre-Nordic elements. We are all familiar with 
the blond and the brunet type of Irishman. These 
represent precisely the same racial elements as 
those which enter into the composition of the 
English, namely, the tall Nordic blond and the 
little Mediterranean brunet pure or combined with 
Paleolithic remnants. The Irish are consequently 
not entitled to independent national existence on 
the ground of race, but if there be any ground for 
political separation from England it must rest like 
that of Belgium on religion, a basis for political 
combinations now happily obsolete in communities 
well advanced in culture. 

In the case of the so-called "Slavic race," there 
is much more unity between racial type and lan- 
guage. It is true that in most Slavic-speaking 
countries the predominant race is clearly Alpine, 
except perhaps in Russia where there is a very 
large substratum of Nordic type — which may be 
considered as Proto-Nordic. The objection which 
is made to the identification of the Slavic race 
with the Alpine type rests chiefly on the fact that 
a very large portion of the Alpine race is German- 
speaking in Germany, Italian-speaking in Italy 
and French-speaking in central France. Moreover, 


large portions of Rumania are of exactly the same 
racial complexion. 

Many of the modern Greeks are also Alpines; in 
fact, are little more than Byzantinized Slavs. It 
was through the Byzantine Empire that the Slavs 
first came in contact with the Mediterranean world 
and through this Greek medium the Russians, the 
Serbians, the Rumanians and the Bulgarians re- 
ceived their Christianity. 

Situated on the eastern marches of Europe, the 
Slavs were submerged during long periods in the 
Middle Ages by Mongolian hordes and were 
checked in development and warped in culture. 
Definite traces remain of the blood of the Mongols 
both in isolated and compact groups in south Russia 
and also scattered throughout the whole country as 
far west as the German boundary. The high tide 
of the Mongol invasion was during the thirteenth 
century. Three hundred years later the great Mus- 
covite expansion began, first over the steppes to 
the Urals and then across Siberian tundras and 
forests to the waters of the Pacific, taking up in 
its course much Mongolian blood, especially during 
the early stages of its advance. 

The term "Caucasian race" has ceased to have 
any meaning except where it is used, in the 
United States, to contrast white populations with 
Negroes or Indians or in the Old World with Mon- 
gols. It is, however, a convenient term to include 


the three European subspecies when considered as 
divisions of one of the primary branches or species 
of mankind but it is, at best, a cumbersome and 
archaic designation. The name "Caucasian" arose 
a century ago from a false assumption that the 
cradle of the blond Europeans was in the Cau- 
casus where no traces are now found of any such 
race, except a small and decreasing minority of 
blond traits among the Ossetes, a tribe whose 
Aryan speech is related to that of the Armenians, 
and who while mainly brachycephalic still retain 
some blond and dolichocephalic elements which 
apparently are fading fast. The Ossetes now have 
about thirty per cent fair eyes and ten per cent fair 
hair. They are supposed to be to some extent a 
remnant of the Alans, the easternmost Teutonic 
tribe and closely related to the Goths. Both Alans 
and Goths very early in the Christian era occupied 
southern Russia, and were the latest known Nor- 
dics in the vicinity of the Caucasus Mountains. If 
these Ossetes are not partly of Alan origin they 
may possibly represent the last lingering trace of 
ancient Scythian dolichocephalic blondness. 

The phrase "Indo-European or Indo- Germanic 
race" is also of little use. If it has any meaning 
at all it must include all the three European races 
as well as members of the Mediterranean race in 
Persia and India. The use of this name also in- 
volves a false assumption of blood relationship 


between the north European populations and the 
Hindus, because of their possession in common of 
Aryan speech. 

The name "Aryan race" must also be frankly dis- 
carded as a term of racial significance. It is to-day 
purely linguistic, although there was at one time, of 
course, an identity between the original Proto- 
Aryan mother tongue and the race that first spoke 
and developed it. In short, there is not nor has 
there ever been either a Caucasian or an Indo-Eu- 
ropean race, but there was once, thousands of years 
ago, an original Aryan race long since vanished into 
dim memories of the past. If used in a racial 
sense other than as above, it should be limited to 
the Nordic invaders of Hindustan now long extinct. 
The great lapse of time since the disappearance of 
the ancient Aryan race as such is measured by 
the extreme disintegration of the various groups of 
Aryan languages. These linguistic divergences are 
chiefly due to the imposition by conquest of Aryan 
speech upon several distinct subspecies of man 
throughout western Asia and Europe. 

It may be pertinent before leaving this subject 
to point out that, as a whole, "Germans," 
"French," and "English," as certain populations 
are now called, are but little more entitled to be 
considered the direct descendants, or even the ex- 
clusive modern representatives, of the ancient Ger- 
mans, Franks or Anglo-Saxons, than are the living 


Italians or Greeks to be regarded as the offspring 
of the Romans of the days of the Republic or the 
Hellenes of the classic period. There are, of course, 
many individuals and groups, perhaps even classes, 
in each of these nations, who do accurately repre- 
sent the race from which the national name was de- 
rived. The Scandinavians, on the other hand, are 
racially what they were two thousand years ago, 
though diminished somewhat in race vigor by the 
loss through the emigration of some of their more 
enterprising members. Meanwhile, at the other 
end of Europe, the modern Spaniard probably more 
closely represents the Iberians before the arrival 
of the Gauls than did the Spaniard of five hundred 
years ago. 



When a country is invaded and conquered by a 
race speaking a foreign language, one of several 
things may happen: replacement of both popu- 
lation and language, as in the case of eastern 
England when conquered by the Saxons or adop- 
tion of the language of the victors by the natives, 
as happened in Roman Gaul, where the invaders 
imposed their Latin tongue throughout the land 
without substantially altering the race. 

The Romans probably modified the race in Gaul 
by killing a much larger proportion of the Nordic 
fighting classes than of the more submissive Alpines 
and Mediterraneans. This is confirmed by the 
fact that when the prolonged and brilliant resistance 
to Caesar's legions was finally broken, no serious 
attempt was ever again made to throw off the Ro- 
man yoke and a few centuries later the Teutonic 
invaders encountered no determined opposition 
from the inhabitants when they entered and 
occupied the land. 

In England and Scotland later conquerors, Norse- 
men, Danes and Normans, failed to change radically 
the Saxon speech of the country and in Gaul the 



Teutonic tongues of the Franks, Burgundians and 
Northmen could not displace the language of 
Autochthonous inhabitants frequently impose 
' upon their invaders their own language and cus- 
toms. In Normandy the conquering Norse pi- 
rates accepted the language, religion and customs 
of the natives and in a century they vanish from 
history as Scandinavian heathen and appear as the 
foremost representatives of the speech and religion 
of Rome. 

In Hindustan the blond Nordic invaders forced 
their Aryan language on the aborigines, but their 
blood was quickly and utterly absorbed in the 
darker strains of the original owners of the land. 
A record of the desperate efforts of the conqueror 
classes in India to preserve the purity of their 
blood persists until this very day in their carefully 
regulated system of castes. In our Southern States 
Jim Crow cars and social discriminations have 
exactly the same purpose and justification. 
* , The Hindu to-day speaks a very ancient form of 
/ Aryan language, but there remains not one recog- 
S nizable trace of the blood of the white conquerors 
who poured in through the passes of the North- 
west. The boast of the modern Indian that he is 
of the same race as his English ruler is entirely 
without basis in fact and the little swarthy native 
lives amid the monuments of a departed grandeur. 


professing the religion and speaking the tongue of 
his long forgotten Nordic conquerors, without the 
slightest claim to blood kinship. The dim and un- 
certain traces of Nordic blood in northern India 
only serve to emphasize the utter swamping of the 
white man in the burning South. 

The power of racial resistance of a dense and ■ 
thoroughly acclimated population to an incoming 
army is very great. No ethnic conquest can be 
complete unless the natives are exterminated and 
the invaders bring their own women with them. 
If the conquerors are obliged to depend upon 
the women of the vanquished to carry on the 
race, the intrusive blood strain of the invaders 
in a short time becomes diluted beyond recogni- 

It sometimes happens that an infiltration of pop- 
ulation takes place either in the guise of unwilling 
slaves or of willing immigrants, who fill up waste 
places and take to the lowly tasks which the 
lords of the land despise, tnus gradually occupy- 
ing the country and literally breeding out their 

The former catastrophe happened in the declin- 
ing days of the Roman Republic and the south 
Italians of to-day are very largely descendants of 
the nondescript slaves of all races, chiefly from the 
southern and eastern coasts of the Mediterranean, 
who were imported by the Romans under the Em- 



pire to work their vast estates. The latter is oc- 
curring to-day in many parts of America, especially 
in New England. 

The eastern half of Germany has a Slavic Alpine 
substratum which represents the descendants of 
the Wends, who first appear about the commence- 
ment of the Christian era and who by the sixth 
century had penetrated as far west as the Elbe, 
occupying the lands left vacant by the Teutonic 
tribes which had migrated southward. These 
Wends in turn were Teutonized by a return wave of 
military conquest from the tenth century onward, 
and to-day their descendants are considered Ger- 
mans in good standing. Having adopted the Ger- 
man as their sole tongue they are now in relig- 
ious, political and cultural sympathy with the pure 
Teutons; in fact, they are quite unconscious of 
any racial distinction. 

This historic fact underlies the ferocious contra 
versy which has been raised over the ethnic origin 
of the Prussians, the issue being whether the popu- 
lations in Brandenburg, Silesia, Posen, West Prus- 
sia, and other districts in eastern Germany, are 
Alpine Wends or true Nordics. The truth is that 
the dominant half of the population is purely Teu- 
tonic and the remainder of the population are merely 
Teutonized Wends and Poles of Alpine affinities. 
Of course, these territories must also retain some 
of their early Teutonic population and the blood 


of the Goth, Burgund, Vandal and Lombard, who 
at the commencement of the Christian era were 
located there, as well as of the later Saxon element, 
must enter largely into the composition of the 
Prussian of to-day. 

Some anthropologists regard the Teutonized 
round heads of south Germany as a distinct sub- 
division of the Alpines because of the large per- 
centage of blond hair and still larger percentage of 
light colored eyes. 

The most important communities in continental 
Europe of pure German type are to be found in 
old Saxony, the country around Hanover, and this 
element prevails generally in the northwestern part 
of the German Empire among the Low German- 
speaking population, while the High German-speak- 
ing population is largely composed of Teutonized 

The coasts of the North Sea extending from 
Schleswig and Holstein into Holland are inhabited 
by a very pure Nordic type known as the Frisians. 
They are the handsomest and in many respects 
the finest of the continental Nordics and are 
closely related to the English, as many of the 
Post-Roman invaders of England either came from 
Frisia or from adjoining districts. 

All the states involved in the present world war 
have sent to the front their fighting Nordic ele- 
ment and the loss of life now going on in Europe 


will fall much more heavily on the blond giant than 
on the little brunet. 

As in all wars since Roman times from a breeding x 
point of view the little dark man is the final win- 
ner. No one who saw one of our regiments march 
on its way to the Spanish War could fail to be im- u 
pressed with the size and blondness of the men in 
the ranks as contrasted with the complacent citi- 
zen, who from his safe stand on the gutter curb 
gave his applause to the fighting man and then 
stayed behind to perpetuate his own brunet type. 
In the present war one has merely to study the 
type of officer and of the man in the ranks to 
realize that, in spite of the draft net, the Nordic race 
is contributing an enormous majority of the fight- 
ing men, out of all proportion to their relative 
numbers in the nation at large. 

This same Nordic element, everywhere the type 
of the sailor, the soldier, the adventurer and the 
pioneer, was ever the type to migrate to new coun- 
tries, until the ease of transportation and the de- 
sire to escape military service in the last forty years 
reversed the immigrant tide. In consequence of 
this change our immigrants now largely represent 
lowly refugees from "persecution," and other social 

In most cases the blood of pioneers has been lost 
to their race. They did not take their women with 
them. They either died childless or left half- 


breeds behind them. The virile blood of the Span- 
ish conquistadores, who are now little more than a 
memory in Central and South America, died out 
from these causes. 

This was also true in the early days of our 
Western frontiersmen, who individually were a far 
finer type than the settlers who followed them. 
In fact, it is said that practically every one of the 
Forty-Niners in California was of Nordic type. 



For reasons already set forth there are few com- 
munities outside of Europe of pure European blood. 
The racial destiny of Mexico and of the islands and 
coasts of the Spanish Main is clear. The white man 
is being rapidly bred out by Negroes on the islands 
and by Indians on the mainland. It is quite evi- 
dent that the West Indies, the coast region of our 
Gulf States, perhaps, also the black belt of the lower 
Mississippi Valley must be abandoned to Negroes. 
This transformation is already complete in Haiti 
and is going rapidly forward in Cuba and Jamaica. 
Mexico and the northern part of South America 
must also be given over to native Indians with 
an ever thinning veneer of white culture of the 
"Latin" type. 

In Venezuela the pure whites number about one 
per cent of the whole population, the balance being 
Indians and various crosses between Indians, Ne- 
groes and whites. In Jamaica the whites number 
not more than two per cent, while the remainder are 
Negroes or mulattoes. In Mexico the proportion 
is larger, but the unmixed whites number Its* 

than twenty per cent of the whole, the others 



being Indians pure or mixed. These latter are the 
"greasers" of the American frontiersman. 

Whenever the incentive to imitate the dominant 
race is removed the Negro or, for that matter, 
the Indian, reverts shortly to his ancestral grade 
of culture. In other words, it is the individual 
and not the race that is affected by religion, edu- 
cation and example. Negroes have demonstrated^ 
throughout recorded time that they are a station- 
ary species and that they do not possess the poten- 
tiality of progress or initiative from within. Pro- 
gress from self-impulse must not be confounded 
with mimicry or with progress imposed from with- 
out by social pressure or by the slaver's lash. 

When the impulse of an inferior race to imitate 
or mimic the dress, manners or morals of the 
dominant race is destroyed by the acquisition of 
political or social independence, the servient race 
tends to revert to its original status as in Haiti. 

Where two distinct species are located side by side 
history and biology teach that but one of two things 
can happen ; either one race drives the other out, as 
the Americans exterminated the Indians and as the 
Negroes are now replacing the whites in various 
parts of the South; or else they amalgamate and 
form a population of race bastards in which the 
lower type ultimately preponderates. This is a 
disagreeable alternative with which to confront 
sentimentalists but nature is only concerned with 


results and neither makes nor takes excuses. The 
chief failing of the day with some of our well mean- 
ing philanthropists is their absolute refusal to face 
inevitable facts, if such facts appear cruel. 

In the Argentine white blood of the various 
European races is pouring in so rapidly that a 
community preponderantly white, but of the Medi- 
terranean race, may develop, but the type is sus- 
piciously swarthy. 

In Brazil, Negro blood together with that of 
the native inhabitants is rapidly overwhelming the 
white Europeans, although in the southern prov- 
inces German immigration has played an important 
role and the influx of Italians has also been con- 
y In Asia, with the sole exception of the Russian 
settlements in Siberia, there can be and will be no 
ethnic conquest and all the white men in India, 
the East Indies, the Philippines and China will 
leave not the slightest trace behind them in the 
blood of the native population. After several cen- 
turies of contact and settlement the pure Spanish 
in the Philippines are about half of one per cent. 
The Dutch in their East Indian islands are even 
less, while the resident whites in Hindustan amount 
to about one-tenth of one per cent. Such numbers 
are infinitesimal and of no force in a democracy, but 
in a monarchy, if kept free from contamination, they 
suffice for a ruling caste or a military aristocracy. 


Throughout history it is only the race of the leaders 
that has counted and the most vigorous have been 
in control and will remain in mastery in one 
form or another until such time as democracy and 
its illegitimate offspring, socialism, definitely esta- 
blish cacocracy and the rule of the worst and put 
an end to progress. The salvation of humanity 
will then lie in the chance survival of some sane ^r- 
barbarians who may retain the basic truth that 
inequality and not equality is the law of nature. 

Australia and New Zealand, where the natives 
have been virtually exterminated by the whites, are 
developing into communities of pure Nordic blood 
and will for that reason play a large part in the 
future history of the Pacific. The bitter opposition 
of the Australians and Californians to the admis- 
sion of Chinese coolies and Japanese farmers is 
due primarily to a blind but absolutely justified 
determination to keep those lands as white man's 

In Africa, south of the Sahara, the density of the 
native population will prevent the establishment 
of any purely white communities, except at the 
southern extremity of the continent and possibly 
on portions of the plateaux of eastern Africa. 
The stoppage of famines and wars and the abo- . » 
lition of the slave trade, while dictated by the 
noblest impulses of humanity, are suicidal to the 
white man. Upon the removal of these natural 


checks Negroes multiply so rapidly that there will 
not be standing room on the continent for white 
men, unless, perchance, the lethal sleeping sickness, 
which attacks the natives far more frequently than 
^^ the whites, should run its course unchecked. 

In South Africa a community of mixed Dutch 
and English extraction is developing. Here the 
only difference is one of language. English, being 
a world tongue, will inevitably prevail over the 
Dutch patois called "Taal." This Frisian dialect, 
as a matter of fact, is closer to old Saxon or rather 
Kentish than any living continental tongue and the 
blood of the North Hollander is extremely close to 
that of the Anglo-Saxon of England. The English 
and the Dutch will merge in a common type just 
as they have in the past two hundred years in the 
Colony and State of New York. They must stand 
together if they are to maintain any part of Africa 
as a white man's country, because they are con- 
fronted with the menace of an enormous black 
Bantu population which will drive out the whites 
unless the problem is bravely faced. 

The only possible solution is to establish large 
colonies for the Negroes and to allow them outside 
of them only as laborers and not as settlers. There 
must be ultimately a black South Africa and a 
white South Africa side by side or else a pure 
' black Africa from the Cape to the cataracts of the 
* Nile. 


In upper Canada, as in the United States up to 
the time of our Civil War, the white population 
was purely Nordic. The Dominion is, as a whole, 
handicapped by the presence of an indigestible 
mass of French-Canadians, largely from Brittany 
and of Alpine origin, although the habitant patois 
is an archaic Norman of the time of Louis XIV. 
These Frenchmen were granted freedom of lan- 
guage and religion by their conquerors and are 
now using those privileges to form separatist groups 
in antagonism to the English population. The 
Quebec Frenchmen will succeed in seriously im- 
peding the progress of Canada and will succeed 
even better in keeping themselves a poor and 
ignorant community of little more importance to 
the world at large than are the Negroes in the South. 
The selfishness of the Quebec Frenchmen is mea- 
sured by the fact that in the present war they will 
not fight for the British Empire or for France or 
even for clerical Belgium and they are now endeav- 
oring to make use of the military crisis to secure a 
further extension of their " nationalistic ideals." 

Personally the writer believes that the finest and 
purest type of a Nordic community outside of Eu- 
rope will develop in northwest Canada and on the 
Pacific coast of the United States. Most of the 
other countries in which the Nordic race is now 
settling lie outside the special environment in which 
alone it can flourish. 


The Negroes of the United States while station- 
ary, were not a serious drag on civilization until 
in the last century they were given the rights of citi- 
zenship and were incorporated in the body politic. 
These Negroes brought with them no language or 
religion or customs of their own which persisted 
but adopted all these elements of environment 
from the dominant race, taking the names of their 
masters just as to-day the German and Polish Jews 
are assuming American names. They came for 
the most part from the coasts of the Bight of 
Benin, but some of the later ones came from the 
southeast coast of Africa by way of Zanzibar. 
They were of various black tribes but have been 
from the beginning saturated with white blood. 

Looking at any group of Negroes in America, es- 
pecially in the North, it is easy to see that while they 
are all essentially Negroes, whether coal-black, 
brown or yellow, a great many of them have vary- 
ing amounts of Nordic blood in them, which has 
in some respects modified their physical structure 
without transforming them in any way into white 
men. This miscegenation was, of course, a frightful 
disgrace to the dominant race but its effect on the 
Nordics has been negligible, for the simple reason 
that it was confined to white men crossing with 
Negro women and did not involve the reverse proc- 
ess, which would, of course, have resulted in the 
infusion of Negro blood into the American stock. 


The United States of America must be regarded 
racially as a European colony and owing to cur- 
rent ignorance of the physical bases of race, one 
often hears the statement made that native Amer- 
icans of Colonial ancestry are of mixed ethnic 

This is not true. 

At the time of the Revolutionary War the set- 
tlers in the thirteen Colonies were overwhelmingly 
Nordic, a very large majority being Anglo-Saxon 
in the most limited meaning of that term. The 
New England settlers in particular came from 
those counties of England where the blood was 
almost purely Saxon, Anglian, Norse and Dane. 
The date of their migration was earlier than the 
resurgence of the Mediterranean type that has so 
greatly expanded in England during the last cen- 
tury with the growth of manufacturing towns. 

New England during Colonial times and long 
afterward was far more Nordic than old Eng- 
land; that is, it contained a smaller percentage of 
small, Pre-Nordic brunets. Any one familiar with 
the native New Englander knows the clean cut face, 
the high stature and the prevalence of gray and blue 
eyes and light brown hair and recognizes that the 
brunet element is less noticeable there than in the 

The Southern States were populated also by 
Englishmen of the purest Nordic type but there is 


to-day, except among the mountains, an appreci- 
ably larger amount of brunet types than in the 
North. Virginia is in the same latitude as North 
Africa and south of this line no blonds have ever 
been able to survive in full vigor, chiefly because 
the actinic rays of the sun are the same regardless 
of other climatic conditions. These rays beat 
heavily on the Nordic race and disturb their ner- 
vous system, wherever the white man ventures too 
far from the cold and foggy North. 

The remaining Colonial elements, the Holland 
Dutch and the Palatine Germans, who came over in 
small numbers to New York and Pennsylvania, 
were also largely Nordic, while many of the French 
Huguenots who escaped to America were drawn 
from the same racial element in France. The 
Scotch-Irish, who were numerous on the frontier 
of the middle Colonies were, of course, of pure 
Scotch and English blood, although they had re- 
sided in Ireland for two or three generations. They 
were quite free from admixture with the earlier 
Irish, from whom they were cut off socially by bitter 
religious antagonism and they are not to be con- 
sidered as "Irish" in any sense. 

There was no important immigration of other 
elements until the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury when Irish Catholic and German immigrants 
appear for the first time upon the scene. 

The Nordic blood was kept pure in the Colonies 



because at that time among Protestant peoples 
there was a strong race feeling, as a result of which 
half-breeds between the white man and any native 
type were regarded as natives and not as white 

There was plenty of mixture with the Negroes as 
the light color of many Negroes abundantly testifies, 
but these mulattoes, quadroons or octoroons were 
then and are now universally regarded as Negroes. 

There was also abundant cross breeding along 
the frontiers between the white frontiersman and 
the Indian squaw but the half-breed was every- 
where regarded as a member of the inferior race. 

In the Catholic colonies, however, of New France 
and New Spain, if the half-breed were a good 
Catholic he was regarded as a Frenchman or a 
Spaniard, as the case might be. This fact alone 
gives the clew to many of our Colonial wars where 
the Indians, other than the Iroquois, were per- 
suaded to join the French against the Americans 
by half-breeds who considered themselves French- 
men. The Church of Rome has everywhere used*^- 
its influence to break down racial distinctions. It 
disregards origins and only requires obedience to 
the mandates of the universal church. In that lies 
the secret of the opposition of Rome to all national 
movements. It maintains the imperial as con- 
trasted with the nationalistic ideal and in that re- 
spect its inheritance is direct from the Empire. 


Race consciousness in the Colonies and in the 
United States, down to and including the Mexican 
War, seems to have been very strongly developed 
among native Americans and it still remains in full 
vigor to-day in the South, where the presence of a 
large Negro population forces this question upon the 
daily attention of the whites. 

In New England, however, whether through the 
decline of Calvinism or the growth of altruism, 
there appeared early in the last century a wave of 
sentimentalism, which at that time took up the 
cause of the Negro and in so doing apparently de- 
stroyed, to a large extent, pride and consciousness 
of race in the North. The agitation over slavery 
was inimical to the Nordic race, because it thrust 
aside all national opposition to the intrusion of 
hordes of immigrants of inferior racial value and 
prevented the fixing of a definite American type. 

The Civil War was fought almost entirely by 
unalloyed native Americans. The Irish immi- 
grants were, at the middle of the last century, 
confined to a few States and, being chiefly do- 
mestic servants or day laborers, were of no social 
importance. They gathered in the large cities 
and by voting as a solid block for their own collec- 
tive benefit quickly demoralized the governments 
of the municipalities in which they secured ascen- 
dancy. The German immigrants who came to 
America about the same time were chiefly enthusi- 


asts who had taken part in the German Revolution 
of '48. In spite of the handicap of a strange lan- 
guage they formed a more docile and educated 
element than the Irish and were more prone to 
scatter into the rural districts. Neither the Irish 
nor the Germans played an important part in the 
development or policies of the nation as a whole, 
although in the Civil War they each contributed a 
relatively large number of soldiers to the Northern 
army. These Irish and German elements were for 
the most part of the Nordic race and while they 
did not in the least strengthen the nation either 
morally or intellectually they did not impair its 

There has been little or no Indian blood taken 
into the veins of the native American, except in 
States like Oklahoma and in some isolated families 
scattered here and there in the Northwest. This 
particular mixture will play no very important role 
in future combinations of race on this continent, 
except in the north of Canada. 

The native American has always found and finds 
now in the black men willing followers who ask 
only to obey and to further the ideals and wishes 
of the master race, without trying to inject into the 
body politic their own views, whether racial, re- 
ligious or social. Negroes are never socialists or 
labor unionists and as long as the dominant im- 
poses its will on the servient race and as long as 


they remain in the same relation to the whites as in / 
the past, the Negroes will be a valuable element in y^f 
the community but once raised to social equality ( 
their influence will be destructive to themselves J 
and to the whites. If the purity of the two races 
is to be maintained they cannot continue to live 
side by side and this is a problem from which there 
can be no escape. 

The native American by the middle of the nine- 
teenth century was rapidly acquiring distinct char- 
acteristics. Derived from the Saxon and Danish 
parts of the British Isles and being almost purely 
Nordic he was by reason of a differential selection 
due to a new environment beginning to show 
physical peculiarities of his own slightly variant 
from those of his English forefathers and corre- 
sponding rather with the idealistic Elizabethan than 
with the materialistic Hanoverian Englishman. 
The Civil War, however, put a severe, perhaps 
fatal, check to the development and expansion of 
this splendid type by destroying great numbers of 
the best breeding stock on both sides and by break- 
ing up the home ties of many more. If the war 
had not occurred these same men with their de- 
scendants would have populated the Western 
States instead of the racial nondescripts who are 
now flocking there. 

There is every reason to believe that the native 
stock would have continued to maintain a high rate 


of increase if there had been no immigration of 
foreign laborers in the middle of the nineteenth 
century and that the actual population of the United 
States would be fully as large as it is now but 
would have been almost exclusively native Ameri- 
can and Nordic. 

The prosperity that followed the war attracted 
hordes of newcomers who were welcomed by the >/ 
native Americans to operate factories, build rail- 
roads and fill up the waste spaces — "developing 
the country" it was called. 

These new immigrants were no longer exclusively 
members of the Nordic race as were the earlier ones 
who came of their own impulse to improve their 
social conditions. The transportation lines adver- 
tised America as a land flowing with milk and 
honey and the European governments took the 
opportunity to unload upon careless, wealthy and 
hospitable America the sweepings of their jails antf 
asylums. The result was that the new immigra- 
tion, while it still included many strong elements 
from the north of Europe, contained a large and 
increasing number of the weak, the broken and the 
mentally crippled of all races drawn from the low- 
est stratum of the Mediterranean basin and the 
Balkans, together with hordes of the wretched, sub- 
merged populations of the Polish Ghettos. Our 
jails, insane asylums and almshouses are filled with 
this human flotsam and the whole tone of Amer- 



ican life, social, moral and political has been 
lowered and vulgarized by them. 

With a pathetic and fatuous belief in the efficacy 
of American institutions and environment to re- 
verse or obliterate immemorial hereditary tenden- 
cies, these newcomers were welcomed and given 
a share in our land and prosperity. The Ameri- 
can taxed himself to sanitate and educate these 
poor helots and as soon as they could speak 
English, encouraged them to enter into the po- 
litical life, first of municipalities and then of the 

The native Americans are splendid raw material, 
but have as yet only an imperfectly developed 
national consciousness. They lack the instinct 
of self-preservation in a racial sense. Unless such 
an instinct develops their race will perish, as do all 
organisms which disregard this primary law of 
nature. Nature had granted to the Americans 
of a century ago the greatest opportunity in re- 
corded history to produce in the isolation of a con- 
tinent a powerful and racially homogeneous people 
and had provided for the experiment a pure race 
of one of the most gifted and vigorous stocks on 
earth, a stock free from the diseases, physical and 
moral, which have again and again sapped the 
vigor of the older lands. Our grandfathers threw 
away this opportunity in the blissful ignorance of 
national childhood and inexperience. 


The result of unlimited immigration is showing 
plainly in the rapid decline in the birth rate of 
native Americans because the poorer classes of 
Colonial stock, where they still exist, will not bring 
children into the world to compete in the labor mar- 
ket with the Slovak, the Italian, the Syrian and the 
Jew. The native American is too proud to mix 
socially with them and is gradually withdrawing 
from the scene, abandoning to these aliens the 
land which he conquered and developed. The 
man of the old stock is being crowded out of many 
country districts by these foreigners just as he is 
to-day being literally driven off the streets of New 
York City by the swarms of Polish Jews. These 
immigrants adopt the language of the native Amer- 
ican, they wear his clothes, they steal his name 
and they are beginning to take his women, but they 
seldom adopt his religion or understand his ideals 
and while he is being elbowed out of his own home 
the American looks calmly abroad and urges on 
others the suicidal ethics which are exterminating 
his own race. 

When the test of actual battle comes, it will, of 
course, be the native American who will do the 
fighting and suffer the losses. With him will 
stand the immigrants of Nordic blood, but there 
will be numbers of these foreigners in the large 
cities who will prove to be physically unfit for mili- 
tary duty. 


As to what the future mixture will be it is evi- 
dent that in large sections of the country the na- 
tive American will entirely disappear. He will not 
intermarry with inferior races and he cannot com- 
pete in the sweat shop and in the street trench with 
the newcomers. Large cities from the days of 
Rome, Alexandria, and Byzantium have always 
been gathering points of diverse races, but New 
York is becoming a cloaca gentium which will pro- 
duce many amazing racial hybrids and some ethnic 
horrors that will be beyond the powers of future 
anthropologists to unravel. 

One thing is certain: in any such mixture, the 
surviving traits will be determined by competition 
between the lowest and most primitive elements 
and the specialized traits of Nordic man; his 
stature, his light colored eyes, his fair skin and 
light colored hair, his straight nose and his splendid 
fighting and moral qualities, will have little part in 
the resultant mixture. 

The "survival of the fittest" means the survival 
of the type best adapted to existing conditions of 
environment, which to-day are the tenement and 
factory, as in Colonial times they were the clear- 
ing of forests, fighting Indians, farming the fields 
and sailing the Seven Seas. From the point of 
view of race it were better described as the "sur- 
vival of the unfit." 

This review of the colonies of Europe would be 


discouraging were it not for the fact that thus far 
little attention has been paid to the suitability of 
a new country for the particular colonists who 
migrate there. The process of sending out colonists 
is as old as mankind itself and probably in the last 
analysis most of the chief races of the world, cer- 
tainly most of the inhabitants of Europe, represent 
the descendants of successful colonists. 

Su ccess in colonization depends on the selection 
of new lands and climatic conditions in harmony 
with the immemorial requirements of the incoming 
race. The adjustment of each race to its own pecu- 
liar habitat is based on thousands of years of rigid 
selection which cannot be safely ignored. A cer- 
tain isolation and freedom from competition with 
other races, for some centuries at least, is also im- 
portant, so that the colonists may become habitu- 
ated to their new surroundings. 

The Americans have not been on the continent 
long enough to acquire this adjustment and con- 
sequently do not present as effective a resistance 
to competition with immigrants as did, let us say, 
the Italians when overrun by northern barbarians. 
As soon as a group of men migrate to new surround- 
ings, climatic, social or industrial, a new form of 
selection arises and those not fitted to the new 
conditions die off at a greater rate than in their 
original home. This form of differential selection 
plays a large part in modern industrial centres 


and in large cities, where unsanitary conditions 
bear more heavily on the children of Nordics than 
on those of Alpines or Mediterraneans. 



Before considering the living populations of 
Europe we must give consideration to the extinct 
peoples that preceded them. 

The science of anthropology is very recent — in 
its present form less than fifty years old — but it has 
already revolutionized our knowledge of the past 
and extended prehistory so that it is now measured 
not by thousands but by tens of thousands of 

The history of man prior to the period of metals 
has been divided into ten or more subdivisions, 
many of them longer than the time covered by 
written records. Man has struggled up through 
the ages, to revert again and again into sav- 
agery and barbarism but apparently retaining each 
time something gained by the travail of his an- 

So long as there is in the world a freely breeding 
stock or race that has in it an inherent capacity for 
development and growth, mankind will continue 
to ascend until, possibly through the selection arid 
regulation of breeding as intelligently applied as 




in the case of domestic animals, it will control its 
own destiny and attain moral heights as yet un- 

The impulse upward, however, is supplied by a 
very small number of nations and by a very small 
proportion of the population in such nations. The 
section of any community that produces leaders or 
genius of any sort is only a minute percentage. 
To utilize and adapt to human needs the forces and 
the raw materials of nature, to invent new proc- 
esses, to establish new principles, and to elucidate 
and unravel the laws that control the universe call 
for genius. To imitate or to adopt what others 
have invented is not genius but mimicry. 

This something which we call "genius" is not a 
matter of family, but of stock or strain, and is in- 
herited in precisely the same manner as are the 
purely physical characters. It may be latent 
through several generations of obscurity and then 
flare up when the opportunity comes. Of this we 
have many examples in America. This is what 
education or opportunity does for a community; it 
permits in these rare cases fair play for develop- 
ment, but it is race, always race, that produces 
genius. An individual of inferior type or race 
may profit greatly by good environment. On the 
other hand, a member of a superior race in bad 
surroundings may, and very often does, sink to an 
extremely low level. While emphasizing the im- 


portance of race, it must not be forgotten that 
environment, while it does not alter the potential 
capacity of the stock, can perform miracles in the 
development of the individual. 

This genius producing type is slow breeding and 
there is real danger of its loss to mankind. Some 
idea of the value of these small strains can be 
gained from the recent statistics which demonstrate 
that Massachusetts produces more than fifty times 
as much genius per hundred thousand whites as does 
Georgia, Alabama or Mississippi, although appar- 
ently the race, religion and environment, other than 
climatic conditions, are much the same, except for 
the numbing presence in the South of a large sta- 
tionary Negro population. 

The more thorough the study of European pre- 
history becomes, the more we realize how many 
advances of culture have been made and then lost. 
Our parents were accustomed to regard the over- 
throw of ancient -civilization in the Dark Ages as 
the greatest catastrophe of mankind, but we now 
know that the classic period of Greece was pre- 
ceded by similar dark ages caused by the Dorian 
invasions, that had overthrown the Homeric-Myce- 
naean culture, which in its turn had flourished 
after the destruction of its parent, the brilliant 
Minoan culture of Crete. Still earlier, some twelve 
thousand years ago, the Azilian Period of poverty 
and retrogression succeeded the wonderful achieve- 




ments of the hunter-artists of the Upper Paleo- 

The progress of civilization becomes evident only 
when immense periods are studied and compared, 
but the lesson is always the same, namely, that 
race is everything. Without race there can be 
nothing except the slave wearing his master's 
clothes, stealing his master's proud name, adopt- 
ing his master's tongue and living in the crumbling 
ruins of his master's palace. Everywhere on the 
sites of ancient civilizations the Turk, the Kurd 
and the Bedouin camp; and Americans may well 
pause and consider the fate of this country which 
they, and they alone, founded and nourished with 
their blood. The immigrant ditch diggers and the 
railroad navvies were to our fathers what their 
slaves were to the Romans and the same transfer 
of political power from master to servant is taking 
place to-day. 

Man's place of origin was undoubtedly Asia. 
Europe is only a peninsula of the Eurasiatic conti- 
nent and although the extent of its land area 
during the Pleistocene was much greater than 
at present, it is certain from the distribution of 
the various species of man, that the main races 
evolved in Asia, probably north of the great Hima- 
layan range long before the centre of that con- 
tinent was reduced to a series of deserts by pro- 
gressive desiccation. 


The evidence based on man's relatively large 
bulk, on the lack of the development of his fore 
limbs and particularly on his highly specialized 
foot structure all indicate that he has not been 
arboreal for a vast period of time, probably not 
since the end of the Miocene. The change of 
habitat from the trees to the ground may have been 
caused by a profound modification of climate, 
from moist to dry or from warm to cold, which 
in turn may have affected the food supply and com- 
pelled a more carnivorous diet. 

Evidence of the location of the early evolution 
of man in Asia and in the geologically recent sub- 
merged area toward the southeast is afforded by 
the fossil deposits in the Siwalik hills of northern 
India; where the remains of primates have been 
found which were either ancestral or closely re- 
lated to the four genera of living anthropoids and 
where we may confidently look for remains of 
the earliest human forms; and by the discovery in 
Java, which in Pliocene times was connected with 
the mainland over what is now the South China 
Sea, of the earliest known form of erect primate, 
the Pithecanthropus. This apelike man is prac- 
tically the "missing link," being intermediate be- 
tween man and the anthropoids and is generally 
believed to have been contemporary with the Gtinz 
glaciation of some 500,000 years ago, the first of 
the four great glacial advances in Europe. 


One or two species of anthropoid apes have 
been discovered in the Miocene of Europe which 
may possibly have been remotely related to the 
ancestors of man but when the archaeological ex- 
ploration of Asia shall be as complete and inten- 
sive as that of Europe it is probable that more 
forms of fossil anthropoids and new species of man 
will be found there. 

Man existed in Europe during the second and 
third interglacial periods, if not earlier. We have 
his artifacts in the form of eoliths, at least as early 
as the second interglacial stage, the Mindel-Riss, 
of some 300,000 years ago. A single jaw found near 
Heidelberg is referred to this period and is the 
earliest skeletal evidence of man in Europe. From 
certain remarkable characters in this jaw, it has been 
assigned to a new species, Homo heidelbergensis. 

Then follows a long period showing only scanty 
industrial relics and no known skeletal remains. 
Man was slowly and painfully struggling up from a 
culture phase where chance flints served his tem- 
porary purpose. This period, known as the Eo- 
lithic, was succeeded by a stage of human develop- 
ment where slight chipping and retouching of flints 
for his increasing needs led, after vast intervals of 
time, to the deliberate manufacture of tools. This 
Eolithic Period is necessarily extremely hazy and 
uncertain. Whether or not certain chipped or 
broken flints, called eoliths or dawn stones, were 


actually human artifacts or were the products of 
natural forces is, however, immaterial for man must 
have passed through such an eolithic stage. 

The further back we go toward the commence- 
ment of this Eolithic culture, the more unrecogniza- 
ble the flints necessarily become until they finally 
cannot be distinguished from natural stone frag- 
ments. At the beginning, the earliest man merely 
picked up a convenient stone, used it once and 
flung it away, precisely as an anthropoid ape would 
act to-day if he wanted to break the shell of a tor- 
toise or crack an ostrich egg. 

Man must have experienced the following phases 
of development in the transition from the prehu- 
man to the human stage: first, the utilization of 
chance stones and sticks; second, the casual adap- 
tation of flints by a minimum amount of chipping; 
third, the deliberate manufacture of the simplest 
implements from flint nodules; and fourth, the in- 
vention of new forms of weapons and tools in ever 
increasing variety. 

Of the last two stages we have an extensive and 
clear record. Of the second stage we have in the 
eoliths intermediate forms ranging from flints that 
are evidently results of natural causes to flints that 
are clearly artifacts. The first and earliest stage, 
of course, could leave behind it no definite record 
and must in the present state of our knowledge rest 
on hypothesis. 



With the deliberate manufacture of implements 
from flint nodules, we enter the beginning of Paleo- 
lithic time and from here on our way is relatively 
clear. The successive stages of the Paleolithic were 
of great length but are each characterized by some 
improvement in the manufacture of tools. Dur- 
ing long ages man was merely a tool making and 
tool using animal and, after all is said, that is 
about as good a definition as we can find to-day 
for the primate we call human. 

The Paleolithic Period or Old Stone Age lasted 
from the somewhat indefinite termination of the 
Eolithic, some 150,000 years ago, to the Neo- 
lithic or New Stone Age, which began about 7000 
B. C. 

The Paleolithic falls naturally into three great 
subdivisions. The Lower Paleolithic includes the 
whole of the last interglacial stage with the sub- 
divisions of the Pre-Chellean, Chellean and Acheu- 
lean; the Middle Paleolithic covers the whole of 
the last glaciation and is co-extensive with the 

Mousterian Period and the dominance of the Nean- 



derthal species of man.* The Upper Paleolithic 
embraces all the postglacial stages down to the 
Neolithic and includes the subdivisions of the 
Aurignacian, Solutrean, Magdalenian and Azilian. 
During the entire Upper Paleolithic, except the short 
closing phase, the Cro-Magnon race flourished. 

It is not until after the third severe period of 
great cold, known as the Riss glaciation, nor until 
we enter, some 150,000 years ago, the third and 
last interglacial stage of temperate climate, known 
as the Riss-Wurm, that we find a definite and as- 
cending series of culture. The Pre-Chellean, Chel- 
lean and Acheulean divisions of the Lower Paleo- 
lithic occupied the whole of this warm or rather 
temperate interglacial phase, which lasted nearly 
100,000 years. 

A shattered skull, a jaw and some teeth have 
been discovered recently in Sussex, England. These 
remains were attributed to the same individual, 
who was named the Piltdown Man. Owing to the 
extraordinary thickness of the skull and the simian 
character of the jaw, a new genus, Eoanthropus, 
the "dawn man," was created and assigned to 
Pre-Chellean times. Some of the tentative resto- 
rations of the fragmentary bones make this skull 
altogether too modern and too capacious for a Pre- 
Chellean or even a Chellean. 

* The Middle Paleolithic Period is suggested here for the first time. 
— Editor's Nots. 


Further study and comparison with the jaws 
of other primates also indicate that the jaw 
belonged to a chimpanzee so that the genus 
Eoanthropus must now be abandoned and the Pilt- 
down Man must be included in the genus Homo 
as at present constituted. 

In any event the Piltdown Man is highly aberrant 
and, so far as our present knowledge goes, does not 
appear to be related to any other species of man 
found during the Lower Paleolithic. Future dis- 
coveries of the Piltdown type and for that matter 
of Heidelberg Man may, however, raise either or 
both of them to generic rank. 

In later Acheulean times a new human species, 
very likely descended from the early Heidelberg 
Man of Eolithic times, appears on the scene and is 
known as the Neanderthal race. Many fossil re- 
mains of this type have been found. 

The Neanderthaloids occupied the European 
stage exclusively, with the possible exception of 
the Piltdown Man, from the first appearance of 
man in Europe to the end of the Middle Paleo- 
lithic. The Neanderthals nourished throughout 
the entire duration of the last glacial advance 
known as the Wiirm glaciation. This period, 
known as the Mousterian, began about 50,000 
years ago and lasted some 25,000 years. 

The Neanderthal species disappears suddenly 
and completely with the advent of postglacial times, 


when, about 25,000 years ago, it was apparently 
supplanted or exterminated by a new and far 
higher race, the famous Cro-Magnons. 

There may well have been during Mousterian 
times races of man in Europe other than the Ne- 
anderthaloids, but of them we have no record. 
Among the numerous remains of Neanderthals, 
however, we do find traces of distinct types show- 
ing that this race in Europe was undergoing evo- 
lution and was developing marked variations in 

Neanderthal Man was an almost purely meat 
eating hunter, living in caves or rather in their en- 
trances. He was dolichocephalic and not unlike 
existing Australoids, although not necessarily of 
black skin and was, of course, in no sense a Negro. 

The skull was characterized by heavy super- 
orbital ridges, a low and receding forehead, protrud- 
ing and chinless under jaw and the posture was im- 
perfectly erect. This race was widely spread and 
rather numerous. Some of its blood may have 
trickled down to the present time and occasionally 
one sees a skull apparently of the Neanderthal 
type. The best skull of this type ever seen by the 
writer belonged to a very intellectual professor in 
London, who was quite unconscious of his value as 
a museum specimen. In the old black breed of 
Scotland the overhanging brows and deep-set eyes 
are suggestive of this race. 


Along with other ancient and primitive racial 
remnants, ferocious gorilla-like living specimens 
of Paleolithic man are found not infrequently on 
the west coast of Ireland and are easily recog- 
nized by the great upper lip, bridgeless nose, bee- 
tling brow with low growing hair and wild and 
savage aspect. The proportions of the skull which 
give rise to this large upper lip, the low forehead 
and the superorbital ridges are certainly Neander- 
thal characters. The other traits of this Irish type 
are common to many primitive races. This is the 
Irishman of caricature and the type was very fre- 
quent in America when the first Irish immigrants 
came in 1846 and the following years. It seems, 
however, to have almost disappeared in this coun- 
try. If, as it is claimed, the Neanderthals have 
left no trace of their blood in living populations, 
these Firbolgs are derived from some very ancient 
and primitive race as yet undescribed. 

In the Upper Paleolithic, which began after the 
close of the fourth and last glaciation, about 25,000 
years ago, the Neanderthal race was succeeded by 
men of very modern aspect, known as Cro-Mag- 
nons. The date of the beginning of the Upper 
Paleolithic is the first we can fix with accuracy and 
its correctness can be relied on within narrow limits. 
The Cro-Magnon race first appears in the Aurigna- 
cian subdivision of the Upper Paleolithic. Like the 
Neanderthals, they were dolichocephalic but with 


a cranial capacity superior to the average in exist- 
ing European populations and a stature of very re- 
markable size. 

It is quite astonishing to find that the predomi- 4 
nant race in Europe 25,000 years ago, or more, 
was not only much taller, but had an absolute 
cranial capacity in excess of the average of the 
present population. The low cranial average of 
existing populations in Europe can be best ex- 
plained by the presence of large numbers of indi- 
viduals of inferior mentality. These defectives 
have been carefully preserved by modern charity, 
whereas in the savage state of society the back- 
ward members were allowed to perish and the race 
was carried on by the vigorous and not by the 

The high brain capacity of the Cro-Magnons is 
paralleled by that of the ancient Greeks, who in a 
single century .gave to the world out of their small 
population much more genius than all the other 
races of mankind have since succeeded in produc- 
ing in a similar length of time. Attica between 
530 and 430 B. C. had an average population of 
about 90,000 freemen, and yet from this number 
were born no less than fourteen geniuses of the 
very highest rank. This would indicate a general 
intellectual status as much above that of the 
Anglo-Saxons as the latter are above the Negroes. 
The existence at these early dates of a very high 


cranial capacity and its later decline shows that 
there is no upward tendency inherent in mankind 
of sufficient strength to overcome obstacles placed 
in its way by stupid social customs. 

All historians are familiar with the phenomenon 
of a rise and decline in civilization such as has oc- 
curred time and again in the history of the world 
but we have here in the disappearance of the Cro- 
Magnon race the earliest example of the replace- 
ment of a very superior race by an inferior one. 
There is great danger of a similar replacement of a 
higher by a lower type here in America unless the 
native American uses his superior intelligence to 
protect himself and his children from competition 
with intrusive peoples drained from the lowest 
races of eastern Europe and western Asia. 

While the skull of the Cro-Magnon was long, the 
cheek bones were very broad and this combina- 
tion of broad face with long skull constitutes a 
peculiar disharmonic type which occurs to-day only 
among the very highly specialized Esquimaux and 
one or two other unimportant groups. 

Skulls of this particular type, however, are found 
in small numbers among existing populations in 
central France, precisely in the district where the 
fossil remains of this race were first discovered. 
These isolated Frenchmen probably represent the 
last lingering remnant of this splendid race of hunt- 
ing savages. 


The Cro-Magnon culture is found around the 
basin of the Mediterranean, and this fact, together 
with the conspicuous absence in eastern Europe of 
its earliest phases, the lower Aurignacian, indicates 
that it entered Europe by way of north Africa, 
as its successors, the Mediterranean race, probably 
did in Neolithic times. There is little doubt 
that the Cro-Magnons originally developed in Asia 
and were in their highest stage of physical devel- 
opment at the time of their first appearance in 
Europe. Whatever change took place in their 
stature during their residence there seems to have 
been in the nature of a decline rather than of a 
further development. 

There is nothing whatever of the Negroid in the 
Cro-Magnons and they are not in any way related 
to the Neanderthals, who represent a distinct and, 
save for the suggestions made above, an extinct 
species of man. 

The Cro-Magnon race persisted through the en- 
tire Upper Paleolithic, during the periods known 
as the Aurignacian, Solutrean and Magdalenian, 
from 25,000 to 10,000 B. C. While it is possible 
that the blood of this race enters somewhat into 
the composition of the peoples of western Europe, 
its influence cannot be great and the Cro-Mag- 
nons — the Nordics of their day — disappear from 
view with the advent of the warmer climate of 
recent times. 


It has been suggested that, following the fading 
ice edge north and eastward through Asia into 
North America, they became the ancestors of the 
Esquimaux but certain anatomical objections are 
fatal to this interesting theory. No one, however, 
who is familiar with the culture of the Esquimaux 
and especially with their wonderful skill in bone 
and ivory carving, can fail to be struck with the 
similarity of their technique to that of the Cro- 

To the Cro-Magnon race the world owes the birth 
of art. Caverns and shelters are constantly un- 
earthed in France and Spain, where the walls and 
ceilings are covered with polychrome paintings or 
with incised bas-reliefs of animals of the chase. A 
few clay models, sometimes of the human form, 
are also found, together with abundant remains of 
their chipped but unpolished stone weapons and 
tools. Certain facts stand out clearly, namely, 
that they were purely hunters and clothed them- 
selves in furs and skins. They knew nothing of 
agriculture or of domestic animals, even the dog 
being probably as yet untamed and the horse re- 
garded merely as an object of chase. 

The question of their knowledge of the principle 
of the bow and arrow during the Aurignacian and 
Solutrean is an open one but there are definite in- 
dications of the use of the arrow, or at least the 
barbed dart, in early Magdalenian times and this 


weapon was well known in the succeeding Azilian 

The presence toward the end of this last period 
of quantities of very small flints called micro- 
liths has given rise to much controversy. It is 
possible that some of these microliths represent the 
tips of small poisoned arrows such as are now in 
very general use among primitive hunting tribes 
the world over. Certain grooves in some of the 
flint weapons of the Upper Paleolithic may also 
have been used for the reception of poison. It is 
highly probable that the immediate predecessors of 
the Azilians, the Cro-Magnons, perhaps the great- 
est hunters that ever lived, not only used poisoned 
darts but were adepts in trapping game by means 
of pitfalls and snares, precisely as do some of the 
hunting tribes of Africa to-day. Barbed arrow- 
heads of flint or bone, such as were commonly used 
by the North American Indians, have not been 
found in Paleolithic deposits. 

In the Solutrean Period the Cro-Magnons shared 
Europe with a new race known as the Briinn- 
Pfedmost, found in central Europe. This race 
is characterized by a long face as well as a long 
skull, and was, therefore, harmonic. This Briinn- 
Pfedmost race appears to have been well settled 
in the Danubian and Hungarian plains and this 
location indicates an eastern rather than a southern 


Good anatomists have seen in this race the last 
lingering traces of the Neanderthaloids but it is 
more probable that we have here the first advance 
wave of the primitive forerunners of one of the 
modern European dolichocephalic races. 

This new race was not artistic, but had great 
skill in fashioning weapons and possibly is associ- 
ated with the peculiarities of Solutrean culture and 
the decline of art which characterizes that period. 
The artistic impulse of the Cro-Magnons which 
flourished so vigorously during the Aurignacian 
seems to be quite suspended during this Solutrean 
Period, but reappears in the succeeding Magdale- 
nian times. This Magdalenian art is clearly the 
direct descendant of Aurignacian models and in 
this closing age of the Cro-Magnons all forms of 
Paleolithic art, carving, engraving, painting and 
the manufacture of weapons, reach their highest 
and final culmination. 

Nine or ten thousand years may be assigned to 
the Aurignacian and Solutrean Periods and we 
may with considerable certainty give the minimum 
date of 16,000 B. C. as the beginning of Magda- 
lenian time. Its entire duration can be safely set 
down at 6,000 years, thus bringing the final termi- 
nation of the Magdalenian to 10,000 B. C. All 
these dates are extremely conservative and the 
error, if any, is in assigning too late and not too 
early a period to the end of Magdalenian times. 


At the close of the Magdalenian we enter upon 
the last period of Paleolithic times, the Azilian, 
which lasted from about 10,000 to 7,000 B. C, when 
the Upper Paleolithic, the age of chipped flints, 
definitely and finally ends in Europe. This period 
takes its name from the Mas d'Azil, or "House of 
Refuge," a huge cavern in the eastern Pyrenees 
where the local Protestants took shelter during the 
persecutions. The extensive deposits in this cave 
are typical of the Azilian epoch and here certain 
marked pebbles may be the earliest known traces 
of symbolic writing, but true writing was probably 
not developed until the late Neolithic. 

With the advent of this Azilian Period art en- 
tirely disappears and the splendid physical type of 
the Cro-Magnons is succeeded by what appear to 
have been degraded savages, who had lost the 
force and vigor necessary for the strenuous chase 
of large game and had turned to the easier life of 

In the Azilian the bow and arrow are in common 
use in Spain and it is well within the possibilities 
that the introduction and development of this new 
weapon from the South may have played its part 
in the destruction of the Cro-Magnons; otherwise 
it is hard to account for the disappearance of this 
race of large stature and great brain power. 

The Azilian, also called the Tardenoisian in the 
north of France, was evidently a period of racial 


disturbance and at its close the beginnings of the 
existing races are found. 

From the first appearance of man in Europe 
and for many tens of thousands of years down to 
some ten or twelve thousand years ago all known 
human remains are of dolichocephalic type. 

In the Azilian Period appears the first round 
skull race. It comes clearly from the East. Later 
we shall find that this invasion of the forerun- 
ners of the existing Alpine race came from south- 
western Asia by way of the Iranian plateau, 
Asia Minor, the Balkans and the valley of the 
Danube, and spread over nearly all of Europe. 
The earlier round skull invasions may as well have 
been infiltrations as armed conquests since ap- 
parently from that day to this the round skulls 
have occupied the poorer mountain districts and 
have seldom ventured down to the rich and fertile 

This new brachycephalic race is known as the 
Furfooz or Grenelle race, so called from the locali- 
ties in Belgium and France where it was first dis- 
covered. Members of this round skull race have 
also been found at Of net in Bavaria where they 
occur in association with a dolichocephalic race, 
our first historic evidence of the mixture of con- 
trasted races. The descendants of this Furfooz- 
Grenelle race and of the succeeding waves of 
invaders of the same brachycephalic type now 


occupy central Europe as Alpines and form the 
predominant peasant type in central and eastern 

In this same Azilian Period there appear, com- 
ing this time from the South, the first forerunners 
of the Mediterranean race. The descendants of 
this earliest wave of Mediterraneans and their later 
reinforcements occupy all the coast and islands of 
the Mediterranean and are spread widely over 
western Europe. They can everywhere be identi- 
fied by their short stature, slight build, long skull 
and brunet hair and eyes. 

While during this Azilian-Tardenoisian Period 
these ancestors of two of the existing European 
races are appearing in central and southern Europe, 
a new culture phase, also distinctly Pre-Neolithic, 
was developing along the shores of the Baltic. It 
is known as Maglemose from its type locality in 
Denmark. It is believed to be the work of the 
first wave of the Nordic race which had followed 
the retreating glaciers northward over the old land 
connections between Denmark and Sweden to oc- 
cupy the Scandinavian Peninsula. In the remains 
of this culture we find definite evidence of the do- 
mesticated dog. 

With the appearance of the Mediterranean race 
the Azilian-Tardenoisian draws to its close and with 
it the entire Paleolithic Period. It is safe to assign 
for the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of 


the Neolithic or Polished Stone Age, the date of 
7,000 or 8,000 B. C. 

The races of the Paleolithic Period, so far as we 
can judge from their remains, appear successively 
on the scene with all their characters fully devel- 
oped. The evolution of all these subspecies and 
races took place somewhere in Asia or eastern 
Europe. None of these races appear to be an- 
cestral one to another, although the scanty re- 
mains of the Heidelberg Man would indicate that 
he may have given rise to the later Neanderthals. 
Other than this possible affinity, the various races 
of Paleolithic times are not related one to another. 



About 7,000 B. C. we enter an entirely new period 
in the history of man, the Neolithic or New Stone 
Age, when the flint implements were polished and 
not merely chipped. Early as is this date in Euro- 
pean culture, we are not far from the beginnings 
of an elaborate civilization in parts of Asia and 
Egypt. The earliest organized governments, so far 
as our present knowledge goes, were Egypt and 
Sumer. Chinese civilization at the other end of 
Asia is later, but mystery still shrouds its origin and 
its connection, if any, with the Mesopotamian 
city-states. The solution probably lies in the cen- 
tral region of the Syr Darya and future excavations 
in those regions may uncover very early cultures. 
Balkh, the ancient Bactra, the mother of cities, is 
located where the trade routes between China, 
India and Mesopotamia converged and it is in this 
neighborhood that careful and thorough excava- 
tions will probably find their greatest reward. 

However, we are not dealing with Asia but with 
Europe only and our knowledge is confined to the 
fact that the various cultural advances at the end 
of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neo- 
lithic correspond with the arrival of new races. 



The transition from the Paleolithic to the Neo- 
lithic was formerly considered as revolutionary, 
an abrupt change of both race and culture, but 
a period more or less transitory, known as the 
Campignian, now appears to bridge over this gap. 
This is only what should be expected, since in 
human archaeology as in geology the more de- 
tailed our knowledge becomes the more gradu- 
ally we find one period or horizon merges into 
its successor. 

For a long time after the opening of the Neo- 
lithic the old-fashioned chipped weapons and im- 
plements remain the predominant type and the 
polished flints so characteristic of the Neolithic 
appear at first only sporadically, then increase in 
number until finally .they entirely replace the 
rougher designs of the preceding Old Stone Age. 

So in their turn these Neolithic polished stone 
implements, which ultimately became both varied 
and effective as weapons and tools, continued 
in use long after metallurgy developed. In the 
Bronze Period metal armor and weapons were 
for ages of the greatest value. So they were nec- 
essarily in the possession of the military and ruling 
classes only, while the unfortunate serf or com- 
mon soldier who followed his master to war did 
the best he could with leather shield and stone 
weapons. In the ring that clustered around 
Harold for the last stand on Senlac Hill many 


of the English thanes died with their Saxon king, 
armed solely with the stone battle-axes of their 

In Italy also there was a long period known to 
the Italian archaeologists as the Eneolithic Period 
when good flint tools existed side by side with very 
poor copper and bronze implements; so that, while 
the Neolithic lasted in western Europe four or five 
thousand years, it is, at its commencement, with- 
out clear definition from the preceding Paleolithic 
and at its end it merges gradually into the suc- 
ceeding ages of metals. 

After the opening Campignian phase there fol- 
lowed a long period typical of the Neolithic, known 
as the Robenhausian or Age of the Swiss Lake 
Dwellers, which reached its height after 5000 
B. C. The lake dwellings seem to have been the 
work chiefly of the round skull Alpine races and 
are found in numbers throughout the region of the 
Alps and their foothills and along the valley of the 

These Robenhausian pile built villages were the 
earliest known form of fixed habitation in Europe 
and the culture found in association with them 
was a great advance over that of the preceding 
Paleolithic. This type of permanent habitation 
flourished through the entire Upper Neolithic and 
the succeeding Bronze Age. Pile villages end in 
Switzerland with the first appearance of iron but 


elsewhere, as on the upper Danube, they still ex- 
isted in the days of Herodotus. 

Pottery is found together with domesticated ani- 
mals and agriculture, which appear during the Ro- 
benhausian for the first time. The chase, supple- 
mented by trapping and fishing, was still common 
but it probably was more for clothing than for food. 
A permanent site is not alone the basis of an agri- 
cultural community, but it also involves at least a 
partial abandonment of the chase, because only 
nomads can follow the game in its seasonal migra- 
tions and hunted animals soon leave the neighbor- 
hood of settlements. 

The Terramara Period of northern Italy was a 
later phase of culture contemporaneous with the 
Upper Robenhausian and was typical of the Bronze 
Age. During the Terramara Period fortified and 
moated stations in swamps or close to the banks of 
rivers became the favorite resorts instead of pile 
villages built in lakes. The first traces of copper 
are found during this period. The earliest human 
remains in the Terramara deposits are long skulled, 
but round skulls soon appear in association with 
bronze implements. This indicates an original 
population of Mediterranean affinities overwhelmed 
later by Alpines. 

Neolithic culture also flourished in the north of 
Europe and particular^ in Scandinavia now free 
from ice. The coasts of the Baltic were appar- 


ently occupied for the first time at the very begin- 
ning of this period, as no trace of Paleolithic indus- 
try has been found there, other than the Maglemose, 
which represents only the very latest phase of the 
Old Stone Age. The kitchen middens, or refuse 
heaps, of Sweden and more particularly of Denmark 
date from the early Neolithic and thus are some- 
what earlier than the lake dwellers. Rough pot- 
tery occurs in them for the first time, but no traces 
of agriculture have been found and, as said, the dog 
seems to have been the only domesticated animal. 

From these two centres, the Alps and the North, 
an elaborate and variegated Neolithic culture spread 
through western Europe and an autochthonous de- 
velopment took place, comparatively little influ- 
enced by trade intercourse with' Asia after the first 
immigrations of the new races. 

We may assume that the distribution of races in 
Europe during the Neolithic was roughly as follows. 

The Mediterranean basin and western Europe, 
including Spain, Italy, Gaul, Britain and parts of 
western Germany, were populated by Mediterra- 
nean long heads. In Britain the Paleolithic popu- 
lation must have been very small and the Neo- 
lithic Mediterraneans were the first effectively to 
open up the country. Even they kept to the open 
moorlands and avoided the heavily wooded and 
swampy valleys which to-day are the main centres 
of population. Before metal and especially iron 


tools were in use forests were an almost complete 
barrier to the expansion of an agricultural popula- 

The Alps and the territories immediately adja- 
cent, with Central Gaul and much of the Balkans, 
were inhabited by Alpine types. These Alpines 
extended northward until they came in touch in 
eastern Germany and Poland with the southern- 
most Nordics, but as the Carpathians at a much 
later date, namely, from the fourth to the eighth 
century A. D., were the centre of radiation of the 
Alpine Slavs, it is very possible that during the 
Neolithic the early Nordics lay farther north and 

North of the Alpines and occupying the shores 
of the Baltic and Scandinavia, together with east- 
ern Germany, Poland and Russia, were located the 
Nordics. At the very base of the Neolithic and 
perhaps still earlier, this race occupied Scandinavia, 
and Sweden became the nursery of what has been 
generally called the Teutonic subdivision of the 
Nordic race. It was in that country that the pe- / 
culiar characters of stature and blondness became ( >J 
most accentuated and it is there that we find them ( 
to-day in their greatest purity. 

During the Neolithic the remnants of early 
Paleolithic man must have been numerous, but 
later they were either exterminated or absorbed by 
the existing European races. 


During all this Neolithic Period Mesopotamia 
and Egypt were thousands of years in advance of 
Europe, but only a small amount of culture from 
these sources seems to have trickled westward up 
the valley of the Danube, then and long afterward 
the main route of intercourse between western 
Asia and the heart of Europe. Some trade also 
passed from the Black Sea up the Russian rivers 
to the Baltic coasts. Along these latter routes there 
came from the north to the Mediterranean world 
the amber of the Baltic, a fossil resin greatly prized 
by early man for its magic electrical qualities. 

Gold was probably the first metal to attract the *¥ 
attention of primitive man, but could only be used 
for purposes of ornamentation. Copper, which is 
often found in a pure state, was also one of the 
earliest metals known and probably came first either 
from the mines of Cyprus or of the Sinai Peninsula. 
These latter mines are known to have been worked 
before 3400 B. C. by systematic mining operations 
and much earlier "the metal must have been ob- 
tained by primitive methods from surface ore." It 
is, therefore, probable that copper was known and 
used, at first for ornament and later for imple- 
ments, in Egypt before 4000 B. C. and possibly 
even earlier in the Mesopotamian regions. 

We now reach the confines of recorded history 
and the first absolutely fixed date, 4241 B. C, is 
established for lower Egypt by the oldest known 


calendar. The earliest date as yet for Mesopotamia 
is somewhat later, but these two countries supply 
the basis of the chronology of the ancient world 
until a few centuries before Christ. 

With the use of copper the Neolithic fades to 
its end and the Bronze Age commences soon there- 
after. This next step in advance was made appar- 
ently before 3000 B.C. when some unknown genius 
discovered that an amalgam of nine parts of copper 
to one part of tin would produce the metal we now 
call bronze, which has a texture and hardness suit- 
able for weapons and tools. The discovery revolu- 
tionized the world. The new knowledge was a long 
time spreading and weapons of this material were 
of fabulous value, especially in countries where 
there were no native mines and where spears and 
swords could only be obtained through trade or 
conquest. The esteem in which these bronze 
weapons, and still more the later weapons of iron, 
were held, is indicated by the innumerable legends 
and myths concerning magic swords and armor, 
the possession of which made the owner well-nigh 
invulnerable and invincible. 

The necessity of obtaining tin for this amalgam 
led to the early voyages of the Phoenicians, who 
from the cities of Tyre and Sidon and their daugh- 
ter Carthage traversed the entire length of the 
Mediterranean, founded colonies in Spain to work 
the Spanish tin mines, passed the Pillars of Her- 


cules and finally voyaged through the stormy 
Atlantic to the Cassiterides, the Tin Isles of Ultima 
Thule. There, on the coasts of Cornwall, they 
traded with the native British of kindred Mediter- 
ranean race for the precious tin. These dangerous 
and costly voyages become explicable only if the 
value of this metal for the composition of bronze 
be taken into consideration. 

After these bronze weapons were elaborated in 
Egypt the knowledge of their manufacture and 
use was extended through conquest into Palestine, 
and northward into Asia Minor. 

The effect of the possession of these new weapons 
on the Alpine populations of western Asia was 
magical and resulted in an intensive and final ex- 
pansion of round skulls into Europe. This inva- 
sion came through Asia Minor, the Balkans and the 
valley of the Danube, poured into Italy from the 
north, introduced bronze among the earlier Alpine 
lake dwellers of Switzerland and among the Medi- 
terraneans of the Terramara stations of the valley 
of the Po and at a later date reached as far west 
as Britain and as far north as Holland and Nor- 
way, where its traces are still to be found among 
the living population. 

The simultaneous appearance of bronze about 
3000 or 2800 B. C. in the south as well as in the 
north of Italy may possibly be attributed to a 
lateral wave of this same invasion which, passing 


through Egypt, where it left behind the so-called 
Gizeh round skulls, reached Tunis and Sicily. In 
southern Italy bronze may have been introduced 
from Crete. With the first knowledge of metals be- 
gins the Eneolithic Period of the Italians. 

The close resemblance in design and technique 
among the implements of the Bronze Age in widely 
separated localities is so great that we can infer 
a relatively simultaneous introduction. 

With the introduction of bronze the custom of 
incineration of the dead also appears and replaces 
the typical Neolithic custom of inhumation. 

The introduction of bronze into England and 
into Scandinavia may be safely dated about one 
thousand years later, after 1800 B. C. The fact 
that the Alpines only barely reached Ireland in- 
dicates that at this time that island was severed 
from England and that the land connection be- 
tween England and France had been broken. The 
computation of the foregoing dates, of course, is 
somewhat hypothetical, but the fixed fact remains 
that this last expansion of the Alpines brought 
the knowledge of bronze to western and northern 
Europe and to the Mediterranean and Nordic peo- 
ples living there. 

The effect of the introduction of bronze in the 
areas occupied chiefly by the Mediterranean race 
along the Atlantic coast and in Britain, as well as 
in north Africa from Tunis to Morocco, is seen 
in the construction and in the wide distribution of 


the megalithic funeral monuments, which appear 
to have been erected, not by Alpines but by the 
dolichocephs. The occurrence of bronze tools and 
weapons in the interments shows clearly that the 
megaliths of the south of France date from the be- 
ginning of the Bronze Age. The absence of bronze 
from the dolmens of Brittany may indicate an ear- 
lier age. It is, however, more likely that the open- 
ing Bronze Age in the South was contemporary 
with the late Neolithic in the North. The construc- 
tion and use of these monuments continued at least 
until the very earliest trace of iron appears and in 
fact mound burials among the Vikings were com- 
mon until the introduction of Christianity. 

Although there is evidence of very early use of 
iron in Egypt the knowledge of this metal as well 
as of bronze in Europe centres around the area oc- 
cupied by the Alpines in the eastern Alps and its 
earliest phase is known as the Hallstatt culture, 
from a little town in the Tyrol where it was first 
discovered. This Hallstatt iron culture appeared 
about 1500 B. C. The Alpine Hittites in northeast 
Asia Minor were probably the first to mine and 
smelt iron and they introduced it to the Alpines of 
eastern Europe, but it was the Nordics who bene-y 
fited by its use. Bronze weapons and the later iron 
ones proved in the hands of these Northern bar- 
barians to be of terrible effectiveness. With these 
metal swords in their grasp, the Nordics conquered 
the Alpines of central Europe and then suddenly 


entered the ancient world as raiders and destroyers 
of cities. The classic civilizations of the northern 
coasts of the Mediterranean Sea fell, one after an- 
other, before the "Furor Normanorum," just as 
two thousand years later the provinces of Rome 
were devastated by the last great flood of the Nor- 
dics from beyond the Alps. 

The first Nordics to appear in European history .y 
are tribes speaking Aryan tongues in the form of 
the various Celtic and related dialects in the West, 
of Umbrian in Italy and of Thracian in the Bal- 
kans. These barbarians, pouring down from the 
North, swept with them large numbers of Alpines 
whom they had already thoroughly Nordicized. 
The process of conquering and assimilating the Al- 
pines must have gone on for long centuries before 
our first historic records and the work was so 
thoroughly done that the very existence of this 
Alpine race as a separate subspecies of man was 
actually forgotten for many centuries by them- 
selves and by the world at large until it was re- 
vealed in our own day by the science of skull mea- 

The Hallstatt iron culture did not extend into 
western Europe and the smelting and extensive 
use of this metal in southern Britain and north- 
western Europe are of much later date and occur in 
what is called the La Tene Period, usually assigned 
to the fifth and fourth century B. C. 


Iron weapons were, however, known sporadically 
in England much earlier, perhaps as far back as 
800 B. C, but were very rare and were probably 
importations from the Continent. 

"Hallstatt relics have only been found in the 
northeast or centre of France and it appears that 
the Bronze Age continued in the remainder of that 
country until about 700 B. C." 

The spread of this La Tene culture is associated 
with the Nordic Cymry, who constituted the last 
wave of Celtic-speaking invaders into western Eu- 
rope, while the earlier Nordic Gauls and Goidels 
had arrived in Gaul and Britain equipped with 
bronze only. 

In Roman times, following the La Tene Period, 
the main races of Europe occupied the relative 
positions which they had held during the whole 
Neolithic Period and which they hold to-day, with 
the exception that the Nordic subspecies was less 
extensively represented in western Europe than 
when, a few hundred years later, the so-called Teu- 
tonic tribes overran these countries; but on the 
other hand, the Nordics occupied large areas in 
eastern Germany, Hungary, Poland and Russia 
now mainly occupied by the Slavs of Alpine race. 

Many countries in central Europe were in Roman 
times inhabited by fair haired, blue eyed barbarians, 
where now the population is preponderantly brunet J 
and becoming yearly more so. 















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The Alpine race is clearly of Eastern and Asiatic 
origin. It forms the westernmost extension of a 
widespread subspecies which, outside of Europe, 
occupies Asia Minor, Iran, the Pamirs and the 
Hindu Kush. In fact the western Himalayas were 
probably its original centre of evolution and radia- 
tion and among its Asiatic members is a distinct 
subdivision, the Armenoids. 

The Alpine race is distinguished by a round face 
and correspondingly round skull which in the true 
Armenians has a peculiar sugarloaf shape, a char- 
acter which can be easily recognized. The Alpines 
must not be confounded with the slit-eyed Mongols 
who centre around Thibet and the steppes of north 
Asia. The fact that both these races are round 
skulled does not involve identity of origin any more 
than the long skulls of the Nordics and of the Medi- 
terraneans require that they be both considered of 
the same subspecies, although good anthropologists 
have been misled by this parallelism. The Al- 
pines are of stocky build and moderately short 
stature, except sometimes where they have been 
crossed with Nordic elements. This race is also 



characterized by dark hair, except where there has 
been a strong Nordic admixture as in south Ger- 
many and Switzerland. In Europe at the present 
time the eye, also, is usually dark but sometimes 
grayish. The ancestral Proto-Alpines from the 
highlands of western Asia must, of course, have had 
brunet eyes and very dark, probably black, hair. 
Whether we are justified in considering gray eyes 
as peculiar to populations of mixed Alpine and 
Nordic blood is difficult to determine, but one 
thing is certain, the combination of blue eyes and 
flaxen hair is never Alpine. 

The European Alpines retain very little evidence 
of their Asiatic origin except the skull shape and 
have been in contact with the Nordic race so long 
that in central and western Europe they are 
everywhere saturated with the blood of that race. 
Many populations now considered good Germans, 
such as the majority of the Wurtembergers, Ba- 
varians, Austrians, Swiss and Tyrolese are merely 
Nordicized Alpines. 

While the Swiss are to-day neither tall nor long 
headed, their country was thoroughly conquered 
early in the Christian era by the Nordic Alemanni 
who entered from the Rhine Valley. The exodus 
of soldiers from the forest cantons throughout the 
Middle Ages to fight as mercenaries in France and 
Italy gradually drained off this Nordic element 
until the chief evidence of its former existence lies 


to-day in the large amount of blondness among the 
Swiss. With the loss of this type the nation has 
ceased to be a military community. 

The first appearance in Europe of the Alpines 
dates from the Azilian Period when it is represented 
by the Furfooz-Grenelle race. There were later 
several invasions of this race which entered Europe 
from the Asia Minor plateaux, by way of the Bal- 
kans and the valley of the Danube, during Neolithic 
times and, also, at the beginning of the Bronze 
Age. It appears also to have passed north of the 
Black Sea, as some slight traces have been dis- 
covered there of round skulls which long antedate 
the existing population but the Russian brachy- 
cephaly of to-day is of much later origin and is due 
mainly to the eastward spread of Alpines from the 
regions of the Carpathians since the first centuries 
of our era. 

This race in its final expansion far to the north- 
west ultimately reached Norway, Denmark and 
Holland and planted among the dolichocephalic 
natives small colonies of round skulls, which still 
exist. These colonies are found along the coast 
and while of small extent are clearly marked. On 
the southwestern seaboard of Norway these round 
heads are dark and relatively short. 

When this invasion reached the extreme north- 
west of Europe its energy was spent and the 
invaders were soon forced back into central Eu- 


rope by the Nordics. The Alpines at this time of 
maximum extension about 1800 B. C. crossed 
into Britain and a few reached Ireland and intro- 
duced bronze into both these islands. As the 
metal appears about the same time in Sweden it 
is safe to assume that it was introduced by this 

The men of the Round Barrows in England 
were Alpines, but their numbers were so scanty 
that they have left behind them in the skulls of 
the living population but little demonstrable evi- 
dence of their former presence. If we are ever able 
accurately to analyze the various strains that en- 
ter in more or less minute quantities into the blood 
of the British nation, we shall find many traces of 
these Round Barrow men as well as other interest- 
ing and ancient remnants especially in the western 
isles and peninsulas. 

In the study of European populations the great 
and fundamental fact about the British Isles is 
the almost total absence there to-day of true Alpine 
round skulls. It is the only important state in 
Europe in which the round skulls play no part and 
the only nation of any rank composed solely of 
Nordic and Mediterranean races in approximately 
equal numbers. To this fact are undoubtedly due 
many of the individualities and much of the great- 
ness of the English people. 

The cephalic index in England is rather low, 


about 78, but there is a type of tall men, with 
a tendency to roundheadedness allied to a very 
marked intellectual capacity, known as the "Beaker 
Maker" type. They are probably descended from 
the men of the Round Barrows, who while brachy- 
cephalic were tall and presumably dark and 
entered England on the east and northeast. The 
Beaker Makers appear at the very end of the 
Neolithic and, at least in the case of the last of 
them to arrive, are identified with the Bronze 

Before this tall, round headed type reached Brit- 
ain, they had absorbed many Nordic elements 
and they have nothing except the skull shape in 
common with the Alpines living closest, those of 
Belgium and France. However, they do suggest 
strongly the Dinaric race of the Tyrol and Dalma- 
tian coast of the Adriatic. In addition to the 
Beaker Makers remains of short, thick-set brachy- 
cephs have also been found in small numbers. 
These last appear to have been true Alpines. 

The invasion of central Europe by Alpines, 
which occurred in the Neolithic, following in the 
wake of the Azilian forerunners of the same type — 
the Furfooz-Grenelle race — represented a very 
great advance in culture. They brought with 
them from Asia the art of domesticating animals 
and the first knowledge of the cereals and of pot- 
tery and were an agricultural race in sharp con- 


trast to the flesh eating hunters who preceded 

The Neolithic populations of the lake dwellings 
in Switzerland and the extreme north of Italy, which 
flourished about 5000 B. C, all belonged to this 
Alpine race. A comparison of the scanty physical 
remains of these lake dwellers with the inhabitants 
of the existing villages on the lake shores demon- 
strates that the skull shape has changed little or / 
not at all during the last seven thousand years ) 
and affords us another proof of the persistency of ' 
physical characters. 

This Alpin e race in Europe is now so thorough ly 
acclimated that it is no lon ger Asiatic in an y__re- 
^pect and has nothing in common with the Mon- 
gols except its round skulls. Such Mongolian ele- 
ments~alTexist to-day in scattered groups through- 
out eastern Europe are remnants of the later 
invasions of Tatar hordes which, beginning with 
Attila in the fifth century, ravaged eastern Europe 
for hundreds of years. 

In western and central Europe the present dis- 
tribution of the Alpine race is a substantial reces- 
sion from its earlier extent and it has been every- 
where conquered and subordinated by Celtic- and 
Teutonic-speaking Nordics. Beginning with the 
first appearance of the Celtic-speaking Nordics in 
western Europe, the Alpine race has been obliged 
to give ground but has mingled its blood every- 


where with the conquerors and now after centuries 
of obscurity it appears to be increasing again at the 
expense of the .master race. 

The Alpines reached Spain, as they reached 
Britain, in small numbers and with spent force 
but they still persist along the Cantabrian Alps as 
well as among the French Basques on the northern 
side of the Pyrenees. 

The Anaryan Basque or Euskarian language 
may be a derivative of the original speech of these 
Alpines, as its affinities point eastward and toward 
Asia rather than southward and toward the littoral 
of Africa and the Hamitic speech of the Mediter- 
ranean Berbers. Basque was probably related to 
the extinct Aquitanian. The Ligurian language, 
also seemingly Anaryan, if ever closely deciphered 
may throw some light on the subject. There are 
dim traces all along the north African coast of a 
round skull invasion about 3000 B. C. through 
Syria, Egypt, Tripoli and Tunis and from there 
through Sicily to southern Italy. 

The Alpine race forms to-day, as in Caesar's 
time, the great bulk of the population of central 
France with a Nordic aristocracy resting upon it. 
They occupy as the lower classes the uplands of 
Belgium, where, known as Walloons, they speak an 
archaic French dialect closely related to the an- 
cient langue d'oil. They form a majority of the 
upland population of Alsace, Lorraine, Baden, Wiir- 


temberg, Bavaria, Tyrol, Switzerland and northern 
Italy; in short, of the entire central massif of Eu- 
rope. In Bavaria and the Tyrol the Alpines are 
so thoroughly Nordicized that their true racial 
affinities are betrayed by their round skulls alone. 

When we reach Austria we come in contact with 
the Slavic-speaking nations which form a subdi- 
vision of the Alpine race appearing relatively late 
in history and radiating from the Carpathian 
Mountains. In western and central Europe in 
relation to the Nordic race the Alpine is every- 
where the ancient, underlying and submerged type. 
The fertile lands, river valleys and cities are here in 
the hands of the Nordics but in eastern Germany 
and Poland we find conditions reversed. That is 
an old Nordic broodland with a Nordic substratum 
underlying the bulk of the peasantry, which now 
consists of round skulled Alpine Slavs. On top of 
these again we have an aristocratic upper class of 
comparatively recent introduction and of Saxon 
origin in eastern Germany. In Austria this upper 
class is Swabian and Bavarian. 

The introduction of Slavs into eastern Germany 
is believed to have been by infiltration and not 
by conquest. In the fourth century these Wends 
were called Venethi, Antes and Sclaveni, and were 
described as strong in numbers but despised in war. 
Through the neglect of the Teutons they had been 
allowed to range far and wide from their homes 


near the northeastern Carpathians and to occupy 
the lands formerly belonging to the Nordic nations, 
who had abandoned their country and flocked into 
the Roman Empire. Goth, Burgund, Lombard 
and Vandal were replaced by the lowly Wend and 
Sorb, whose descendants to-day form the privates 
in the east German regiments, while the officers are 
everywhere recruited from the Nordic upper class. 
The mediaeval relation of these Slavic tribes to the 
dominant Teuton is well expressed in the mean- 
ing — slave — which has been attached to their name 
in western languages. 

The occupation of eastern Germany and Poland 
by the Slavs probably occurred from 400 A. D. to 
700 A. D. but these Alpine elements were rein- 
forced from the east and south from time to time 
during the succeeding centuries. Beginning early 
in the tenth century, the Saxons under their Em- 
perors, especially Henry the Fowler, turned their 
attention eastward and during the next two cen- 
turies they reconquered and thoroughly Germanized 
all this section of Europe. 

A similar series of changes in racial predominance 
took place in Russia where in addition to a nobil- 
ity largely Nordic a section of the population is of 
ancient Nordic type, although the bulk of the peas- 
antry consists of Alpine Slavs. 

The Alpines in eastern Europe are represented 
by various branches of the " Slavic" nations. 


Their area of distribution was split into two sections 
by the occupation of the great Dacian plain first 
by the Avars about 600 A. D. and later by the 
Hungarians about 900 A. D. These Avars and 
Magyars came from somewhere in eastern Russia 
beyond the sphere of Aryan speech and their 
invasions separated the northern Slavs, known as 
Wends, Czechs, Slovaks, and Poles, from the 
southern Slavs, known as Serbs and Croats. These 
southern Slavs entered the Balkan Peninsula in the 
sixth century from the northeast and to-day form 
the great mass of the population there. 

The centre of radiation of all these Slavic-speak- 
ing Alpines was located in the Carpathians, espe- 
cially the Ruthenian districts of Galicia and east- 
ward to the neighborhood of the Pripet swamps 
and the head- waters of the Dnieper in Polesia, 
where the Slavic dialects are believed to have 
developed and whence they spread throughout 
Russia about the eighth century. These early 
Slavs were probably the Sarmatians of the Greek 
and Roman writers. Their name "Venethi" seems 
to have been a later designation. The original 
Proto-Slavic language being Aryan must have been 
at some distant date imposed by Nordics upon the 
Alpines, but its development into the present Slavic 
tongues was chiefly the work of Alpines. 

In other words, the expansion of the Alpines of 
the Slavic-speaking group seems to have occurred 


after the Fourth Century and they have spread 
in the East over areas which were originally Nor- 
dic, very much as the Teutons had previously 
overrun and submerged the earlier Alpines in the 
West. The Mongol, Tatar and Turk who invaded 
Europe much later reinforced the brachy cephalic 
element in these countries. To some extent the 
round skulled Alpines in Russia have been rein- 
forced by way of the Caucasus and the route 
north of the Black Sea by their kindred in western 
Asia. The greater part of the purely Asiatic types 
has been thoroughly absorbed and Europeanized 
except in certain localities in Russia more espe- 
cially in the east and south, where Mongoloid tribes 
such as the Mordvins, Bashkirs and Kalmucks 
have maintained their type either in isolated 
and relatively large groups or side by side with 
their Slavic neighbors. In both cases the isola- 
tion is maintained through religious and social 

The Avars preceded the Magyars in Hungary, 
but they have merged with the latter without 
leaving traces that can be identified. Certain 
Mongoloid characters found in Bulgaria are be- 
lieved, however, to be of Avar origin. 

The original physical type of the Magyars and 
the European Turks has now practically vanished 
as a result of prolonged intermarriage with the 
original inhabitants of Hungary and the Balkans. 


These tribes have left little behind but their lan- 
guage and, in the case of the Turks, their religion. 
The brachycephalic Hungarians to-day resemble 
the Austrian Germans much more than they do the 
Slavic-speaking populations adjoining them on the 
north and south or the Rumanians on the east. 

Driven onward by the Avars, the Bulgars ap- 
peared south of the Danube about the end of the 
seventh century, coming originally from eastern 
Russia where the remnants of their kindred still 
persist along the Volga. To-day they conform 
physically in the western half of the country to 
the Alpine Serbs and in the eastern half to the 
Mediterranean race, as do also the Rumanians of 
the Black Sea coast. 

Little or nothing remains of the ancestral Bul- 
gars except their name. Language, religion and 
nearly, but not quite all, of the physical type have 

The early members of the Nordic race in order 
to reach the Mediterranean world had to pass 
through the Alpine populations and must have 
absorbed a certain amount of Alpine blood. There- 
fore the Umbrians in Italy and the Gauls of west- 
ern Europe, while predominantly Nordic, were 
more mixed especially in the lower classes with 
Alpine blood than were the Belgae or Cymry or 
their successors, the Goths, Vandals, Burgundians, 
Alemanni, Saxons, Franks, Lombards, Danes and 


Northmen, all of whom appear in history as Nor- 
dics of the so-called Teutonic group. 

In some portions of their range notably Savoy 
and central France the Alpine race is much less 
affected by Nordic influence than elsewhere but on 
the contrary it shows signs of a very ancient ad- 
mixture with Mediterranean and even earlier ele- 
ments. Brachy cephalic Alpine populations in com- 
parative purity still exist in the interior of Brittany 
as in Auvergne, although nearly surrounded by 
Nordic populations. 

While the Alpines were everywhere overwhelmed 
and driven to the fastnesses of the mountains, the 
warlike and restless nature of the Nordics has en- 
abled the more stable Alpine population to reas- 
sert itself slowly, and Europe is probably much less 
Nordic to-day than it was fifteen hundred years 

The early Alpines made very large contribu- 
tions to the civilization of the world and were the 
medium through which many advances in culture 
were introduced from Asia into Europe. This 
race at the time of its first appearance in the west 
brought to the nomad hunters a knowledge of agri- 
culture and of primitive pottery and of domestica- 
tion of animals and thus made possible a great 
increase in population and the establishment of 
permanent settlements. Still later its final expan- 
sion was the means through which the knowledge 


of metals reached the Mediterranean and Nordic 
populations of the west and north. Upon the ap- 
pearance on the scene of the Nordics the Alpine 
race temporarily lost its identity and sank to the 
subordinate and obscure position which it still 
largely occupies. 

In western Asia members of this race seemingly 
are entitled to the honor of the earliest Mesopo- 
tamian civilization of which we have knowledge, 
namely, that of Sumer and its northerly neighbor 
Accad in Mesopotamia. It is also the race of early 
Elam and Media. In fact, the basis of Mesopo- 
tamian civilization belongs to this race. Later 
Babylonia and Assyria were Arabic and Semitic 
while Persia was Nordic and Aryan. 

In classic, mediaeval and modern times the Al- 
pines have played an unimportant part in Euro- 
pean culture and in western Europe they have 
been so thoroughly Nordicized that they exist 
rather as an element in Nordic race development 
than as an independent type. There are, however, 
many indications in current history which point to 
an impending development of civilization in the 
Slavic branches of this race and the world must 
be prepared to face changes in the Russias which 
will, for good or for evil, bring them more closely 
into touch with western Europe. 


The Mediterranean subspecies formerly called 
the Iberian is a relatively small, light boned, long 
skulled race, of brunet coloring, becoming even 
swarthy in certain portions of its range. Through- 
out Neolithic times and possibly still earlier it 
seems to have occupied, as it does to-day, all the 
shores of the Mediterranean including the coast 
of Africa from Morocco on the west to Egypt on 
the east. The Mediterraneans are the western 
members of a subspecies of man which forms a 
substantial part of the population of Persia, Afghan- 
istan, Baluchistan and Hindustan with perhaps a 
southward extension into Ceylon. 

The Aryanized Afghan and Hindu of northern 
India speak languages derived from Old Sanskrit 
and are distantly related to the Mediterranean race. 
Aside from a common dolichocephaly these peoples 
are entirely distinct from the Dra vidians of south 
India whose speech is agglutinative and who show 
strong evidence of profound mixture with the an- 
cient Negrito substratum of southern Asia. 

Everywhere throughout the Asiatic portion of 

its range the Mediterranean race overlies an even 



more ancient Negroid race. These Negroids still 
have representatives among the Pre-Dra vidians of 
India, the Veddahs of Ceylon, the Sakai of the 
Malay Peninsula and the natives of the Andaman 

This Mediterranean subspecies at the close of 
the Paleolithic spread from the basin of the Inland 
Sea northward by way of Spain throughout west- 
ernmost Europe including the British Isles and, 
before the final expansion of the Alpines, was widely 
distributed up to and, possibly, touching the domain 
of the Nordic dolichocephs. The Mediterraneans 
did not cross the Alps from the south but spread 
around the mountains. In attaining to Britain 
from Spain by way of Central France it is probable 
that they swept with them Paleolithic remnants 
from the ancient centre of population in the Au- 
vergne district. 

In all this vast range from the British Isles to 
Hindustan, it is not to be supposed that there is 
absolute identity of race. Certain portions, how- 
ever, of the populations of the countries through- 
out this long stretch do show in their physique 
clear indications of descent from a Neolithic race 
of a common original type, which we may call 
Pro to- Mediterranean. 

Quite apart from inevitable admixture with late 
Nordic and early Paleolithic elements, the bru- 
net type of Englishman has had perhaps ten 


thousand years of independent evolution during 
which he has undergone selection due to the cli- 
matic and physical conditions of his northern habi- 
tat. The result is that he has specialized far away 
from the Proto-Mediterranean race which contrib- 
uted his blood originally to Britain while it was, 
probably, still part of continental Europe. 

At the other end of their range in India this 
race, the Mediterraneans, have been crossed with 
Dravidians and with Pre-Dravidian Negroids. 
They have also had imposed upon them other 
ethnic elements which came over through the Af- 
ghan passes from the northwest. The resultant 
racial mixture in India has had its own line of 
specialization. Residence in the fertile but un- 
healthy river bottoms, the direct rays of a tropic 
sun and competition with the immemorial autoch- 
thones have unsparingly weeded generation after 
generation until the existing Hindu has little in 
common with the ancestral Proto-Mediterranean. 

It is to the Mediterranean race in the British 
Isles that the English, Scotch and Americans 
owe whatever brunet characters they possess. In 
western Europe, wherever it exists, it appears to 
underlie the Alpine race and, in fact, wherever this 
race is in contact with either the Alpines or the 
Nordics it would seem to represent the more ancient 
stratum of the population. 

So far as we know this Mediterranean type never 


existed in Scandinavia and all brunet elements 
found there can be attributed to introductions in 
the Bronze Age or in historic times. Nor did the 
Mediterranean race ever enter or cross the high 
Alps as did the Nordics at a much later date on 
their way to the Mediterranean basin from the 
Baltic coasts. 

The Mediterranean race with its Asiatic exten- 
sions is bordered everywhere on the north of its 
enormous range from Spain to India by round 
skulls but there does not seem to be as much evi- 
dence of mixture between these two subspecies of 
man as there is between the Alpines and the Nor- 

Along its southern boundary the Mediterraneans 
are in contact with either the long skulled Negroes 
of Africa or the ancient Negrito population of 
southern Asia. In Africa this race has drifted 
southward over the Sahara and up the Nile Valley 
and has modified the blood of the Negroes in both 
the Senegambian and equatorial regions. 

Beyond these mixtures of blood, there is abso- 
lutely no relationship between the Mediterranean 
race and the Negroes. The fact that the Mediter- 
ranean race is long skulled as well as the Negro 
does not indicate relationship as has been suggested. 
An overemphasis of the importance of the skull 
shape as a somatological character can easily 
mislead and characters other than skull propor- 


tions must be carefully considered in determining 

From a zoological point of view Africa north of 
the Sahara is now and has been since early Terti- 
ary times a part of Europe. This is true both of 
animals and of the races of man. The Berbers of 
north Africa to-day are racially identical with the 
Spaniards and south Italians while the ancient 
Egyptians and their modern descendants, the fel- 
laheen, are merely well marked varieties of this 
Mediterranean race. 

The Egyptians fade off toward the west into 
the so-called Hamitic peoples (to use an obsolete 
name) of Libya, and toward the south the infusion 
of Negro blood becomes increasingly great until 
we finally reach the pure Negro. On the east in 
Arabia we find an ancient and highly specialized 
subdivision of the Mediterranean race, which has 
from time out of mind crossed the Red Sea and 
infused its blood into the Negroes of east Africa. 

To-day the Mediterranean race forms in Europe 
a substantial part of the population of the British 
Isles, the great bulk of the population of the Ibe- 
rian Peninsula, nearly one-third of the population 
of France, Liguria, Italy south of the Apennines 
and all the Mediterranean coasts and islands, in 
some of which like Sardinia it exists in great pur- 
ity. It forms the substratum of the population of 
Greece and of the eastern coast of the Balkan Pen- 


insula. Everywhere in the interior of the Balkan 
Peninsula, except in eastern Bulgaria and parts of 
Rumania, it has been replaced by the South Slavs 
and by the Albanians, the latter a mixture of the 
ancient Illyrians and the Slavs. 

In the British Isles the Mediterranean race rep- 
resents the Pre-Nordic population and exists in 
considerable numbers in Wales and in certain por- 
tions of England, notably in the Fen districts to 
the northeast of London. In Scotland it is far less 
marked, but has left its brunetness as an indication 
of its former prevalence and this dark hair and eye 
color is very often associated with tall stature. 

This is the race that gave the world the great 
civilizations of Egypt, of Crete, of Phoenicia in- 
cluding Carthage, of Etruria, of Mycenaean Greece, 
of Assyria and much of Babylonia. It gave us, 
when mixed and invigorated with Nordic elements, 
which probably predominated in the upper and 
ruling classes and imposed their guidance upon the 
masses, the most splendid of all civilizations, that 
of ancient Hellas, and the most'enduring of political 
organizations, the Roman state. 

To what extent the Mediterranean race entered 
into the blood and civilization of Rome, it is now 
difficult to say, but the traditions of the Eternal 
City, its love of organization, of law and military 
efficiency, as well as the Roman ideals of family 
life, of loyalty and truth, point clearly to a north- 


era rather than to a Mediterranean origin, although 
there must have been some Alpine strains mixed in 
with the Nordic element. 

The struggles in early Rome between Latin and 
Etruscan and the endless quarrels between patri- 
cian and plebeian may have arisen from this ex- 
istence in Rome, side by side, of two distinct and 
clashing races, probably Nordic and Mediterranean 
respectively. The Roman busts that have come 
down to us often show features of a very Anglo- 
Saxon cast but with a somewhat round head. The 
Romans were short in stature in comparison with 
the nations north of the Alps and in the recently 
discovered battlefield of the Teutoburgian Forest 
where Varus and his legions perished in the reign 
of Augustus the skeletons of the Romans, identified 
by their armor, were notably smaller and slighter 
than were those of the German victors. The indi- 
cations on the whole point to a Nordic aristocracy 
in Rome with some Alpine elements. The Plebs, 
on the other hand, was largely Mediterranean and 
Oriental and finally in the last days of the Republic 
ceased to contain any purely Roman blood. 

The northern qualities of Rome are in sharp 
contrast to the less European traits of the classic 
Greeks, whose volatile and analytical spirit, lack 
of cohesion, political incapacity and ready resort to 
treason all point clearly to southern and eastern 


While very ancient, located for probably ten 
thousand years in western and southern Europe, and 
even longer on the south shore of the Mediterranean, 
nevertheless this subspecies cannot be called purely 
European. Its occupation of the north coast of 
Africa and the west coast of Europe can be traced 
everywhere by its beautifully polished stone 
weapons and tools. The megalithic monuments 
also, which are found in association with this race, 
may mark its line of advance in western Europe, 
although they extend beyond the range of the 
Mediterraneans into the domain of the Scandina- 
vian Nordics. These huge stone structures were 
chiefly sepulchral memorials and are very sugges- 
tive of the Egyptian funeral monuments. They 
date back to the first knowledge of the manufac- 
ture and use of bronze tools by the Mediterranean 
race. They occur in great numbers, size and vari- 
ety along the north coast of Africa and up the 
Atlantic seaboard through Spain, Brittany and 
England to Scandinavia. 

It is admitted that the various groups of the 
Mediterranean race did not speak in the first in- 
stance any form of Aryan tongue and we know 
that these languages were introduced into the Medi- 
terranean world by invaders from the north. 

In Spain the language of the Nordic invaders 
was Celtic and is believed to have nearly died out 
by Roman times. Its remnants and the ancient 


speech of the natives were in turn superseded, 
along with the Phoenician spoken in some of the 
southern coast towns, by the Latin of the con- 
quering Roman. Latin mixed with some small 
elements of Gothic construction and Arabic voca- 
bulary forms to-day the basis of modern Portu- 
guese, Castilian and Catalan. 

The native Mediterranean race of the Iberian 
Peninsula quickly absorbed the blood of these 
Celtic-speaking Nordic Gauls, just as it later 
diluted beyond recognition the vigorous physical 
characters of the Nordic Vandals, Suevi and Visi- 
goths. A certain amount of Nordic blood still 
persists to-day in northern Spain, especially in 
Galicia and along the Pyrenees, as well as gen- 
erally among the upper classes. According to 
classic writers there were light and dark types in 
Spain in Roman times. The Romans left no evi- 
dence of their domination except in their language 
and religion; while the earlier Phoenicians on the 
coasts and the later swarms of Moors and Arabs 
all over the peninsula, but chiefly in the south, 
were closely related by race to the native Ibe- 

That portion of the Mediterranean race which 
inhabits southern France occupies most of the 
territory of ancient Languedoc and Provence and 
it was these Provencals who developed and pre- 
served during the Middle Ages the romantic civiliza- 


tion of the Albigensians, a survival of classic cul- 
ture which was drowned in blood by a crusade from 
the north in the thirteenth century. 

In northern Italy only the coast of Liguria is 
occupied by the Mediterranean race. In the val- 
ley of the Po the Mediterraneans predominated 
during the early Neolithic but with the intro- 
duction of bronze the Alpines appear and round 
skulls to this day prevail north of the Apennines. 
About 1 100 B. C. the Nordic Umbrians and Oscans 
swept over the Alps from the northeast, conquered 
northern Italy and introduced their Aryan speech, 
which gradually spread southward. The Umbrian 
state was afterward overwhelmed by the Tyrrhen- 
ians or Etruscans, who were of Mediterranean 
race and who, by 800 B. C. had extended their 
empire northward to the Alps and temporarily 
checked the advance of the Nordics. In the sixth 
century B. C. new swarms of Nordics, coming this 
time from Gaul and speaking Celtic dialects, seized 
the valley of the Po and in 382 B. C. these Gauls, 
heavily reinforced from the north and under the 
leadership of Brennus, stormed Rome and com- 
pletely destroyed the Etruscan power. From that 
time onward the valley of the Po became known as 
Cisalpine Gaul. Mixed with other Nordic elements, 
chiefly Gothic and Lombard, this population per- 
sists to this day, and is the backbone of modern 


A continuation of this movement of these Gauls, 
or Galatians as the Greek world called them, start- 
ing from northern Italy occurred a century later 
when these Nordics suddenly appeared before Del- 
phi in Greece in 279 B. C. and then crossed into 
Asia Minor and founded the state called Galatia, 
which endured until Christian times. 

South Italy until its conquest by Rome was 
Magna Graecia and the population to-day retains 
many Pelasgian Greek elements. It is among these 
classic remnants that artists search for the hand- 
somest specimens of the Mediterranean race. In 
Sicily also the race is purely Mediterranean in spite 
of the admixture of types coming from the neigh- 
boring coasts of Tunis. These intrusive elements, 
however, were all of kindred race. Traces of Al- 
pines in these regions and on the adjoining African 
coast are very scarce and wherever found may be 
referred to the final wave of round skull invasion 
which introduced bronze into Europe. 

In Greece the Mediterranean Pelasgians speaking 
a Non-Aryan tongue were conquered by the Nordic 
Achaeans, who entered from the northeast accord- 
ing to tradition prior to 1250 B. C. probably be- 
tween 1400 and 1300 B. C. Doubtless there were 
still earlier waves of these same Nordic invaders 
as far back as 1700 B. C., which was a period of 
general unrest and migration throughout the a* 
cient world. 


The Nordic Achaeans and Mediterranean Pelas- 
gians as yet unmixed stand out in clear contrast in 
the Homeric account of the ten year siege of Troy, 
which is generally assigned to the date of 11 94 to 
1184B. C. 

The same invasion that brought the Achaeans 
into Greece brought a related Nordic people to 
the coast of Asia Minor, known as Phrygians. Of 
this race were the Trojan leaders. 

Both the Trojans and the Greeks were com- 
manded by huge blond princes, the heroes of Ho- 
mer — in fact, even the Gods were fair haired — 
while the bulk of the armies on both sides was com- 
posed of little brunet Pelasgians, imperfectly armed 
and remorselessly butchered by the leaders on 
either side. The only common soldiers mentioned 
by Homer as of the same race as the heroes were 
the Myrmidons of Achilles. 

About the time that the Achaeans and the Pe- 
lasgians began to amalgamate, new hordes of Nor- 
dic barbarians collectively called Hellenes entered 
from the northern mountains and destroyed this 
old Homeric-Mycenaean civilization. This Dorian 
invasion took place a little before 1100 B. C. and 
brought in the three main Nordic strains of Greece, 
the Dorian, the ^Eolian and the Ionian groups, 
which lemain more or less distinct and separate 
throughout Greek history. Among these Nordics 


the Dorians may have included some Alpine ele- 
ments. It is more than probable that this invasion 
or swarming of Nordics into Greece was part of 
the same general racial upheaval that brought 
the Umbrians and Oscans into Italy. 

Long years of intense and bitter conflict follow 
between the old population and the newcomers 
and when the turmoil of this revolution settled 
down classic Greece appears. What was left of 
the Achaeans retired to the northern Peloponnesus 
and the survivors of the early Pelasgian popula- 
tion remained in Messenia serving as helots their 
Spartan masters. The Greek colonies in Asia 
Minor were founded largely by refugees fleeing 
from these Dorian invaders. 

The Pelasgian strain seems to have persisted 
best in Attica and the Ionian states. The Dorian 
Spartans appear to have retained more of the char- 
acter of the northern barbarians than the Ionian 
Greeks but the splendid civilization of Hellas was 
due to a fusion of the two elements, the Achaean 
and Hellene of Nordic and the Pelasgian of Medi- 
terranean race. 

The contrast between Dorian Sparta and Ionian 
Athens, between the military efficiency, thorough 
organization and sacrifice of the citizen for the 
welfare of the state, which constituted the basis 
of Lacedaemonian power, and the Attic brilliancy, 
instability and extreme development of individual- 


ism, is strikingly like the contrast between Prussia 
with its Spartan-like culture and France with its 
Athenian versatility. 

To this mixture of races in classic Greece the 
Mediterranean Pelasgians contributed their My- 
cenaean culture and the Nordic Achaeans and Hel- 
lenes contributed their Aryan language, fighting 
efficiency and the European aspect of Greek life. 

The first result of a crossing of two such con- 
trasted subspecies as the Nordic and Mediterra- 
nean races has repeatedly been a new outburst of 
civilization. This occurs as soon as the older race 
has imparted to the conquerors its culture and be- 
fore the victors have allowed their blood to be at- 
tenuated by mixture. This process seems to have 
happened several times in Greece. 

Later, in 338 B. C, when the original Nordic 
blood had been hopelessly diluted by mixture with 
the ancient Mediterranean elements, Hellas fell 
an easy prey to Macedon. The troops of Philip 
and Alexander were Nordic and represented the 
uncultured but unmixed ancestral type of the 
Achaeans and Hellenes. Their unimpaired righting 
strength was irresistible as soon as it was organ- 
ized into the Macedonian phalanx, whether directed 
against their degenerate brother Greeks or against 
the Persians, whose original Nordic elements had 
also by this time practically disappeared. When 
in its turn the pure Macedonian blood was im- 


paired by intermixture with Asiatics, they, too, 
vanished and even the royal Macedonian dynas- 
ties in Asia and Egypt soon ceased to be Nordic 
or Greek except in language and customs. 

It is interesting to note that the Greek states 
in which the Nordic element most predominated 
outlived the other states. Athens fell before Sparta 
and Thebes outlived them both. Macedon in 
classic times was considered quite the most bar- 
barous state in Hellas and was scarcely recognized 
as forming part of Greece, but it was through the 
military power of its armies and the genius of Alex- 
ander that the Levant and western Asia became 
Hellenized. Alexander with his Nordic features, 
aquiline nose, fair skin, gently curling light hair 
and mixed eyes, the left blue and the right very 
black, typifies this Nordic conquest of the Near 

It is scarcely possible to-day to find in purity the 
physical traits of the ancient race in the Greek- 
speaking lands and islands and it is chiefly among 
the pure Nordics of Anglo-Norman type that there 
occur those smooth and regular classic features, 
especially the brow and nose lines, that were the 
delight of the sculptors of Hellas. 

To what extent any of the blood of the ancient 
Hellenes flows in the veins of the Greeks of to-day 
is difficult to determine but it should be found, 
if anywhere, in Crete and in the ^Egean Islands. 


The modern Greek is trying to purify his language 
back to classic Ionian and to appropriate the 
traditions of the mighty Past, but to do this some- 
thing more is needed than the naming of children 
after Agamemnon and Hecuba. Even in Roman 
times, the ancient Greek of the classic period was 
little more than a tradition and the term Graeculus 
given to the contemporary Hellenes was one of 

Concerning the physical type of classic in con- 
trast to Homeric Greece, we know that the Greeks 
were predominantly long headed and of relatively 
short stature in comparison with the northern bar- 
barians. The modern Greeks are also relatively 
short in stature, but are moderately round headed. 
As to color these modern Greeks are substantially all 
dark as to eye and hair, with a somewhat swarthy 

Among Albanians and such Greeks as show blond 
traits light eyes are more than ten times as numer- 
ous as light hair. The Albanians are members of 
the tall, round headed Dinaric race and have distant 
relationship with the Nordics. They may possibly 
represent an ancient cross between Nordics and Al- 
pines and they constitute to-day a marked subdivi- 
sion of the latter. They resemble the Round Bar- 
row brachycephs who entered Britain just before 
or at the opening of the Bronze Age and who are 
still scantily represented among the living English 


and Welsh. This type called the Beaker Maker or 
Borreby type is characterized by a moderately 
round head and great stature, strength and con- 
siderable intellectual force. The Albanian or Di- 
naric type was not, so far as we know, represented 
in ancient Greece although some modern archaeolo- 
gists have suggested that the Spartans were of 
this type. We have as yet no evidence of the color, 
size and skull shape of the Spartans, but we do 
know that their Dorian ancestors claimed to have 
come from or through the mountains of northern 
Epirus (Albania). The Dorian dialects are also 
said to be more closely related to modern Albanian 
— which is derived from the ancient Illyrian — than 
are the Ionian dialects. The Spartan character, if 
that be any test of race, was heavy, slow and 
steady, and would indicate northern rather than 
Mediterranean antecedents. 

Concerning modern Europe north of the Alps, 
culture came from the south and not from the east 
and to the Mediterranean subspecies is due the 
foundation of our civilization. The ancient Medi- 
terranean world was for the most part of this race; 
the long-sustained civilization of Egypt, which en- 
dured for thousands of years in almost uninter- 
rupted sequence; the brilliant Minoan Empire of 
Crete, which flourished between 3000 and 1200 
B. C. and was the ancestor of the Mycenaean cul- 
tures of Greece, Cyprus, Italy and Sardinia; the 


mysterious Empire of Etruria, the predecessor and 
teacher of Rome; the Hellenic states and colonies 
throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas; the 
maritime and mercantile power of Phoenicia and 
its mighty colony, imperial Carthage; all were the 
creation of this race. The sea empire of Crete, 
when its royal palace at Cnossos was burned by the 
'sea peoples' of the north, passed to Tyre, Sidon 
and Carthage and from them to the Greeks. The 
early development of the art of navigation is 
to be attributed to this race and from them the 
North centuries later learned its maritime archi- 

Even though the Mediterranean race has no 
claim to the invention of the synthetic languages 
and though it played a relatively small part in the 
development of the civilization of the Middle 
Ages or of modern times, nevertheless to it belongs 
the chief credit of the classic civilization of Europe 
in the sciences, art, poetry, literature and philoso- 
phy, as well as the major part of the civilization of 
Greece and a very large share in the Empire of 

In the Eastern Empire the Mediterraneans were 
the predominant factor under the guise of Byzan- 
tine Greeks. Owing to the fact that our histories 
have been written under the influence of Roman 
orthodoxy and because in the eyes of the Frank- 
ish Crusaders the Byzantine Greeks were heretics, 


they have been regarded by us as degenerate cow- 

But throughout the Middle Ages Byzantium 
represented in unbroken sequence the Empire of 
Rome in the East and as the capital of that Em- 
pire it held Mohammedan Asia in check for nearly 
a thousand years. When at last in 1453 the im- 
perial city deserted by western Christendom was 
stormed by the Ottoman Turks and Constantine, 
last of Roman Emperors, fell sword in hand there 
was enacted one of the greatest tragedies of all 

With the fall of Constantinople the Empire of 
Rome passes finally from the scene of history and 
the development of civilization is transferred from 
Mediterranean lands and from the Mediterranean 
race to the North Sea and to the Nordic race. 



We have shown that the Mediterranean race 
entered Europe from the south and forms part of 
a great group of peoples extending into southern 
Asia, that the Alpine race came from the east 
through Asia Minor and the valley of the Danube 
and that its present European distribution is merely 
the westernmost point of an ethnic pyramid, the 
base of which rests solidly on the round skulled 
peoples of the great plateaux of central Asia. 
Both of these races are, therefore, western exten- 
sions of Asiatic subspecies and neither of them can 
be considered as exclusively European. 

With the remaining race, the Nordic, however, 
the case is different. This is a purely European 
type, in the sense that it has developed its physical 
characters and its civilization within the confines 
of that continent. It is, therefore, the Homo euro- 
pceus, the white man par excellence. It is every- 
where characterized by certain unique specializa- 
tions, namely, wavy brown or blond hair and blue, 
gray or light brown eyes, fair skin, high, narrow 

and straight nose, which are associated with great 



stature and a long skull, as well as with abundant 
head and body hair. 

A composite picture of this Nordic race and re- 
markable examples of its best contemporary types 
can be found in the English illustrated weeklies, 
which are publishing during this great war the lists 
and portraits of their officers who have fallen in 
battle. No nation, not even England although 
richly endowed with a Nordic gentry, can stand 
the loss of so much good blood. Here is the evi- 
dence, if such be needed, of the actual Passing of the 
Great Race. 

Abundance of hair is an ancient and gener- 
alized character which the Nordics share with the 
Alpines of both Europe and Asia, but the light col- 
ored eyes and light colored hair are characters of 
relatively recent specialization and consequently 
highly unstable. 

The pure Nordic race is at present clustered 
around the shores of the Baltic and North Seas 
from which it has spread west and south and 
east fading off gradually into the two preceding 

The centre of its greatest purity is now in Swe- 
den and there is no doubt that at first the Scan- 
dinavian Peninsula and later, also, the immediately 
adjoining shores of the Baltic were the centres of 
radiation of the Teutonic or Scandinavian branch 
of this race. 


The population of Scandinavia has been composed 
of this Nordic subspecies from the commencement 
of Neolithic times and Sweden to-day represents 
one of the few countries which has never been over- 
whelmed by foreign conquest and in which there 
has been but a single racial type from the begin- 
ning. This nation is unique in its unity of race, 
language, religion and social ideals. 

Southern Scandinavia only became fit for hu- 
man habitation on the retreat of the glaciers about 
twelve thousand years ago and apparently was im- 
mediately occupied by the Nordic race. This is one 
of the few geological dates which is absolute and 
not relative. It rests on a most interesting series 
of computations made by Baron DeGeer, based on 
an actual count of the laminated deposits of clay 
laid down annually by the retreating glaciers, each 
layer representing the summer deposit of the sub- 
glacial stream. 

The Nordics first appear at the close of the 
Paleolithic along the coasts of the Baltic. The 
earliest industry discovered in this region, named 
the Maglemose and found in Denmark and else- 
where around the Baltic, is probably the culture 
of the Proto-Teutonic branch of the Nordic race. 
No human remains in connection therewith have 
been found. 

The vigor and power of the Nordic race as a 
whole is such that it could not have been evolved 


in so restricted an area as southern Sweden al- 
though its Teutonic or Scandinavian section did 
develop there in comparative isolation. The Nor- 
dics must have had a larger field for their specializa- 
tion and a longer period for their evolution than is 
afforded by the limited time which has elapsed since 
Sweden became habitable. For the development 
of so marked a type there is required a continental 
area isolated and protected for long ages from the 
intrusion of other races. The climatic conditions 
must have been such as to impose a rigid elimi- 
nation of defectives through the agency of hard 
winters and the necessity of industry and foresight 
in providing the year's food, clothing and shelter 
during the short summer. Such demands on en- 
ergy if long continued would produce a strong, 
virile and self-contained race which would inevi- 
tably overwhelm in battle nations whose weaker 
elements had not been purged by the conditions of 
an equally severe environment. 

An area conforming to these requirements is 
offered by the forests and plains of eastern Ger- 
many, Poland and Russia. It was here that the 
Proto-Nordic type evolved and here their remnants 
are found. They were protected from Asia on the 
east by the then almost continuous water connec- 
tions across eastern Russia between the White Sea 
and the old Caspian-Aral Sea. 

During the last glacial advance (known as the 


Wiirm) which, like the preceding glaciations, is be- 
lieved to have been a period of land depression, 
the White Sea extended far to the south of its 
present limits, while the enlarged Caspian Sea, 
then and long afterward connected with the Sea 
of Aral, extended northward to the great bend of 
the Volga. The intermediate area was studded 
with large lakes and morasses. Thus an almost 
complete water barrier of shallow sea located just 
west of the low Ural Mountains, separated Europe 
from Asia during the Wiirm glaciation and the 
following period of glacial retreat. The broken 
connection was restored just before the dawn of 
history by a slight elevation of the land and the 
shrinking of the Caspian-Aral Sea through the in- 
creasing desiccation which has left its present sur- 
face below sea level. 

An important element in the maintenance of 
the isolation of this Nordic cradle on the south is 
the fact that from earliest times down to this day 
the pressure of population has been unchangeably 
from the bleak and sterile north, southward and 
eastward, into the sunny but enervating lands of 
France, Italy, Greece, Persia and India. 

In these forests and steppes of the north, the 
Nordic race gradually evolved in isolation and at 
an early date spread north over the Scandinavian 
Peninsula together with much of the land now sub- 
merged under the Baltic and North Seas. 


Nordic strains form everywhere a substratum 
of population throughout Russia and underlie the 
round skulled Slavs who first appear a little over a 
thousand years ago as coming not from the direc- 
tion of Asia but from south Poland. Burial mounds 
called kurgans are widely scattered throughout 
Russia from the Carpathians to the Urals and con- 
tain numerous remains of a dolichocephalic race, — 
in fact, more than three-fourths of the skulls are 
of this type. Round skulls first become numer- 
ous in ancient Russian graveyards about 900 A. D. 
and soon increase to such an extent that in the 
Slavic period from the ninth to the thirteenth cen- 
turies one-half of the skulls were brachycephalic, 
while in modern cemeteries the proportion of round 
skulls is still greater. The ancient Nordic element, 
however, still forms a very considerable portion of 
the population of northern Russia and contributes 
the blondness and the red-headedness so charac- 
teristic of the Russian of to-day. As we leave 
the Baltic coasts the Nordic characters fade out 
both toward the south and east. The blond ele- 
ment in the nobility of Russia is of later Scandi- 
navian and Teutonic origin. 

When the seas which separated Russia from Asia 
dried, when the isolation and exacting climate of 
the north had done their work and produced the 
vigorous Nordic type, and when in the fulness of 
time bronze for their weapons reached them these 


men burst upon the southern races, conquering 
east, south and west. They brought with them 
from the north the hardihood and vigor acquired 
under the rigorous selection of a long winter season 
and vanquished in battle the inhabitants of older 
and feebler civilizations, but only to succumbiJn 
their turn to the softening influences of a life of 
ease and plenty in their new homes. 

The earliest recorded appearance of Aryan- 
speaking Nordics is our first dim vision of the 
Sacae introducing Sanskrit into India, the Cimme- 
rians pouring through the passes of the Caucasus 
from the grasslands of South Russia to invade the 
Empire of the Medes and the Achaeans and 
Phrygians conquering Greece and the ^Egean coast 
of Asia Minor. About 1100 B. C. Nordics enter 
Italy as Umbrians and Oscans and soon after other 
Nordics cross the Rhine into Gaul. The latter 
were the western vanguard of the Celtic-speaking 
tribes which had long occupied those districts in 
Germany which lay south and west of the Teu- 
tonic Nordics. These Teutons at this early date 
were confined probably to Scandinavia and the 
immediate shores of the Baltic and were just be- 
ginning to press southward. 

This first Celtic wave of Nordics seems to have 
swept westward along the sandy plains of northern 
Europe, and entered France through the Low Coun- 
tries. From this point as Goidels they spread north 


into Britain, reaching there about 800 B. C. As 
Gauls they conquered all France and pushed on 
southward and westward into Spain and over the 
Maritime Alps into northern Italy, where they en- 
countered the kindred Nordic Umbrians, who at an 
earlier date had crossed the Alps from the north- 
east. Other Celtic-speaking Nordics apparently mi- 
grated up the Rhine and down the Danube and 
by the time the Romans came on the scene the 
Alpines of central Europe had been thoroughly 
Celticized. These tribes pushed eastward into 
southern Russia and reached the Crimea as early 
as the fourth century B. C. Mixed with the na- 
tives, they were called by the Greeks the Celto- 
Scyths. This swarming out of what is now called 
Germany of the first Nordics was during the clos- 
ing phases of the Bronze Period and was contem- 
porary with and probably caused by the first great 
expansion of the Teutons from Scandinavia by way 
both of Denmark and the Baltic coasts. 

These invaders were succeeded by a second wave 
of Celtic-speaking peoples, the Cymry or Brythons, 
who drove their Goidelic predecessors still farther 
westward and exterminated and absorbed them 
over large areas. These Cymric invasions occurred 
about 300-100 B. C. and were probably the result 
of the growing development of the Teutons and 
their final expulsion of the Celtic-speaking tribes 
from Germany. These Cymry occupied northern 


France under the name of Belgae and invaded Eng- 
land as Bry thons in several waves, the last being the 
true Belgae. The conquests of these Cymric tribes 
in both Gaul and Britain were only checked by the 
legions of Rome. 

These migrations are exceedingly hard to trace J 
because of the confusion caused by the fact that 
Celtic speech is now found on the lips of popu- 
lations in nowise related to the Nordics who first 
introduced it. But one fact stands out clearly, all 
the original Celtic-speaking tribes were Nordic. 

What were the special physical characters of 
these tribes in which they differed from their Teu- 
tonic successors is now impossible to say, beyond 
the possible suggestion that in the British Isles the 
Scottish and Irish populations in which red hair 
and gray or green eyes are abundant have rather 
more of this Celtic strain in them than have the 
flaxen haired Teutons, whose china-blue eyes are 
clearly not Celtic. 

When the peoples called Gauls or Celts by the 
Romans and Galatians by the Greeks first appear 
in history they are described in exactly the same 
terms as were later the Teutons. They were all 
gigantic barbarians with fair and very often red 
hair, then more frequent than to-day, with gray or 
fiercely blue eyes and were thus clearly members 
of the Nordic subspecies. 

The first Celtic-speaking nations with whom the 


Romans came in contact were Gaulish and had 
probably incorporated much Alpine blood by the 
time they crossed the mountains into the domain 
of classic history. The Nordic element had be- 
come still weaker by absorption from the con- 
quered populations when at a later date the Ro- 
mans broke through the ring of Celtic nations and 
came into contact with the Nordic Cymry and 

After these early expansions of Gauls and Cymry 
the Teutons appear upon the scene. Of the pure 
Teutons within the ken of history, it is not neces- 
sary to mention more than the most important of 
the long series of conquering tribes. 

The greatest of them all were perhaps the 
Goths, who came originally from the south of 
Sweden and were long located on the opposite 
German coast at the mouth of the Vistula. From 
here they crossed Poland to the Crimea where they 
were known in the first century. Three hundred 
years later they were driven westward by the Huns 
and forced into the Dacian plain and over the 
Danube into the Roman Empire. There they split 
up; the Ostrogoths after a period of subjection to 
the Huns on the Danube, ravaged the European 
provinces of the Eastern Empire, conquered Italy 
and founded there a great but shortlived nation. 
The Visigoths occupied much of Gaul and then 
entered Spain driving the Nordic Vandals before 


them into Africa. The Teutons and Cimbri, 
destroyed by Marius in southern Gaul about 100 
B. C.j the Gepidae, the Alans, the Suevi, the Van- 
dals, the Alemanni of the upper Rhine, the Mar- 
comanni, the Saxons, the Batavians, the Frisians, 
the Angles, the Jutes, the Lombards and the 
Heruli of Italy, the Burgundians of the east of 
France, the Franks of the lower Rhine, the Danes, 
and, latest of all, the Norse Vikings emerge from 
the northern forests and seas one after another and 
sweep through history. Less well known but of 
great importance are the Varangians, who coming 
from Sweden in the ninth and tenth centuries, con- 
quered the coast of the Gulf of Finland and much 
of White Russia and left there a dynasty and aris- 
tocracy of Nordic blood. In the tenth and eleventh 
centuries they were the rulers of Russia. 

The traditions of Goths, Vandals, Lombards and 
Burgundians all point to Sweden as their earliest 
homeland and probably all the pure Teutonic 
tribes came originally from Scandinavia and were 
closely related. 

When these Teutonic tribes poured down from 
the Baltic coasts, their Celtic-speaking Nordic 
predecessors were already much mixed with the 
underlying populations, Mediterranean in the west 
and Alpine in the south. These "Celts" were not 
recognized by the Teutons as kin in any sense 
and were all called, Welsh, or foreigners. From this 


Romans came in contact were Gaulish and had 
probably incorporated much Alpine blood by the 
time they crossed the mountains into the domain 
of classic history. The Nordic element had be- 
come still weaker by absorption from the con- 
quered populations when at a later date the Ro- 
mans broke through the ring of Celtic nations and 
came into contact with the Nordic Cymry and 

After these early expansions of Gauls and Cymry 
the Teutons appear upon the scene. Of the pure 
Teutons within the ken of history, it is not neces- 
sary to mention more than the most important of 
the long series of conquering tribes. 

The greatest of them all were perhaps the 
Goths, who came originally from the south of 
Sweden and were long located on the opposite 
German coast at the mouth of the Vistula. From 
here they crossed Poland to the Crimea where they 
were known in the first century. Three hundred 
years later they were driven westward by the Huns 
and forced into the Dacian plain and over the 
Danube into the Roman Empire. There they split 
up; the Ostrogoths after a period of subjection to 
the Huns on the Danube, ravaged the European 
provinces of the Eastern Empire, conquered Italy 
and founded there a great but shortlived nation. 
The Visigoths occupied much of Gaul and then 
entered Spain driving the Nordic Vandals before 


them into Africa. The Teutons and Cimbri, 
destroyed by Marius in southern Gaul about 100 
B. C, the Gepidae, the Alans, the Suevi, the Van- 
dals, the Alemanni of the upper Rhine, the Mar- 
comanni, the Saxons, the Batavians, the Frisians, 
the Angles, the Jutes, the Lombards and the 
Heruli of Italy, the Burgundians of the east of 
France, the Franks of the lower Rhine, the Danes, 
and, latest of all, the Norse Vikings emerge from 
the northern forests and seas one after another and 
sweep through history. Less well known but of 
great importance are the Varangians, who coming 
from Sweden in the ninth and tenth centuries, con- 
quered the coast of the Gulf of Finland and much 
of White Russia and left there a dynasty and aris- 
tocracy of Nordic blood. In the tenth and eleventh 
centuries they were the rulers of Russia. 

The traditions of Goths, Vandals, Lombards and 
Burgundians all point to Sweden as their earliest 
homeland and probably all the pure Teutonic 
tribes came originally from Scandinavia and were 
closely related. 

When these Teutonic tribes poured down from 
the Baltic coasts, their Celtic-speaking Nordic 
predecessors were already much mixed with the 
underlying populations, Mediterranean in the west 
and Alpine in the south. These "Celts" were not 
recognized by the Teutons as kin in any sense 
and were all called, Welsh, or foreigners. From this 


word are derived the names "Wales," "Corn- 
wales" or "Cornwall," "Valais," "Walloons," and 
"Vlach" or "Wallachian." 



No proper understanding is possible of the 
meaning of the history of Christendom or full ap- 
preciation of the place in it of the Teutonic Nor- 
dics without a brief review of the events in Eu- 
rope of the last two thousand years. 

When Rome fell and changed trade conditions 
necessitated the transfer of power from its historic 
capital in Italy to a strategic situation on the Bos- 
porus, western Europe was definitely and finally 
abandoned to its Teutonic invaders. These same 
barbarians swept up again and again to the Pro- 
pontis, only to recoil before the organized strength 
of the Byzantine Empire and the walls of Mikkle- 
gard. The final line of cleavage between the west- 
ern and eastern Empires corresponded closely to 
the boundaries of Latin and Greek speech and dif- 
ferences of language no doubt were the chief cause 
of the political and later of the religious divergence 
between them. 

Until the coming of the Alpine Slavs the East- 
ern Empire still held in Europe the Balkan Penin- 
sula and much of the eastern Mediterranean. The 

Western Empire, however, collapsed utterly under 



the impact of hordes of Nordic Teutons at a 
much earlier date. In the fourth and fifth centu- 
ries of our era north Africa, once the empire of 
Carthage, had become the seat of the kingdom of 
Nordic Vandals. Spain fell under the control of 
the Visigoths and Lusitania, now Portugal, under 
that of the Suevi. Gaul was Visigothic in the 
south and Burgundian in the east, while the 
Frankish kingdom dominated the north until it 
finally absorbed and incorporated all the territories 
of ancient Gaul and made it the land of the Franks. 
Strictly speaking, the northern half of France and 
the adjoining districts, the country of Langued'oil, 
is the true land of the Franks while the southern 
Languedoc was never Frankish except by conquest, 
and was never as thoroughly Nordicized as the 
north. Whatever Nordic elements are still to be 
found there are Gothic and Burgundian but not 

Italy fell under the control first of the Ostro- 
goths and then of the Lombards. The purely 
Nordic Saxons with kindred tribes conquered the 
British Isles and meanwhile the Norse and Danish 
Scandinavians contributed a large element to all 
the coast populations as far south as Spain and 
the Swedes organized in the eastern Baltic what 
is now Russia. 

Thus when Rome passed all Europe had be- 
come superficially Teutonic. At first these Teutons 


were isolated and independent tribes bearing some 
shadowy relation to the one organized state they 
knew, the Empire of Rome. Then came the Mo- 
hammedan invasion, which reached western Eu- 
rope from Africa and destroyed the Visigothic 
kingdom. The Moslems swept on unchecked 
until their light horsemen dashed themselves to 
pieces against the heavy armed cavalry of Charles 
Martel and his Franks at Tours in 732 A. D. 

The destruction of the Vandal kingdom by the 
armies of the Byzantine Empire, the conquest of 
Spain by the Moors and finally the overthrow of 
the Lombards by the Franks were all greatly facil- 
itated by the fact that these barbarians, Vandals, 
Goths, Suevi and Lombards, with the sole excep- 
tion of the Franks, were originally Christians 
of the Arian or Unitarian confession and as 
such were regarded as heretics by their orthodox 
Christian subjects. The Franks alone were con- 
verted from heathenism directly to the Trini- 
tarian faith to which the old populations of the 
Roman Empire adhered. From this orthodoxy 
of the Franks arose the close relation between 
France, "the eldest daughter of the church," and 
the papacy, a connection which lasted for more 
than a thousand years — in fact nearly to our own 

With the Goths eliminated western Christen- 
dom became Frankish. In the year 800 A. D. 


Charlemagne was crowned at Rome and re-estab- 
lished the Roman Empire in the west, which in- 
cluded all Christendom outside of the Byzantine 
Empire. In some form or shape this Roman 
Empire endured until the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century and during all that time it formed 
the basis of the political concept of European 

This same concept lies to-day at the root of the 
imperial idea. Kaiser, Tsar and Emperor each 
takes his name and in some way undertakes to 
trace his title from Caesar and the Empire. Charle- 
magne and his successors claimed and often exer- 
cised overlordship as to all the other continental 
Christian nations and when the Crusades began 
it was the German Emperor who led the Frankish 
hosts against the Saracens. Charlemagne was a 
German Emperor, his capital was at Aachen within 
the present limits of the German Empire and the 
language of his court was German. For several 
centuries after the conquest of Gaul by the Franks 
their Teutonic tongue held its own against the 
Latin speech of the Romanized Gauls. 

The history of all Christian Europe is in some 
degree interwoven with this Holy Roman Em- 
pire. Though the Empire was neither holy nor 
Roman but altogether secular and Teutonic, it 
was, nevertheless, the heart of Europe for ages. 
Holland and Flanders, Lorraine and Alsace, Bur- 


gundy and Luxemburg, Lombardy and the Veneto, 
Switzerland and Austria, Bohemia and Styria are 
states which were originally component parts of 
the Empire although many of them have since 
been torn away by rival nations or have become in- 
dependent, while much of northern Italy remained 
under the sway of Austria within the memory of 
living men. 

The Empire wasted its strength in imperial am- 
bitions and foreign conquests instead of consoli- 
dating, organizing and unifying its own territories 
and the fact that the imperial crown was elective 
for many generations before it became hereditary 
in the House of Hapsburg checked the unification 
of Germany during the Middle Ages. 

A strong hereditary monarchy, such as arose in 
England and in France, would have anticipated 
the Germany of to-day by a thousand years and 
made it the predominant state in Christendom, 
but disruptive elements in the persons of great 
territorial dukes were successful throughout its 
history in preventing an effective concentration of 
power in the hands of the Emperor. 

That the German Emperor was regarded, though 
vaguely, as the overlord of all Christian monarchs 
was clearly indicated when Henry VIII of England 
and Francis I of France appeared as candidates 
for the imperial crown against Charles of Spain, 
afteiward the Emperor Charles V. 


Europe was the Holy Roman Empire and the 
Holy Roman Empire was Europe predominantly 
until the Thirty Years' War. This war was per- 
haps the greatest catastrophe of all the ghastly 
crimes committed in the name of religion. It de- 
stroyed an entire generation, taking each year for 
thirty years the finest manhood of the nations. 

Two-thirds of the population of Germany was 
destroyed, in some states such as Bohemia three- 
fourths of the inhabitants were killed or exiled, 
while out of 500,000 inhabitants in Wurtemberg 
there were only 48,000 left at the end of the war. 
Terrible as this loss was, the destruction did not 
fall equally on the various races and classes in 
the community. It bore, of course, most heavily 
upon the big blond fighting man and at the end 
of the war the German states contained a greatly 
lessened proportion of Nordic blood. In fact, 
from that time on the purely Teutonic race in 
Germany has been largely replaced by the Al- 
pine types in the south and by the Wendish and 
the Polish types in the east. This change of race 
in Germany has gone so far that it has been com- 
puted that out of the 70,000,000 inhabitants of 
the German Empire, only 9,000,000 are purely 
Teutonic in coloration, stature and skull charac- 
ters. The rarity of pure Teutonic and Nordic 
types among the German immigrants to America in 
contrast to its almost universal prevalence among 


those from Scandinavia is traceable to the same 

In addition, the Thirty Years' War virtually 
destroyed the land owning yeomanry and lesser 
gentry formerly found in mediaeval Germany as 
numerously as in France or in England. The re- 
ligious wars of France, while not as devasting to 
the nation as a whole as was the Thirty Years' War 
in Germany, nevertheless greatly weakened the 
French cavalier type, the "petite noblesse de pro- 
vince." In Germany this class had flourished and 
throughout the Middle Ages contributed great 
numbers of knights, poets, thinkers, artists and 
artisans who gave charm and variety to the society 
of central Europe. But, as said, this section of 
the population was practically exterminated in the 
Thirty Years' War and this class of gentlemen 
practically vanishes from German history from 
that time on. 

When the Thirty Years' War was over there re- 
mained in Germany nothing except the brutalized 
peasantry, largely of Alpine derivation in the 
south and east, and the high nobility which turned 
from the toils of endless warfare to mimic on a 
small scale the court of Versailles. After this long 
struggle the boundaries in central Europe between 
the Protestant North and the Catholic South fol- 
low in a marked degree the frontier between the 
northern plain inhabited chiefly by Nordics and 


the more mountainous countries in the south popu- 
lated almost entirely by Alpines. 

It has taken Germany two centuries to recover 
her vigor, her wealth and her aspirations to a place 
in the sun. 

During these years Germany was a political non- 
entity, a mere congeries of petty states bickering 
and fighting with each other, claiming and own- 
ing only the Empire of the Air as Napoleon hap- 
pily phrased it. Meantime France and England 
founded their colonial empires beyond the seas. 

When in the last generation Germany became 
unified and organized, she found herself not only 
too late to share in these colonial enterprises, but 
also lacking in much of the racial element and still 
more lacking in the very classes which were her 
greatest strength and glory before the Thirty Years' 
War. To-day the ghastly rarity in the German 
armies of chivalry and generosity toward women 
and of knightly protection and courtesy toward the 
prisoners or wounded can be largely attributed to 
this annihilation of the gentle classes. The Ger- 
mans of to-day, whether they live on the farms 
or in the cities, are for the most part descendants 
of the peasants who survived, not of the brilliant 
knights and sturdy foot soldiers who fell in that 
mighty conflict. Knowledge of this great past 
when Europe was Teutonic and memories of the 
shadowy grandeur of the Hohenstaufen Emperors, 


who, generation after generation, led Teutonic 
armies over the Alps to assert their title to Italian 
provinces, have played no small part in modern 
German consciousness. 

These traditions and the knowledge that their 
own religious dissensions swept them from the 
leadership of the European world lie at the base 
of the German imperial ideal of to-day and it is 
for this ideal that the German armies are dying, 
just as did their ancestors for a thousand years 
under their Fredericks, Henrys, Conrads and Ottos. 

But the Empire of Rome and the Empire of 
Charlemagne are no more and the Teutonic type 
is divided almost equally between the contending 
forces in this world war. With the United States 
in the field the balance of pure Nordic blood will 
be heavily against the Central Powers, which pride 
themselves on being "the Teutonic powers." 

Germany is too late and is limited to a destiny 
fixed and ordained for her on the fatal day in 16 18 
when the Hapsburg Ferdinand forced the Prot- 
estants of Bohemia into revolt. 

Although as a result of the Thirty Years' War the 
German Empire is far less Nordic than in the Mid- 
dle Ages, the north and northwest of Germany are 
still Teutonic throughout and in the east and south 
the Alpines have been thoroughly Germanized with 
an aristocracy and upper class very largely of pure 
Teutonic blood. 


The men of Nordic blood to-day form practi- 
cally all the population of Scandinavian countries, 
as also a majority of the population of the British 
Isles and are almost pure in type in Scotland and 
eastern and northern England. The Nordic realm 
includes nearly all the northern third of France 
with extensions into the fertile southwest; all the 
rich lowlands of Flanders; all Holland; the north- 
ern half of Germany with extensions up the Rhine 
and down the Danube; and the north of Poland 
and of Russia. Recent calculations indicate that 
there are about 90,000,000 of purely Nordic phys- 
ical type in Europe out of a total population of 

Throughout southern Europe a Nordic nobility 
of Teutonic type everywhere forms the old aristo- 
cratic and military classes or what now remains 
of them. These aristocrats, by as much as their 
blood is pure, are taller and blonder than the native 
populations, whether these be Alpine in central 
Europe or Mediterranean in Spain or in the south 
of France and Italy. 

The countries speaking Low German dialects 



are almost purely Nordic but the populations of 
High German speech are very largely Teutonized 
Alpines and occupy lands once Celtic-speaking. 
The main distinction between the two dialects is 
the presence of a large number of Celtic elements 
in High German. 

In northern Italy there is a large amount of Nor- 
dic blood. In Lombardy, Venice and elsewhere 
throughout the country the aristocracy is blonder 
and taller than the peasantry, but the Nordic ele- 
ment in Italy has declined noticeably since the 
Middle Ages. From Roman times onward for a 
thousand years the Teutons swarmed into north- 
ern Italy, through the Alps and chiefly by way of 
the Brenner Pass. With the stoppage of these 
Nordic reinforcements this strain seems to have 
grown less all through Italy.* 

In the Balkan Peninsula there is little to show 
for the floods of Nordic blood that have poured in 
for the last 3,500 years, beginning with the Achae- 
ans of Homer, who first appeared en masse about 
1400 B. C. and were followed successively by the 
Dorians, Cimmerians and Gauls, down to the 
Goths and the Varangians of Byzantine times. 

* Procopius tells a significant story which illustrates the contrast in 
racial character between the natives and the barbarians. He relates 
that, at the surrender of Ravenna in 540 A. D. by the Goths to the army 
of the Byzantines, "when the Gothic women saw how swarthy, small 
men of mean aspect had conquered their tall, robust, fair-skinned barba- 
rians, they were furious and spat in their husbands' faces and cursed 
them for cowards." 


The tall stature of the population along the 
Ulyrian Alps from the Tyrol to Albania on the 
south is undoubtedly of Nordic origin and dates 
from some of these early invasions, but these II- 
lyrians have been so crossed with Slavs that all 
other blond elements have been lost and the ex- 
isting population is essentially of brachycephalic 
Alpine type. They are known as the Dinaric race. 
What few remnants of blondness occur in this dis- 
trict, more particularly in Albania, as well as the 
so-called Frankish elements in Bosnia, may proba- 
bly be attributed to later infiltrations. 

The Tyrolese seem to be largely Nordic except in 
respect to their round skull. 

In Russia and in Poland the Nordic stature, 
blondness and long skull grow less and less pro- 
nounced as one proceeds south and east from the 
Gulf of Finland. 

It would appear that in all those parts of Eu- 
rope outside of its natural habitat, the Nordic 
blood is on the wane from England to Italy and 
that the ancient, acclimated and primitive popula- 
tions of Alpine and Mediterranean race are subtly 
reasserting their long lost political power through 
a high breeding rate and democratic institutions. 

In western Europe the first wave of the Nordic 
tribes appeared about three thousand years ago and 
was followed by other invasions with the Nordic 
element becoming stronger until after the fall of 


Rome whole tribes moved into its provinces, Teu- 
tonizing them more or less for varying lengths of 

These incoming Nordics intermarried with the 
native populations and were gradually bred out 
and the resurgence of the old native stock, chiefly 
Alpine, has proceeded steadily since the Frankish 
Charlemagne destroyed the Lombard kingdom and 
is proceeding with unabated vigor to-day. This 
process was greatly accelerated in western Europe 
by the Crusades, which were extremely destructive 
to the Nordic feudal lords, especially the Frankish 
and Norman nobility and was continued by the 
wars of the Reformation and by those of the Revo- 
lution. The world war now in full swing with its 
toll of millions will leave Europe much poorer in 
Nordic blood. One of its most certain results will 
be the partial destruction of the aristocratic classes 
everywhere in northern Europe. In England the 
nobility has already suffered in battle more than in 
any century since the Wars of the Roses. This will 
tend to realize the standardization of type so dear 
to democratic ideals. If equality cannot_be_ob- ^ 
tained by lengthening and uplifting the stunted, of 
body and of mind, it can be at least realized by the 
destruction of the exalted of stature and of soul. 
The bed of Procrustes operates with the same 
fatal exactness when it shortens the long as when it 
stretches the undersized. 


The first Nordics in Spain were the Gauls who 
crossed the western Pyrenees about the end of the 
sixth century before our era and introduced Aryan 
speech into the Iberian Peninsula. They quickly 
mixed with Mediterranean natives and the com- 
posite Spaniards were called Celtiberians by the 

In Portugal and Spain there are in the physical 
structure of the population few traces of these 
early Celtic-speaking Nordic invaders but the 
Suevi, who a thousand years later occupied parts 
of Portugal, and the Vandals and Visigoths, who 
conquered and held Spain for 300 years, have left 
some small evidence of their blood. In the prov- 
inces of northern Spain a considerable percentage 
of light colored eyes reveals these Nordic elements 
in the population. 

Deep seated Castilian traditions associate aris- 
tocracy with blondness and the sangre azul, or blue 
blood of Spain, probably refers to the blue eye 
of the Goth, whose traditional claim to lordship 
is also shown in the Spanish name for gentleman, 
"hidalgo," said to mean "the son of the Goth." 
The fact that the blood shows as "blue " through the 
fair Nordic skin is also to be taken into account. 

As long as this Gothic nobility controlled the 
Spanish states during the endless crusades against 
the Moors, Spain belonged to the Nordic king- 
doms, but when their blood became impaired by 


losses in wars waged outside of Spain and in the 
conquest of the Americas, the sceptre fell from this 
noble race into the hands of the native Iberian, 
who had not the physical vigor or the intellectual 
strength to maintain the world empire built up by 
the stronger race. For 200 years the Spanish infan- 
try had no equal in Europe but this distinction 
disappeared with the opening decades of the seven- 
teenth century. 

The splendid conquistadores of the New World 
were of Nordic type, but their pure stock did not 
long survive their new surroundings and to-day 
they have vanished utterly, leaving behind them 
only their language and their religion. After con- 
sidering well these facts we shall not have to search 
further for the causes of the collapse of Spain. 

Gaul at the time of Caesar's conquest was under 
the rule of the Nordic race, which furnished the 
bulk of the population of the north as well as the 
military classes elsewhere and, while the Romans 
killed off an undue proportion of this fighting ele- 
ment, the power and vigor of the French nation 
have been based on this blood and its later rein- 
forcements. In fact, in the Europe of to-day the 
amount of Nordic blood in each nation is a very 
fair measure of its strength in war and standing in 
civilization. The proportion of men of pure type 
of each constituent race to the mixed type is also 
a powerful factor. 


When, about iooo B. C, the first Nordics crossed 
the lower Rhine they found the Mediterranean 
race in France everywhere overwhelmed by an 
Alpine population except in the south. Long be- 
fore the time of Caesar the Celtic language of these 
invaders had been imposed upon the entire pop- 
ulation and the country had been saturated with 
Nordic blood, except in Aquitaine which seems to 
have retained until at least that date its Anaryan 
Iberian speech. These earliest Nordics in the 
west were known to the ancient world as Gauls. 
These Gauls, or "Celts," as they were called by 
Caesar, occupied in his day the centre of France. 
The actual racial complexion of this part of France 
was overwhelmingly Alpine then and is so now, 
but this population had been Celticized thoroughly 
by the Gauls, just as it was Latinized as com- 
pletely at a later date by the Romans. 

The northern third of France, that is above 
Paris, was inhabited in Caesar's time by the Belgae, 
a Nordic people of the Cymric division of Celtic 
speech. They were largely of Teutonic blood and 
in fact should be regarded as the immediate fore- 
runners of the Germans. They probably represent 
the early Teutons who had crossed from Sweden 
and adopted the Celtic speech of their Nordic 
kindred whom they found on the mainland. These 
Belgae had followed the earlier Goidels across Ger- 
many into Britain and Gaul and were rapidly dis- 


placing their Nordic predecessors, who by this 
time were much weakened by mixture with the 
autochthones, when Rome appeared upon the 
scene and set a limit to their conquests by the Pax 

The Belgae of the north of France and the Low 
Countries were the bravest of the peoples of Gaul, 
according to Caesar's oft-quoted remark, but the 
claim of the modern Belgians to descent from this 
race is without basis and rests solely on the fact 
that the present kingdom of Belgium, which only 
became independent and assumed its proud name 
in 183 1, occupies a small and relatively unimpor- 
tant corner of the land of the Belgae. The Flem- 
ings of Belgium are Nordic Franks speaking a 
Low German tongue and the Walloons are Al- 
pines whose language is an archaic French. 

The Belgae and the Goidelic remnants of Nordic 
blood in the centre of Gaul taken together prob- 
ably constituted only a small minority in blood of 
the population, but were everywhere the military 
and ruling classes. These Nordic elements were 
later reinforced by powerful Teutonic tribes, 
namely, Vandals, Visigoths, Alans, Saxons, Bur- 
gundians and, most important of all, the Franks of 
the lower Rhine, who founded modern France and 
made it for long centuries "la grande nation" of 

The Frankish dynasties long after Charlemagne 


were of purely Teutonic blood and the aristocratic 
land owning and military classes down to the great 
Revolution were very largely of this type, which 
by the time of the creation of the Frankish king- 
dom had incorporated all the other Nordic elements 
of old Roman Gaul, both Gaulish and Belgic. 

The last invasion of Teutonic-speaking barba- 
rians was that of the Danish Northmen, who were, 
of course, of unmixed Nordic blood and who con- 
quered and settled Normandy in 911 A. D. No 
sooner had the barbarian invasions ceased than 
the ancient aboriginal blood strains, Mediterranean, 
Alpine and elements derived from Paleolithic 
times, began a slow and steady recovery. Step by 
step with the reappearance of these primitive and 
deep rooted stocks the Nordic element in France 
declined and with it the vigor of the nation. 
Even in Normandy the Alpines now tend to pre- 
dominate and the French blonds are becoming 
more and more limited to the northeastern and 
eastern provinces. 

The chief historic events of the last thousand 
years have hastened this process and the fact that 
the Nordic element everywhere forms the fighting 
section of the community caused the loss in war 
to fall disproportionately as among the three races 
in France. The religious wars greatly weakened 
the Nordic provincial nobility, which was before 
the Massacre of St. Bartholomew largely Protes- 


tant and the extermination of the upper classes 
was hastened by the Revolutionary and Napoleonic 
wars. These last wars are said to have shortened 
the stature of the French by four inches; in other 
words, the tall Nordic strain was killed off in 
greater proportions than the little brunet. 

When by universal suffrage the transfer of power 
was completed from a Nordic aristocracy to lower 
classes predominantly of Alpine and Mediterranean 
extraction, the decline of France in international 
power set in. In the country as a whole, the long 
skulled Mediterraneans are also yielding rapidly to 
the round skulled Alpines and the average of the 
cephalic index in France has steadily risen since 
the Middle Ages and is still rising. 

The survivors of the aristocracy, being stripped 
of political power and to a large extent of wealth, 
quickly lost their caste pride and committed class 
suicide by mixing their blood with inferior breeds. 
One of the most conspicuous features of some of 
the French nobility of to-day is the strength of 
Oriental and Mediterranean strains in them. Be- 
ing for political reasons ardently clerical the nobil- 
ity welcomes recruits of any racial origin as long 
as they bring with them money and devotion to 
the Church. 

The loss in war of the best stock through death, 
wounds or absence from home has been clearly 
shown in France. The conscripts who were exam- 


ined for military duty in 1890-2 were those de- 
scended in a large measure from the military re- 
jects and other stay-at-homes during the Franco- 
Prussian War. In Dordogne this contingent showed 
seven per cent more deficient statures than the 
normal rate. In some cantons this unfortunate 
generation was in height an inch below the recruits 
of preceding years and in it the exemptions for de- 
fective physique rose from the normal six per cent 
to sixteen per cent. 

When each generation is decimated or destroyed 
in turn a race can be injured beyond recovery but 
it more frequently happens that the result is the 
annihilation of an entire class, as in the case of the 
German gentry in the Thirty Years' War. Deso- 
lation of wide districts often resulted from the 
plagues and famines which followed the armies in 
old days but deaths from these causes fall most 
heavily on the weaker part of the population. The 
loss of valuable breeding stock is far more serious 
when wars are fought with volunteer armies of 
picked men than with conscript armies, because 
in the latter cases the loss is more evenly spread 
over the whole nation. Before England resorted 
in the present war to universal conscription the in- 
jury to her more desirable and patriotic classes was 
much more pronounced than in Germany where all 
types and ranks were called to arms. 

In the British Isles we find, before the appearance 


of the Nordic race, a Mediterranean population and 
no important element of Alpine blood, so that at 
the present day we have to deal with only two of 
the main races instead of all three as in France. 
It Britain there were, as elsewhere, representatives 
oi- earlier races but the preponderant strain of 
blood was Mediterranean before the first arrival of 
the Aryan-speaking Nordics. 

Ireland was connected with Britain and Britain 
with the continent until times very recent in a 
geological sense. The depression of the Channel 
coasts is progressing rapidly to-day and is known 
to have been substantial during historic times. 
The close parallel in blood and culture between 
England and the opposite coasts of France also in- 
dicates a very recent land connection, possibly in 
early Neolithic times. Men either walked from 
the continent to England and from England to Ire- 
land, or they paddled across in primitive boats or 
coracles. The art of ship-building or even archaic 
navigation cannot go much further back than late 
Neolithic times. 

The Nordic tribes of Celtic speech came to the 
British Isles in two distinct waves. The earlier 
invasion of the Goidels, who were still in the Bronze 
culture, arrived in England about 800 B. C. and 
in Ireland two centuries later. It was part of the 
same movement which brought the Gauls into 
France. The later conquest was by the Cymric- 


speaking Belgae who were equipped with iron 
weapons. It began in the third century B. C. and 
was still going on in Caesar's time. These Cymric 
Brythons found the early Goidels, with the excep- 
tion of the aristocracy, much weakened by inter- 
mixture with the Mediterranean natives and wo\?id 
probably have destroyed all trace of Goidelic speech 
in Ireland and Scotland, as they actually did in 
England, if the Romans had not intervened. The 
Brythons reached Ireland in small numbers only 
in the second century B. C. 

These Nordic elements in Britain, both Goidelic 
and Brythonic, were in a minority during Roman 
times and the ethnic complexion of the island was 
not much affected by the Roman occupation, as 
the legions stationed there represented the varied 
racial stocks of the Empire. 

After the Romans abandoned Britain and about 
400 A. D., floods of pure Nordics poured into the 
islands for nearly six centuries, arriving in the north 
as the Norse pirates, who made Scotland Scandi- 
navian, and in the east as Saxons and Angles, who 
founded England. 

The Angles came from somewhere in central 
Jutland and the Saxons came from coast lands 
immediately at the base of the Danish Peninsula. 
All these districts were then and are now almost 
purely Teutonic; in fact, this is part of old Saxony 
and is to-day the core of Teutonic Germany. 


These Saxon districts sent out at that time 
swarms of invaders not only into England but into 
France and over the Alps into Italy, just as at a 
much later period the same land sent swarming 
colonies into Hungary and Russia. 

The same Saxon invaders passed down the Chan- 
nel coasts and traces of their settlement on the 
mainland remain to this day in the Cotentin dis- 
trict around Cherbourg. Scandinavian sea peoples 
called Danes or Northmen swarmed over as late 
as 900 A. D. and conquered all eastern England. 
This Danish invasion of England was the same that 
brought the Northmen or Normans into France. 
In fact the occupation of Normandy was probably 
by Danes and the conquest of England was largely 
the work of Norsemen, as Norway at that time 
was under Danish kings. 

Both of these invasions, especially the later, swept 
around the greater island and inundated Ireland, 
driving both the Neolithic aborigines and their 
Celtic-speaking masters into the bogs and islands 
of the west. 

The blond Nordic element to-day is very marked 
in Ireland as in England. It is derived, to some 
extent, from the early invaders of Celtic speech, 
but the Goidelic element has been very largely 
absorbed in Ireland as in western England and in 
Scotland by the Iberian substratum of the popu- 
lation and is found to-day rather in the form of 


Nordic characters in brunets than in the entirely 
blond individuals who represent later and purer 
Nordic strains. 

The figures for recruits taken some decades ago 
in the two countries would indicate that the Irish 
as a whole are considerably lighter in eye and 
darker in hair color than are the English. The 
combination of black Iberian hair with blue or gray 
Nordic eyes is frequently found in Ireland and also 
in Spain and in both these countries is justly ad- 
mired for its beauty, but it is by no means an 
exclusively Irish type. 

The tall, blond Irishmen are to-day chiefly Dan- 
ish with the addition of English, Norman and 
Scotch elements, which have poured into the 
lesser island for a thousand years and have im- 
posed the English speech upon it. The more prim- 
itive and ancient elements in Ireland have always 
shown great ability to absorb newcomers and 
during the Middle Ages it was notorious that the 
Norman and English colonists quickly sank to the 
cultural level of the natives. 

In spite of the fact that Paleoliths have not been 
found there some indications of Paleolithic man 
appear in Ireland both as single characters and as 
individuals. Being, like Brittany, situated on the 
extreme western outposts of Eurasia, it has more 
than its share of generalized and low types sur- 
viving in the living populations and these types, 


the Firbolgs, have imparted a distinct and very 
undesirable aspect to a large portion of the in- 
habitants of the west and south and have greatly 
lowered the intellectual status of the population as 
a whole. The cross between these elements and the 
Nordics appears to be a bad one and the mental 
and cultural traits of the aborigines have proved 
to be exceedingly persistent and appear especially 
in the unstable temperament and the lack of co- 
ordinating and reasoning power, so often found 
among the Irish. To the dominance of the Mediter- 
raneans mixed with Pre-Neolithic survivals in the 
south and west are to be attributed the aloofness 
of the island from the general trend of European 
civilization and its long adherence to ancient forms 
of religion and even to Pre-Christian supersti- 

In England, the same two ethnic elements are 
present, namely the Nordic and the Mediterranean. 
There is, especially in Wales and in the west cen- 
tral counties of England, a large substratum of an- 
cient Mediterranean blood but the later Nordic 
elements are everywhere superimposed upon it. 

Scotland is by race Anglian in the Lowlands and 
Norse in the Highlands with underlying Goidelic 
and Brythonic elements, which are exceedingly 
hard to identify. The Mediterranean strain is 
marked in the Highlands and is frequently asso- 
ciated with tall stature. 


This brunetness in Scotland is, of course, derived 
from the same underlying Mediterranean stock 
which we have found elsewhere in the British 

The inhabitants of Scotland before the arrival 
of the Celtic-speaking Nordics seem to have been 
the Picts, whose language was almost surely Non- 
Aryan. Judging from the remnants of Anaryan 
syntax in the Goidelic and to a lesser degree in 
the Cymric languages, Pictish was related to the 
Anaryan Berber tongues still spoken in North 
Africa. No trace of this Pre- Aryan syntax is found 
in English. 

Where one race imposes a new language on an- 
other, the change is most marked in the vocabulary 
while the ancient usage in syntax or the construction 
of sentences is the more apt to survive and these 
ancient forms often give us a valuable clew to the 
aboriginal speech. This same Anaryan syntax is 
particularly marked in the Irish language, a condi- 
tion which fits in with the other Pre- Aryan usages 
and types found there. 

This divergence between the new vocabulary and 
the ancient habits of syntax is probably one of 
the causes of the extreme splitting up of the vari- 
ous branches of the Aryan mother tongue. 

Wales, like western Ireland, is a museum of 
racial antiquities and being an unattractive and 
poor country has exported men rather than re- 


ceived immigration, while such invasions as did 
arrive came with spent force. 

The mass of the population of Wales especially 
in the upland or moorland districts is Mediterra- 
nean, with a considerable addition of Paleolithic 
remnants. With changing social and industrial 
conditions these Neolithic Mediterraneans are push- 
ing into the valleys or towns with a resultant re- 
placement of the Nordic types. 

Recent and intensive investigations reveal every- 
where in Wales distinct physical types living side 
by side or in adjoining villages unchanged and un- 
changeable throughout the centuries. Extensive 
blending has not taken place though much cross- 
ing has occurred and the persistence of the skull 
shape has been particularly marked. Such in- 
dividuals as are of pure Nordic type are generally 
members of the old county families and land owning 

As to language in Wales, the Cymric is every- 
where spoken in various dialects, but there are in- 
dications of the ancient underlying Goidelic. In 
fact, Brythonic or Cymric may not have reached 
Wales much before the Roman conquest of Brit- 
ain. The earlier Goidelic survived in parts of 
Wales as late as the seventh century but by the 
eleventh century all consciousness of race and lin- 
guistic distinctions had disappeared in the common 
name of Cymry. This name should perhaps be lim- 


ited to the Brythons of England and not used for 
their kindred on the Continent. 

In Cornwall and along the Welsh border racial 
types are often grouped in separate villages and 
the intellectual and moral distinctions between 
them are well recognized. 

The Nordic species of man in its various branches 
made Gaul the land of the Franks and made Brit- 
ain the land of the Angles and the Englishmen 
who built the British Empire and founded America 
were of the Nordic and not of the Mediterranean 

One of the most vigorous Nordic elements in 
France, England and America was contributed by 
the Normans and their influence on the develop- 
ment of these countries cannot be ignored. The 
descendants of the Danish and Norse Vikings who 
settled in Normandy as Teutonic-speaking heathen 
and who as Normans crossed over to Saxon Eng- 
land and conquered it in 1066 are among the 
finest and noblest examples of the Nordic race. 
Their only rivals in these characters were the 
early Goths. 

This Norman strain, while purely Nordic, seems 
to have been radically different in its mental make- 
up, and to some extent in its physical detail from 
the Saxons of England and also from their kindred 
in Scandinavia. 

llie Normans appear to have been "fine race" to 


use a French idiom and their descendants are often 
characterized by a tall, slender figure, much less 
bulky than the typical Teuton, of proud bearing 
and with clearly marked features of classic Greek 
regularity. The type is seldom extremely blond 
and is often dark. These Latinized Vikings were 
and are animated by a restless and nomadic energy 
and by a fierce aggressiveness. They played a 
brilliant role during the twelfth and following cen- 
turies but later, on the continent, this strain ran 
out, though leaving here and there traces of its 
former presence, notably in Sicily where the gray- 
ish blue Sicilian eye called "the Norman eye" is 
still found among the old noble families. 

The Norman type is still very common among 
the English of good family and especially among 
hunters, explorers, navigators, adventurers and offi- 
cers in the British army. These latter-day Nor- 
mans are natural rulers and administrators and it 
is to this type that England largely owes her 
extraordinary ability to govern justly and firmly 
the lower races. This Norman blood occurs often 
among the native Americans but with the chang- 
ing social conditions and the filling up of the waste 
places of the earth it is doomed to a speedy 

The Normans were Nordics with a dash of brunet \ 
blood and their conquest of England strengthened 

the Nordic and not the Mediterranean elements 



in the British Isles, but the connection once estab- 
lished with France especially with Aquitaine later 
introduced from southern France certain brunet 
elements of Mediterranean affinities. 

The upper class Normans on their arrival in 
England were probably purely Scandinavian, but 
in the lower classes there were some dark strains. 
They brought with them large numbers of ecclesi- 
astics who were, for the most part drawn from the 
more ancient types throughout France. Carefu? 
investigation of the graveyards and vaults in which 
these churchmen were buried revealed a large per- 
centage of round skulls among them. 

In both Normandy and in the lowlands of Scot- 
land there was much the same mixture of blood 
between Scandinavian and Saxon but with a smaller 
amount of Saxon blood in France. The result in 
both cases was the production of an extraordinarily 
forceful race. 

The Nordics in England are in these days 
apparently receding before the Neolithic Med- 
iterranean type. The causes of this decline are 
the same as in France and the chief loss is through 
the wastage of blood by war and through emigra- 

The typical British soldier is blond or red bearded 
and the typical sailor is always a blond. The mi- 
grating type from England is also chiefly Nordic. 
These facts would indicate that nomadism as well 


as love of war and adventure are Nordic character- 

An extremely potent influence, however, is the 
transformation of the nation from an agricultural 
to a manufacturing community. Heavy, healthful 
work in the fields of northern Europe enables the 
Nordic type to thrive, but the cramped factory 
and crowded city quickly weed him out, while the 
little brunet Mediterranean can work a spindle, 
set type, sell ribbons or push a clerk's pen far better 
than the big, clumsy and somewhat heavy Nordic 
blond, who needs exercise, meat and air and can- 
not live under Ghetto conditions. 

The increase of urban communities at the ex- 
pense of the countryside is also an important ele- 
ment in the fading of the Nordic type, because the 
energetic countryman of this blood is more apt to 
improve his fortunes by moving to the city than the 
less ambitious Mediterranean. 

The country villages and the farms are the nur- 
series of nations, while cities are consumers and 
seldom producers of men. The effort now being 
made in America to settle undesirable immigrants 
on farms may, from the viewpoint of race replace- 
ment, be more dangerous than allowing them to 
remain in crowded Ghettos or tenements. 

If England has deteriorated and there are those 
who think they see indications of such decline, it is 
due to the lowering proportion of the Nordic blood 


and the transfer of political power from the vigor- 
ous Nordic aristocracy and middle classes to the 
radical and labor elements, both largely recruited 
from the Mediterranean type. 

Only in Scandinavia and northwestern Germany 
does the Nordic race seem to maintain its full vigor 
in spite of the enormous wastage of three thousand 
years of the swarming forth of its best fighting men. 
Norway, however, after the Viking outburst has 
never exhibited military power and Sweden, in the 
centuries betwee*n the Varangian period and the rise 
of Gustavus Adolphus, did not enjoy a reputation 
for fighting efficiency. All the three Scandinavian 
countries after vigorously attacking Christendom 
a thousand years ago disappear from history as a 
nursery for soldiers until the Reformation when 
Sweden suddenly reappears just in time to save 
Protestantism on the Continent. To-«day all three 
seem to be intellectually anaemic. 

Upper and Lower Austria, the Tyrol and Styria 
have a very considerable Nordic element which is 
in political control but the Alpine races are slowly 
replacing the Nordics both there and in Hungary. 

Holland and Flanders are purely Teutonic, the 
Flemings being the descendants of those Franks 
who did not adopt Latin speech as did their Teu- 
tonic kin across the border in Artois and Picardy; 
and Holland is the ancient Batavia with the Frisian 
coast lands eastward to old Saxony. 


Denmark, Norway and Sweden are purely Nor- 
dic and yearly contribute swarms of a splendid type 
of immigrants to America and are now, as they 
have been for thousands of years, the chief nursery 
and broodland of the master race. 

In southwestern Norway and in Denmark, there 
is a substantial number of short, dark round heads 
of Alpine affinities. These dark Norwegians are 
regarded as somewhat inferior socially by their 
Nordic countrymen. Perhaps as a result of this 
disability, a disproportionately large number of 
Norwegian immigrants to America are of this type. 
Apparently America is doomed to receive in these 
later days the least desirable classes and types 
from each European nation now exporting men. 

In mediaeval times the Norse and Danish Vik- 
ings sailed not only the waters of the known At- 
lantic, but ventured westward through the fogs 
and frozen seas to Iceland, Greenland and America. 

Sweden, after sending forth her Goths and other 
early Teutonic tribes, turned her attention to the 
shores of the eastern Baltic, colonized the coast 
of Finland and the Baltic provinces and supplied 
also a strong Scandinavian element to the aris- 
tocracy of Russia. 

The coast of Finland is as a result Swedish and 
the natives of the interior have distinctly Nordic 
characters with the exception of the skull, which 
in its roundness shows an Alpine cross. 


The population of the so-called Baltic provinces 
of Russia is everywhere Nordic and their affinities 
are with Scandinavia and Germany rather than 
with Slavic Moscovy. The most primitive Aryan 
languages, namely, Lettish, Lithuanian and the 
recently extinct Old Prussian, are found in this 
neighborhood and here we are not far from the 
original Nordic homeland. 



The area in Europe where the Nordic race de- 
veloped and in which the Aryan languages origi- 
nated probably included the forest region of east- 
ern Germany, Poland and Russia, together with 
the grasslands which stretched from the Ukraine 
eastward into the steppes south of the Ural. From 
causes already mentioned this area was long isolated 
from the rest of the world and especially from 
Asia. When the unity of the Aryan race and of 
the Aryan language was broken up at the end of 
the Neolithic and the beginning of the Bronze 
Age, wave after wave of the early Nordics pushed 
westward along the sandy plains of the north and 
pressed against and through the Alpine populations 
of central Europe. Usually these early Nordics, as 
indeed many of the later ones, constituted only a 
thin layer of ruling classes and there must have 
been many countries conquered by them in which 
we have no historic evidence of their existence, 
linguistic or otherwise. This must have certainly 
been the case in those numerous instances where 
only the leaders were Nordics and the great mass 

of their followers slaves or serfs of inferior races. 



The Nordics also swept down through Thrace 
into Greece and Asia Minor, while other large and 
important groups entered Asia partly through the 
Caucasus Mountains, but in greater strength they 
migrated around the northern and eastern sides of 
the Caspian-Aral Sea. 

That portion of the Nordic race which contin- 
ued to inhabit south Russia and grazed their flocks 
of sheep and herds of horses on the grasslands 
were the Scythians of the Greeks and from these 
nomad shepherds came the Cimmerians, Persians, 
Sacae, Massagetae and perhaps the leaders of the 
Kassites, Mitanni and other early Aryan-speaking 
Nordic invaders of Asia. The descendants of these 
Nordics are scattered throughout Russia but are 
now submerged by the later Slavs. 

Well marked characters of the Nordic race, which 
were established in Neolithic times if not earlier, 
enable us to distinguish it definitely wherever it 
appears in history and we know that all the 
blondness in the world is derived from this source. 
As blondness is easily observed and recorded we 
are apt to lay too much emphasis on this single 
character. The brown shades of hair are equally 

When the Nordics first enter the Mediterranean 
world their arrival is everywhere marked by a 
new and higher civilization. In most cases the 
contact of the vigorous barbarians with the ancient 


civilizations created a sudden impulse of life and 
an outburst of culture as soon as the first destruc- 
tion wrought by the conquest was repaired. 

In addition to the long continued selection ex- 
ercised by severe climatic conditions and the con- 
sequent elimination of ineflectives, both of which 
affects a race, there is another force at work which 
concerns the individual as well. The energy de- 
veloped in the north is not lost immediately when 
transferred to the softer conditions of existence in 
the Mediterranean and Indian countries. This en- 
ergy endures for several generations and only dies 
away slowly as the northern blood becomes diluted 
and the impulse to strive fades. 

The contact of Hellene and Pelasgian caused the 
blossoming of the ancient civilization of Hellas, 
just as two thousand years later when the Nordic 
invaders of Italy had absorbed the science, art 
and literature of Rome, they produced that splen- 
did century we call the Renaissance. 

The chief men of the Cinque Cento and the 
preceding century were of Nordic blood, largely 
Gothic and Lombard, which is recognized easily by 
a close inspection of busts or portraits in northern 
Italy. Dante, Raphael, Titian, Michael Angelo, 
Leonardo da Vinci were all of Nordic type, just as 
in classic times many of the chief men and of the 
upper classes were Nordic. 

Similar expansions of civilization and organiza- 


tion of empire followed the incursion of the Nordic 
Persians into the land of the round skulled Medes 
and the introduction of Sanskrit into India by the 
Nordic Sacae who conquered that peninsula. These 
outbursts of progress due to the first contact and 

mixture of two contrasted races are, however, only 
transitory and pass with the last lingering trace of 
Nordic blood. 

In India the blood of these Aryan-speaking in- 
vaders has been absorbed by the dark Hindu and in 
the final event only their synthetic speech survives. 

The marvellous organization of the Roman state 
made use of the services of Nordic mercenaries and 
kept the Western Empire alive for three centuries 
after the ancient Roman stock had virtually ceased 
to exist. 

The date when the population of the Empire had 
become predominantly of Mediterranean and Ori- 
ental blood, due to the introduction of slaves from 
the east and the wastage of Italian blood in war, 
coincides with the establishment of the Empire 
under Augustus and the last Republican patriots 
represent the final protest of the old patrician Nor- 
dic strain. For the most part they refused to ab- 
dicate their right to rule in favor of manumitted 
slaves and imperial favorites and they fell in battle 
and sword in hand. The Romans died out but the 
slaves survived and their descendants form the 
great majority of the south Italians of to-day. 


In the last days of the Republic, Caesar was the 
leader of the mob, the Plebs, which by that time 
had ceased to be of Roman blood. Pompey's 
party represented the remnants of the old native 
Roman aristocracy and was defeated at Pharsalia 
not by Caesar's plebeian clients but by his Nordic 
legionaries from Gaul. Cassius and Brutus were 
the last successors of Pompey and their overthrow 
at Philippi was the final death blow to the Re- 
publican party; with them the native Roman 
families disappear almost entirely. 

The decline of the Romans and for that matter 
of the native Italians began with the Punic Wars 
when in addition to the Romans who fell in battle 
a large portion of the country population of Italy 
was destroyed by Hannibal. Native Romans suf- 
fered greatly in the Social and Servile Wars as well 
as in the civil conflicts between the factions of 
Sylla, who led the Patricians, and Marius who rep- 
resented the Plebs. Bloody proscriptions of the 
rival parties followed alternately the victory of one 
side and then of the other and under the tyranny 
of the Emperors of the first century also the old 
Roman stock was the greatest sufferer until it 
practically vanished from the scene. 

Voluntary childlessness was the most potent 
cause of the decline under the Empire and when we 
read of the abject servility of bearers of proud names 
in the days of Nero and Caligula, we must remem- 


ber that they could not rally to their standard fol- 
lowers among the Plebs. They had only the choice 
of submission or suicide and many chose the latter 
alternative. The abjectness of the Roman spirit 
under the Empire is thus to be explained by a 
change in race. 

With the expanding dominion of Rome the na- 
tive elements of vigor were drawn year after year 
into the legions and spent their active years in 
wars or in garrisons, while the slaves and those 
unfit for military duty stayed home and bred. In 
the present great war while the native Americans 
are at the front fighting the aliens and immigrants 
are allowed to increase without check and the par- 
allel is a close one. 

Slaves began to be imported into Italy in num- 
bers in the second century B. C. to work the large 
plantations — latifundia — of the wealthy Romans. 
This importation of slaves and the ultimate exten- 
sion of the Roman citizenship to their manumitted 
descendants and to inferior races throughout the 
growing Empire and the losses in internal and for- 
eign wars, ruined the state. In America we find an- 
other close parallel in the Civil War and the sub- 
sequent granting of citizenship to Negroes and to 
ever increasing numbers of immigrants of plebeian, 
servile or Oriental races, who throughout history 
have shown little capacity to create, organize or 
even to comprehend Republican institutions. 


In Rome, when this change in blood was sub- 
stantially complete, the state could no longer be 
operated under Republican forms of government 
and the Empire arose to take its place. At the 
beginning the Empire was clothed in the garb of 
republicanism in deference to such Roman elements 
as still persisted in the Senate and among the 
Patricians but ultimately these external forms were 
discarded and the state became virtually a pure 

The new population understood little and cared 
less for the institutions of the ancient Republic 
but they were jealous of their own rights of "Bread 
and the Circus" — "panem et circenses" — and there 
began to appear in place of the old Roman religion 
the mystic rites of Eastern countries so welcome to 
the plebeian and uneducated soul. The Emperors 
to please the vulgar erected from time to time new 
shrines to strange gods utterly unknown to the 
Romans of the early Republic. In America, also, 
strange temples, which would have been abhorrent 
to our Colonial ancestors, are multiplying and our 
streets and parks are turned over to monuments to 
foreign "patriots," designed not to please the ar- 
tistic sense of the passer-by but to gratify the na- 
tional preference of some alien element in the elec- 

These comments on the change of race in Rome 
at the beginning of our era are not mere speculation. 


An examination of many thousands of Roman col- 
umbaria or funeral urns and the names inscribed 
thereon show quite clearly that as early as the first 
century of our era eighty to ninety per cent of 
the urban population of the Roman Empire was of 
servile extraction and that about seven-eighths 
of this slave population was drawn from districts 
within the boundaries of the Empire and very 
largely from the countries bordering on the eastern 
Mediterranean. Few names are found which in- 
dicate that their bearers came from Gaul or the 
countries beyond the Alps. These Nordic barba- 
rians were of more use in the legions than as house- 
hold servants. 

At the beginning of the Christian era the entire 
Levant and countries adjoining it in Asia Minor, 
Syria and Egypt had been so thoroughly hellenized 
that many of their inhabitants bore Greek names. 
It was from these countries and from northern 
Africa that the slave population of Rome was 
drawn. Their descendants were the most im- 
portant element in the Roman melting pot and 
even to-day form the predominant element in the 
population of Italy south of the Apennines. When 
the Nordic barbarians a few centuries later poured 
in, these Romanized Orientals disappeared tem- 
porarily from view under the rule of the vigorous 
northerners but they have steadily absorbed the 
latter until the Nordic elements in Italy now are 


to be found chiefly in the Lombard plains and the 
region of the Alps. 

The Byzantine Empire from much the same 
causes as the Roman became in its turn gradually 
less and less European and more and more Oriental 
until it, too, withered and expired. 

Regarded in the light of the facts the fall of 
Rome ceases to be a mystery. The wonder is that 
the State lived on after the Romans were extinct 
and that the Eastern Empire survived so long with 
an ever fading Greek population. In Rome and in 
Greece only the language of the dominant race sur- 

So entirely had the blood of the Romans van- 
ished in the last days of the Empire that sorry 
bands of barbarians wandered at will through the 
desolated provinces. Caesar and his legions would 
have made short work of these unorganized ban- 
ditti but Caesar's legions were a memory, though 
one great enough to inspire in the intruders some- 
what of awe and desire to imitate. Against in- 
vaders, however, brains and brawn are more effec- 
tive than tradition &ad culture, however noble 
these last may be. 

Early ascetic Christianity played a large part in 
this decline of the Roman Empire as it was at the 
outset the religion of the slave, the meek and the 
lowly while Stoicism was the religion of the strong 
men of the time. This bias in favor of the weaker 


elements greatly interfered with their elimination 
by natural processes and the righting force of the 
Empire was gradually undermined. Christianity 
was in sharp contrast to the worship of tribal 
deities which preceded it and it tended then as 
now to break down class and race distinctions. 

The maintenance of such distinctions is abso- 
lutely essential to race purity in any community 
wlien two or more races live side by side. 

Race feeling may be called prejudice by those 
whose careers are cramped by it but it is a natural 
antipathy which serves to maintain the purity of 
type. The unfortunate fact that nearly all species 
of men interbreed freely leaves us no choice in the 
matter. Races must be kept apart by artificial 
devices of this sort or they ultimately amalgamate 
and in the offspring the more generalized or lower 
type prevails. 


We find few traces of Nordic characters outside 
of Europe. When Egypt was invaded by the Lib- 
yans from the west in 1230 B. C. they were ac- 
companied by "sea peoples," probably the Achaean 
Greeks. There is some evidence of blondness 
among the people of the south shore of the Med- 
iterranean down to Greek times and the Tamahu 
or fair Libyans are constantly mentioned in Egyp- 
tian records. The reddish blond or partly blond 
Berbers found to-day on the northern slopes of the 
Atlas Mountains may well be their descendants. 
That this blondness of the Berbers, though small 
in amount, is of Nordic origin we may with safety 
assume, but through what channels it came we 
have no means of knowing. There is no historic 
invasion of north Africa by Nordics except the 
Vandal conquests but there seems to be little 
probability that this small Teutonic tribe left be- 
hind any physical trace in the native population. 

There seem to have been traces of Nordic blood 

among the Philistines and still more among the 

Amorites. Certain references to the size of the sons 

of Anak and to the fairness of David, whose mother 



was an Amoritish woman, point vaguely in this di- 

References in Chinese annals to the green eyes of 
the Wu-suns or to the Hiung-Nu in central Asia are 
almost the only evidence we have of the Nordic race 
in contact with the peoples of eastern Asia, though 
there are statements in ancient Chinese or Mon- 
golian records as to the existence of blond and 
tall tribes and nations in those parts of northern 
Asia where Mongols are now found exclusively. 
We may expect to acquire much new light on this 
subject during the next few decades. 

The so-called blondness of the hairy Ainus of the 
northern islands of Japan seems to be due to a trace 
of what might be called Proto-Nordic blood. In 
hairiness these people are in sharp contrast with 
their Mongoloid neighbors but this is a generalized 
character common to the highest and the low- 
est races of man. The primitive Australoids and 
the highly specialized Scandinavians are among 
the most hairy populations in the world. So in the 
Ainus this somatological peculiarity is merely the 
retention of a primitive trait. The occasional 
brown or greenish eye and the sometimes fair com- 
plexion of the Ainus are, however, suggestive of 
Nordic affinities and of an extreme easterly exten- 
sion of Proto-Nordics at a very early period. 

The skull shape of the Ainus is dolichocephalic or 
mesaticephalic, while the broad cheek bones indi- 


cate a Mongolian cross as among the Esquimaux. 
The Ainus, like many other small, mysterious 
peoples, are probably merely the remnants of one 
of the early races that are fast fading into extinc- 
tion. The division of man into species and sub- 
species is very ancient and the chief races of the 
earth are the successful survivors of a long and 
fierce competition. Many species, subspecies and 
races have vanished utterly, except for reversional 
characters occasionally found in the larger races. 

The only Nordics in Asia Minor, so far as we 
know, were the Phrygians who crossed the Helles- 
pont about 1400 B. C. as part of the same migra- 
tion which brought the Achaeans into Greece, the 
Cimmerians who entered by the same route and 
also through the Caucasus about 650 B. C. and 
still later, in 270 B. C, the Gauls who, coming from 
northern Italy through Thrace, founded Galatia. 
So far as our present information goes little or no 
trace of these invasions remains in the existing 
populations of Anatolia. The expansions of the 
Persians and the Aryanization of their empire and 
the conquests of the Nordics east and south of the 
Caspian-Aral Sea, will be discussed in connection 
with the spread of Aryan languages. 


Such are the three races, the Alpine, the Medi- 
terranean and the Nordic, which enter into the 
composition of European populations of to-day and 
in various combinations comprise the great bulk of 
white men all over the world. These races vary 
intellectually and morally just as they do physically. 
Moral, intellectual and spiritual attributes are as 
persistent as physical characters and are trans- 
mitted substantially unchanged from generation to 
generation. These moral and physical characters 
are not limited to one race but given traits do 
occur with more frequency in one race than in an- 
other. Each race differs in the relative proportion 
of what we may term good and bad strains, just as 
nations do, or, for that matter, sections and classes 
of the same nation. 

In considering skull characters we must remem- 
ber that, while indicative of independent descent, 
the size and shape of the head are not closely re- 
lated to brain power. Aristotle was a Mediter- 
ranean if we may trust the authenticity of his busts 
and had a small, long skull, while Humboldt's 

large and characteristically Nordic skull was 



equally dolichocephalic. Socrates and Diogenes 
were apparently quite un-Greek and represent rem- 
nants of some early race, perhaps of Paleolithic man. 
The history of their lives indicates that each was 
recognized by his fellow countrymen as in some 
degree alien, just as the Jews apparently regarded 
Christ as, in some indefinite way, non- Jewish. 

Mental, spiritual and moral traits are closely as- 
sociated with the physical distinctions among the 
different European races, although like somatologi- 
cal characters, these spiritual attributes have in 
many cases gone astray. Enough remain, how- 
ever, to show that certain races have special apti- 
tudes for certain pursuits. 

The Alpine race is always and everywhere a race 
of peasants, an agricultural and never a maritime 
race. In fact they only extend to salt water at the 
head of the Adriatic and, like all purely agricul- 
tural communities throughout Europe, tend toward 
democracy, although they are submissive to au- 
thority both political and religious being usually 
Roman Catholics in western Europe. This race is 
essentially of the soil and in towns the type is 
mediocre and bourgeois. 

The coastal and seafaring populations of north- 
ern Europe are everywhere Nordic as far as the 
shores of Spain and among Europeans this race is 
pre-eminently fitted for maritime pursuits. Enter- 
prise at sea during the Middle Ages was in the 


hands of Mediterraneans just as it was originally 
developed by Cretans, Phoenicians and Carthagin- 
ians but after the Reformation the Nordics seized 
and occupied this field almost exclusively. 

The Nordics are, all over the world, a race of 
soldiers, sailors, adventurers and explorers, but 
above all, of rulers, organizers and aristocrats in 
sharp contrast to the essentially peasant and demo- 
cratic character of the Alpines. The Nordic race 
is domineering, individualistic, self-reliant and jeal- 
ous of their personal freedom both in political and 
religious systems and as a result they are usually 
Protestants. Chivalry and knighthood and their 
still surviving but greatly impaired counterparts 
are peculiarly Nordic traits, and feudalism, class 
distinctions and race pride among Europeans are 
traceable for the most part to the north. 

The social status of woman varies largely with 
race but here religion plays a part. In the Roman 
Republic and in ancient Germany women were held 
in high esteem. In the Nordic countries of to-day 
women's rights have received much more recogni- 
tion than among the southern nations with their 
traditions of Latin culture. To this general state- 
ment modern Germany is a marked exception. 
The contrast is great between the mental attitude 
toward woman of the ancient Teutons and that of 
the modern Germans. 

The pure Nordic peoples are characterized by a 


greater stability and steadiness than are mixed peo- 
ples such as the Irish, the ancient Gauls and the 
Athenians among all of whom the lack of these 
qualities was balanced by a correspondingly greater 

The mental characteristics of the Mediterranean 
race are well known and this race, while inferior in 
bodily stamina to both the Nordic and the Alpine, 
is probably the superior of both, certainly of the Al- 
pines, in intellectual attainments. In the field of art 
its superiority to both the other European races is 
unquestioned, although in literature and in scientific 
research and discovery the Nordics far excel it. 

Before leaving this interesting subject of the 
correlation of spiritual and moral traits with phys- 
ical characters we may note that these influences 
are so deeply rooted in everyday consciousness 
that the modern novelist or playwright does not 
fail to make his hero a tall, blond, honest and 
somewhat stupid youth and his villain a small, dark 
and exceptionally intelligent individual of warped 
moral character. So in Celtic legend as in the 
Graeco-Roman and mediaeval romances, prince and 
princess are always fair, a fact rather indicating 
that the mass of the people were brunet at the 
time when the legends were taking shape. In 
fact, "fair" is a synonym for beauty. Most an- 
cient tapestries show a blond earl on horseback 
and a dark haired churl holding the bridle. 


The gods of Olympus were almost all described as 
blond, and it would be difficult to imagine a Greek 
artist painting a brunet Venus. In church pic- 
tures all angels are blond, while the denizens of the 
lower regions revel in deep brunetness. "Non Angli 
sed angeli," remarked Pope Gregory when he first 
saw Saxon children exposed for sale in the Roman 

In depicting the crucifixion no artist hesitates to 
make the two thieves brunet in contrast to the 
blond Saviour. This is something more than a 
convention, as such quasi-authentic traditions as 
we have of our Lord strongly suggest his Nordic, 
possibly Greek, physical and moral attributes. 

These and similar traditions clearly point to the 
relations of the one race to the other in classic, 
mediaeval and modern times. How far they may 
be modified by democratic institutions and the rule 
of the majority remains to be seen. 

The wars of the past two thousand years in Eu- 
rope have been almost exclusively wars between 
the various nations of this race or between rulers 
of Nordic blood. 

From a race point of view the present European 
conflict is essentially a civil war and nearly all the 
officers and a large proportion of the men on both 
sides are members of this race. It is the same old 
tragedy of mutual butchery and mutual destruc- 
tion between Nordics, just as the Nordic nobility 


of Renaissance Italy seems to have been possessed 
with a blood mania to murder one another. It is 
the modern edition of the old Berserker blood rage 
and is class suicide on a gigantic scale. 

At the beginning of the war it was difficult to 
say on which side there was the preponderance of 
Nordic blood. Flanders and northern France are 
more Nordic than south Germany, while the back- 
bone of the armies that England put into the field 
as well as of those of her colonies was almost 
purely Nordic and a large proportion of the Rus- 
sian army was of the same race. As heretofore 
stated, with America in the war, the greater part 
of the Nordics of the world are fighting against 

Although the writer has limited carefully the 
use of the word "Teutonic" to that section of the 
Nordic race which originated in Scandinavia and 
which later spread over northern Europe, never- 
theless this term is unfortunate because it is cur- 
rently given a national and not a racial meaning 
and is used to denote the populations of the cen- 
tral empires. This popular use includes millions 
who are un-Teutonic and excludes millions of pure 
Teutonic blood who are outside of the political 
borders of Austria and Germany and who are bit- 
terly hostile to the very name itself. 

The present inhabitants of the German Empire, 
to say nothing of Austria, are only to a limited ex- 


tent descendants of the ancient Teutonic tribes, 
being very largely Alpines, especially in the east 
and south. To abandon to the Germans and 
Austrians the exclusive right to the name Teuton 
or Teutonic would be to acquiesce in one of their 
most grandiose pretensions. 


Having shown the existence in Europe of three 
distinct subspecies of man and a single predomi- 
nant group of languages called the Aryan or syn- 
thetic group, it remains to inquire to which of the 
three races can be assigned the honor of inventing, 
elaborating and introducing this most highly de- 
veloped form of human speech. Our investiga- 
tions will show that the facts point indubitably 
to an original unity between the Nordic or rather 
the Proto-Nordic race and the Proto-Aryan lan- 
guage or the generalized, ancestral, Aryan mother 

Of the three claimants to the honor of being the 
original creator of the Aryan group of languages, 
we can at once dismiss the Mediterranean race. 
The members of this subspecies on the south 
shores of the Mediterranean, the Berbers and the 
Egyptians, and many peoples in western Asia speak 
now and have always spoken Anaryan tongues. 
We also know that the speech of the original Pe- 
lasgians was not Aryan, that in Crete remnants of 
Pre- Aryan speech persisted until about 500 B. C. 
and that the Hellenic language was introduced 



into ^Egean countries from the north. In Italy the 
Etruscan in the north and the Messapian in the 
south were Anaryan languages and the ancestral 
form of Latin speech in the guise of Umbrian and 
Oscan came through the Alps from the countries 

In Spain a Celtic language was introduced from 
the north about 500 B. C. but with so little force 
behind it that it was unable to replace entirely 
the Anaryan Basque language of at least a portion 
of the aborigines. 

In Britain, Aryan speech was introduced about 
800 B.C. and in France somewhat earlier. In cen- 
tral and northern Europe no certain trace of the 
Anaryan languages at one time spoken there per- 
sists, except among the Lapps and in the neighbor- 
hood of the Gulf of Finland, where Non-Aryan 
Finnic dialects are spoken to-day by the Finlanders 
and the Esthonians. 

We thus know the approximate dates of the intro- 
duction of Aryan speech into western and southern 
Europe and that it came in through the medium 
of the Nordic race. 

In Spain and in the adjoining parts of France 
nearly half a million people continue to speak an 
agglutinative language, called Basque or Euska- 
rian. In skull shape these Basques correspond 
closely with the Aryan-speaking populations around 
them, being dolichocephalic in Spain and brachy- 

ARYA 235 

cephalic or pseudo-brachy cephalic in France. In 
the case of both the long skulled and the round 
skulled Basques the lower part of the face is long 
and thin, with a peculiar and pointed chin and 
among the French Basques the skull is broadened 
in the temporal region. In other words, their faces 
show certain secondary racial characters which have 
been imposed by selection upon a people composed 
originally of two races of independent origin, but 
long isolated by the limitations of language. 

The Euskarian language is believed to have been 
related to the ancient Iberian but has affinities 
which point to Asia as its place of origin and make 
possible the hypothesis that it may have been de- 
rived from the ancient language of the Proto- Alpines 
in the west. 

The problem of the extinct Ligurian language 
must be considered in this connection. It seems to 
have been Anaryan, but we do not know whether 
it was the speech originally of Alpines or of Med- 
iterraneans either of whom could be reasonably 
considered as a claimant. 

Other than the Basque language there are in 
western Europe but few remains of Pre-Aryan 
speech, and these are found chiefly in place names 
and in a few obscure words. 

Remnants of Anaryan speech exist here and there 
throughout European Russia, but many of them 
can be traced to historic invasions. Until we reach 


the main body of Ural-Altaic speech in the east of 
Russia, the Esthonians, with kindred tribes of Li- 
vonians and Tchouds, and the Finns are the only 
peoples who speak Non-Aryan tongues, but the 
physical type with the exception of the skull shape 
of all these tribes is distinctly Nordic. In this con- 
nection the Lapps and related groups in the far 
north can be disregarded. 

The problem of the Finns is a difficult one. The 
coast of Finland, of course, is purely Swedish, but 
the great bulk of the population in the interior is 
brachycephalic, though otherwise thoroughly Nor- 
dic in type. 

The Anaryan Finnish, Esthonian and Livonian 
languages were probably introduced at the same 
time as were round skulls into Finland. The 
shores of the Gulf of Finland were originally in- 
habited by Nordics and the intrusion of round 
skulled Finns probably came soon after the Chris- 
tian era. This immigration and that of the Livo- 
nians and Esthonians may possibly have been part 
of the same movement which brought the Alpine 
Wends into eastern Germany. The earliest refer- 
ences to the Finns that we have locate them in 
central Russia. 

The most important Anaryan language in Europe 
is the Magyar of Hungary, but this we know was in- 
troduced from the eastward at the end of the ninth 
century, as was the earlier but now extinct Avar. 

ARYA 2.37 

In the Balkans the language of the Turks has 
never been a vernacular as it is in Asia Minor. In 
Europe it was spoken only by the soldiers and the 
civil administrators and by very sparse colonies 
of Turkish settlers. The mania of the Turks for 
white women, which is said to have been one of the 
motives that led to the conquest of the Byzantine 
Empire, has unconsciously resulted in the oblitera- 
tion of the Mongoloid type of the original Asiatic 
invaders. Persistent crossing with Circassian and 
Georgian women, as well as with slaves of every 
race in Asia Minor and in Europe with whom they 
came in contact, has made the European Turk 
of to-day indistinguishable in physical characters 
from his Christian neighbors. At the same time, 
polygamy has greatly strengthened the hold of the 
dominant Turk. In fact, among the upper classes 
of the higher races monogamy and the resultant 
limitation in number of offspring has been a source 
of weakness from the viewpoint of race expansion. 
The Turks of Seljukian and Osmanli origin were 
never numerous and the Sultan's armies were 
largely composed of Islamized Anatolians and Eu- 

In Persia and India, also, the Aryan languages 
were introduced from the north at known periods f 
so in view of all these facts the Mediterranean 
race cannot claim the honor of either the inven- 
tion or dissemination of the synthetic languages 


The chief claim of the Alpine race of central Eu- 
rope and western Asia to the invention and intro- 
duction into Europe of the Proto-Aryan form of 
speech rests on the fact that nearly all the members 
of this race in Europe speak well developed Aryan 
languages, chiefly in some form of Slavic. This 
fact taken by itself may have no more significance 
than the fact that the Mediterranean race in 
Spain, Italy and France speaks Romance lan- 
guages, but it is, nevertheless, an argument of some 

Outside of Europe the Armenians and other 
Armenoid brachycephalic peoples of Asia Minor 
and the Iranian Highlands, all of Alpine race, to- 
gether with a few isolated tribes of the Caucasus, 
speak Aryan languages and these peoples lie on 
the highroad along which knowledge of the metals 
and other cultural developments entered Europe. 

If the Aryan language were invented and de- 
veloped by these Armenoid Alpines we should be 
obliged to assume that they introduced it along 
with bronze culture into Europe about 3000 B. C. 
and taught the Nordics both their language and 
their metal culture. There are, however, in west- 
ern Asia many Alpine peoples who do not speak 
Aryan languages and yet are Alpine in type, such 
as the Turcomans and in Asia Minor the so- 
called Turks are also largely Islamized Alpines of 
the Armenoid subspecies who speak Turki. There 

ARYA 239 

is no trace of Aryan speech south of the Caucasus 
until after 1700 B. C. and the Hittite language 
spoken before that date in central and eastern 
Asia Minor, although not yet clearly deciphered, 
was Anaryan to the best of our present knowl- 
edge. The Hittites themselves were probably an- 
cestral to the living Armenians. 

We are sufficiently acquainted with the languages 
of the ancient Mesopotamian countries to know 
that the speech of Accad and Sumer, of Susa and 
Media was agglutinative and that the languages of 
Assyria and of Palestine were Semitic. The speech 
of the Kassites was Anaryan, but they seem to have 
been in contact with the horse-using Nordics and 
some of their leaders bore Aryan names. The 
language of the shortlived empire of the Mitanni 
in the foothills south of Armenia is the only one 
about the character of which there can be serious 
doubt. There is, therefore, much negative evidence 
against the existence of Aryan speech in that part 
of the world earlier than its known introduction 
by Nordics. 

If, then, the last great expansion into Europe of 
the Alpine race brought from Asia the Aryan 
mother tongue, as well as the knowledge of metals, 
we must assume that all the members of the Nor- 
dic race thereupon adopted synthetic speech from 
the Alpines. 

We know that these Alpines reached Britain 


about 1800 B. C. and probably they had previously 
occupied much of Gaul, so that if they are to be 
credited with the introduction of the synthetic 
languages into western Europe, it is difficult to 
understand why we have no known trace of 
any form of Aryan speech in central Europe or 
west of the Rhine prior to 1000 B. C. while we 
have some, though scanty, evidence of Non-Aryan 

It may be said in favor of this claim of the Al- 
pine race to be the original inventor of synthetic 
speech, that language is ever a measure of culture 
and the higher forms of civilization are greatly 
hampered by the limitations of speech imposed 
by the less highly evolved languages, namely, the 
monosyllabic and the agglutinative, which include 
nearly all the Non-Aryan languages of the world. 
It does not seem probable that barbarians, how- 
ever fine in physical type and however well en- 
dowed with the potentiality of intellectual and 
moral development, dwelling as hunters in the 
bleak and barren north along the edge of the re- 
treating glaciers and as nomad shepherds in the 
Russian grasslands, could have evolved a more 
complicated and higher form of articulate speech 
than the inhabitants of southwestern Asia, who 
many thousand years earlier were highly civilized 
and are known to have invented the arts of agri- 
culture, metal working and domestication of ani- 

ARYA 241 

mals, as well as of writing and pottery. Never- 
theless, such seems to be the fact. 

To summarize, it appears that a study of the 
Mediterranean race shows that so far from being 
purely European, it is equally African and Asiatic 
and that in the narrow coastal fringe of southern 
Persia, in India and even farther east the last 
strains of this race gradually fade into the Negroids 
through prolonged cross breeding. A similar in- 
quiry into the origin and distribution of the Alpine 
subspecies shows clearly the fundamentally Asiatic 
origin of the type and that on its easternmost 
borders in central Asia it marches with the round 
skulled Mongols, and that neither the one nor the 
other was the inventor of Aryan speech. 


By the process of elimination set forth in the pre- 
ceding chapter we are compelled to acknowledge 
that the strongest claimant for the honor of being 
the race of the original Aryans, is the tall, blond 
Nordic. An analysis of the various languages of 
the Aryan group reveals an extreme diversity which 
can be best explained by the hypothesis that the 
existing languages are now spoken by people upon 
whom Aryan speech has been forced from with- 
out. This theory corresponds exactly with the 
known historic fact that the Aryan languages, dur- 
ing the last three or four thousand years at least 
have, again and again, been imposed by Nordics 
upon populations of Alpine and Mediterranean 

Within the present distributional area of the 

Nordic race on the Gulf of Riga and in the very 

middle of a typical area of isolation, are the most 

generalized members of the Aryan group, namely 

Lettish and Lithuanian, both almost Proto-Aryan 

in character. Close at hand existed the closely 

related Old Prussian or Borussian, very recently 



extinct. These archaic languages are relatively 
close to Sanskrit and exist in actual contact with 
the Anaryan speech of the Esthonians and Finns. 

The Anaryan languages in eastern Russia are 
Ugrian, a form of speech which extends far into 
Asia and which appears to contain elements which 
unite it with synthetic speech and may be dimly 
transitory in character. In the opinion of many 
philologists, a primitive form of Ugrian might have 
given birth to the Proto- Aryan ancestor of existing 
synthetic languages. 

This hypothesis, if sustained by further study, 
will provide additional evidence that the site of 
the development of the Aryan languages and of 
the Nordic subspecies was in eastern Europe, 
in a region which is close to the meeting place be- 
tween the most archaic synthetic languages and 
the most nearly related Anaryan tongue, the ag- 
glutinative Ugrian. 

The Aryan tongue was introduced into Greece 
by the Achaeans about 1400 B. C. and later, about 
1 100 B. C. by the true Hellenes, who brought in 
the classic dialects of Dorian, Ionian and JF.olia.n. 

These Aryan languages superseded their Anar- 
yan predecessor, the Pelasgian. From the lan- 
guage of these early invaders came the Illyrian, 
Thracian, Albanian, classic Greek and the debased 
modern Romaic, a descendant of the Ionian dia- 


Aryan speech was introduced among the Anar- 
yan-speaking Etruscans of the Italian Peninsula 
by the Umbrians and Oscans about noo B. C. 
and from the language of these conquerors was de- 
rived Latin which later spread to the uttermost 
confines of the Roman Empire. Its descendants 
to-day are the Romance tongues spoken within 
the ancient imperial boundaries, Portuguese on the 
west, Castilian, Catalan, Provencal, French, the 
Langue d'oil of the Walloons, Romansch, Ladin, 
Friulian, Tuscan, Calabrian and Rumanian. 

The problem of the existence of a language 
clearly descended from Latin, the Rumanian, in the 
eastern Carpathians cut off by Slavic and Magyar 
tongues from the nearest Romance tongues presents 
difficulties. The Rumanians themselves make two 
claims; the first, which can be safely disregarded, 
is an unbroken linguistic descent from a group of 
Aryan languages which occupied this whole section 
of Europe, from which Latin was derived and of 
which Albanian is also a remnant. 

The more serious claim, however, made by the 
Rumanians is to linguistic and racial descent from 
the military colonists planted by the Emperor 
Trajan in the great Dacian plain north of the 
Danube. This may be possible, so far as the lan- 
guage is concerned, but there are some weighty ob- 
jections to it. 

We have little evidence for, and much against, the 


existence of Rumanian speech north of the Danube 
for nearly a thousand years after Rome abandoned 
this outlying region. Dacia was one of the last 
provinces to be occupied by Rome and was the 
first from which the legions were withdrawn upon 
the decline of the Empire. The northern Car- 
pathians, furthermore, where the Rumanians claim 
to have taken refuge during the barbarian inva- 
sions formed part of the Slavic homeland and it 
was in these same mountains and in the Ruthenian 
districts of eastern Galicia that the Slavic lan- 
guages were developed, probably by the Sarmatians 
and Venethi, from whence they spread in all di- 
rections in the centuries that immediately followed 
the fall of Rome. So it is almost impossible to 
credit the survival of a frontier community of 
Romanized natives situated not only in the path 
of the great invasions of Europe from the east, 
but also in the very spot where Slavic tongues 
were at the time evolving. 

Rumanian speech occupies large areas outside 
of the present kingdom of Rumania, in Russian 
Bessarabia, Austrian Bukowina and above all in 
Hungarian Transylvania. 

The linguistic problem is further complicated 
by the existence in the Pindus Mountains of Thes- 
saly of another large community of Vlachs of Ru- 
manian speech. How this later community could 
have survived from Roman times until to-day, 


untouched either by the Greek language of the 
Byzantine Empire or by the Turkish conquest is 
another difficult problem. 

The evidence, on the whole, points to the descent 
of the Vlachs from the early inhabitants of Thrace, 
who adopted Latin speech in the first centuries of 
the Christian era and clung to it during the dom- 
ination of the Bulgarians from the seventh cen- 
tury onward in the lands south of the Danube. In 
the thirteenth century the mass of these Vlachs, 
leaving scattered remnants behind them, crossed 
the Danube and founded Little and Great Walla- 
chia. From there they spread into Transylvania 
and a century later into Moldavia. 

The solution of this problem receives no assist- 
ance from anthropology, as these Rumanian- 
speaking populations both on the Danube and in 
the Pindus Mountains in no way differ physically 
from their neighbors on all sides. But through 
whatever channel they acquired their Latin speech 
the Rumanians of to-day can lay no valid claim to 
blood descent even in a remote degree from the 
true Romans. 

The first Aryan languages known in western 
Europe were the Celtic group which first appears 
west of the Rhine about 1000 B. C. 

Only a few dim traces of Pre- Aryan speech have 
been found in the British Isles, and these largely 
in place names. The Pre-Aryan language of the 


Pre-Nordic population of Britain may have sur- 
vived down to historic times as Pictish. 

In Britain, Celtic speech was introduced in two 
successive waves, first by the Goidels or "Q" Celts, 
who apparently appeared about 800 B. C. and this 
form exists to this day as Erse in western Ireland, 
as Manx of the Isle of Man and as Gaelic in the 
Scottish Highlands. 

The Goidels were still in a state of bronze cul- 
ture. When they reached Britain they must have 
found there a population preponderantly of Med- 
iterranean type with numerous remains of still ear- 
lier races of Paleolithic times and also some round 
skulled Alpines of the Round Barrows, who have 
since largely faded from the living population. 
When the next invasion, the Cymric or Brythonic, 
occurred the Goidels had been absorbed very largely 
by the underlying Mediterranean aborigines who 
had meanwhile accepted the Goidelic form of Celtic 
speech, just as on the continent the Gauls had 
mixed with Alpine and Mediterranean natives and 
had imposed upon the conquered their own tongue. 
In fact, in Britain, Gaul and Spain the Goidels and 
Gauls were chiefly a ruling, military class, while the 
great bulk of the population remained unchanged 
although Aryanized in speech. 

These Brythonic or Cymric tribes or "P" Celts 
followed the "Q" Celts four or five hundred years 
later, and drove the Goidels westward through Ger- 


many, Gaul and Britain and this movement of 
population was still going on when Caesar crossed 
the Channel. The Brythonic group gave rise to 
the modern Cornish, extinct within a century, the 
Cymric of Wales and the Armorican of Brittany. 

In central Europe we find traces of these same 
two forms of Celtic speech with the Goidelic every- 
where the older and the Cymric the more recent 
arrival. The cleavage between the dialects of the 
"Q" Celts and the "P" Celts was probably less 
marked two thousand years ago than at present, 
since in their modern form they are both Neo- Celtic 
languages. What vestiges of Celtic languages re- 
main in France belong to Brythonic. Celtic was 
not generally spoken in Aquitaine in Caesar's time. 

When the two Celtic-speaking races came into 
conflict in Britain their original relationship had 
been greatly obscured by the crossing of the Goi- 
dels with the underlying dark Mediterranean race 
of Neolithic culture and by the mixture of the 
Belgae with Teutonic tribes. The result was that 
the Brythons did not distinguish between the blond 
Goidels and the brunet but Celticized Mediterra- 
neans as they all spoke Goidelic dialects. 

In the same way when the Saxons and the An- 
gles entered Britain they found there a population 
speaking Celtic of some form, either Goidelic or 
Cymric and promptly called them all Welsh (for- 
eigners). These Welsh were preponderantly of 


Mediterranean type with some mixture of a blond 
Goidel strain and a much stronger blond strain of 
Cymric origin and these same elements exist to-day 
in England. The Mediterranean race is easily dis- 
tinguished, but the physical types derived from 
Goidel and Brython alike are merged and lost in 
the later floods of pure Nordic blood, Angle, Saxon, 
Dane, Norse and Norman. In this primitive, 
dark population with successive layers of blond 
Nordics imposed upon it, each one more purely 
Nordic and in the relative absence of round heads 
lie the secret and the solution of the anthropology 
of the British Isles. This Iberian substratum was 
able to absorb to a large extent the earlier Celtic- 
speaking invaders, both Goidels and Brythons, 
but it is only just beginning to seriously threaten 
the later Nordics and to reassert its ancient brunet 
characters after three thousand years of submer- 

In northwest Scotland there is a Gaelic-speaking 
area where the place names are all Scandinavian 
and the physical types purely Nordic. This is 
the only spot in the British Isles where Celtic 
speech has reconquered a district from the Teu- 
tonic languages and it was the site of one of the 
conquests of the Norse Vikings, probably in the 
early centuries of the Christian era. In Caithness 
in north Scotland, as well as in some isolated 
spots on the Irish coasts, the language of these 


same Norse pirates persisted within a century. In 
the fifth century of our era and after the break-up 
of Roman domination in Britain there was much 
racial unrest and a back wave of Goidels crossed 
from Ireland and either reintroduced or reinforced 
the Gaelic speech in the highlands. Later, Goidelic 
speech was gradually driven northward and west- 
ward by the intrusive English of the lowlands and 
was ultimately forced over this originally Norse- 
speaking area. We have elsewhere in Europe evi- 
dence of similar shiftings of speech without any 
corresponding change in the blood of the popula- 

Except in the British Isles and in Brittany Celtic 
languages have left no modern descendants, but 
have everywhere been replaced by languages of Neo- 
Latin or of Teutonic origin. Outside of Brittany 
one of the last, if not quite the last, reference to 
Celtic speech in Gaul is the historic statement 
that "Celtic" tribes, as well as " Armoricans," took 
part at Chalons in the great victory in 451 A. D. 
over Attila the Hun and his confederacy of sub- 
ject nations. 

On the continent the only existing populations 
of Celtic speech are the primitive inhabitants of 
central Brittany, a population noted for their re- 
ligious fanaticism and for other characteristics of a 
backward people. This Celtic speech is claimed to 
have been introduced about 450-500 A. D. by 


Britons fleeing from the Saxons. These refugees, 
if there were any substantial number of them, must 
have been dolichocephs of either Mediterranean or 
Nordic race or both. We are asked by this tradi- 
tion to believe that their long skull was lost, but 
that their language was adopted by the round 
skulled Alpine population of Armorica. It is much 
more probable that the Cymric-speaking Alpines 
of Brittany have merely retained in this isolated 
corner of France a form of Celtic speech which was 
prevalent throughout northern Gaul and Britain 
before these provinces were conquered by Rome 
and Latinized and which, perhaps, was reinforced 
later by British Cymry. Caesar remarked that 
there was little difference between the speech of the 
Belgae in northern Gaul and in Britain. In both 
cases the speech was Cymric. 

Long after the conquest of Gaul by the Goths 
and Franks Teutonic speech remained predominant 
among the ruling classes and, by the time it suc- 
cumbed to the Latin tongue of the Romanized na- 
tives, the old Celtic languages had been entirely 
forgotten outside of Brittany. 

An example of similar changes of language is 
to be found in Normandy where the country was 
inhabited by the Nordic Belgae speaking a Cymric 
language before that tongue was replaced by Latin. 
This coast was ravaged about 300 or 400 A. D. by 
Saxons who formed settlements along both sides 


of the Channel and the coasts of Brittany which 
were later known as the Litus Saxonicum. Their 
progress can best be traced by place names as our 
historic record of these raids is scanty. 

The Normans landed in Normandy in the year 
911 A. D. They were heathen, Danish barbarians, 
speaking a Teutonic tongue. The religion, culture 
and language of the old Romanized populations 
worked a miracle in the transformation of every- 
thing except blood in one short century. So quick 
was the change that 155 years later the descend- 
ants of the same Normans landed in England as 
Christian Frenchmen armed with all the culture of 
their period. The change was startling, but the 
Norman blood remained unchanged and entered 
England as a substantially Nordic type. 


In the JEgean region and south of the Caucasus 
Nordics appear after 1700 B. C. but there were 
unquestionably invasions and raids from the 
north for many centuries previous to our first 
records. These early migrations were probably 
not in sufficient force to modify the blood of the 
autochthonous races or to substitute Aryan lan- 
guages for the ancient Mediterranean and Asiatic 

These men of the North came from the grass- 
lands of Russia in successive waves and among 
the first of whom we have fairly clear knowledge 
were the Achaeans and Phrygians. Aryan names 
are mentioned in the dim chronicles of the Meso- 
potamian empires about 1700 B. C. among the 
Kassites and later, Mitanni. Aryan names of 
prisoners captured beyond the mountains in the 
north and of Aryan deities before whom oaths 
were taken are recorded about 1400 B. C. but one 
of the first definite accounts of Nordics south of the 
Caucasus describes the presence of Nordic Persians 
at Lake Urmia about 900 B. C. There were many 
incursions from that time on, the Cimmerians raid- 



ing across the Caucasus as early as 650 B. C. and 
shortly afterward overrunning all Asia Minor. 

The easterly extension of the Russian steppes or 
Kiptchak north of the Caspian-Aral Sea in Turke- 
stan as far as the foothills of the Pamirs was oc- 
cupied by the Sacae or Massagetae, who were also 
Nordics and akin to the Cimmerians and Persians, 
as were, perhaps, the Ephtalites or White Huns in 
Sogdiana north of Persia, destroyed by the Turks 
in the sixth century. 

For several centuries groups of Nordics drifted 
as nomad shepherds across the Caucasus into the 
empire of the Medes, introducing little by little 
the Aryan tongue which later developed into Old 
Persian. By 550 B. C. these Persians had become 
sufficiently numerous to overthrow their rulers and 
under the leadership of the great Cyrus they organ- 
ized the Persian Empire, one of the most enduring of 
Oriental states. The base of the population of the 
Persian Empire rested on the round skulled Medes 
who belonged to the Armenoid subdivision of the 
Alpines. Under the leadership of their priestly 
caste of Magi these Medes rebelled again and again 
against their Nordic masters before the two peoples 
became fused. 

From 525 to 485 B. C. during the reign of 
Darius, whose sculptured portraits show a man of 
pure Nordic type, the tall, blond Persians had be- 
come almost exclusively a class of great ruling 


nobles and had forgotten the simplicity of their 
shepherd ancestors. Their language belonged to 
the Eastern or Iranian division of Aryan speech 
and was known as Old Persian, which continued 
to be spoken until the fourth century before the 
Christian era. From it were derived Pehlevi, or 
Parthian as well as modern Persian. The great 
book of the old Persians, the Avesta, which was 
written in Zendic, also an Iranian language, does 
not go back to the reign of Darius and was re- 
modelled after the Christian era, but the Old Per- 
sian of Darius was closely related to the Zendic of 
Bactria and to the Sanskrit of Hindustan. From 
Zendic, also called Medic, are derived Ghalcha, 
Balochi, Kurdish and other dialects. 

The rise to imperial power of the dolichocephalic 
Aryan-speaking Persians was largely due to the 
genius of their leaders but the Aryanization of 
western Asia by them is one of the most amazing 
events in history. The whole region became com- 
pletely transformed so far as the acceptance by the 
conquered of the language and religion of the Per- 
sians was concerned, but the blood of the Nordic 
race quickly became diluted and a few centuries 
later disappears from history. 

During the great wars with Greece the pure 
Persian blood was still unimpaired and in con- 
trol. In the literature of the time there is little 
evidence, of race antagonism between the Greek 


and the Persian leaders although their rival cul- 
tures were sharply contrasted. In the time of 
Alexander the Great the pure Persian blood was 
obviously confined to the nobles and it was the 
policy of Alexander to Hellenize the Persians and 
to amalgamate his Greeks with them. The amount 
of pure Macedonian blood was not sufficient to 
reinforce the Nordic strain of the Persians and 
the net result was the entire loss of the Greek 

It is a question whether the Armenians of Asia 
Minor derived their Aryan speech from this inva- 
sion of the Nordic Persians, or whether they received 
it at an earlier date from the Phrygians and from 
the west. These Phrygians entered Asia Minor 
by way of the Dardanelles and broke up the Hit- 
tite Empire. Their language was Aryan and prob- 
ably was related to Thracian. In favor of the 
theory of the introduction of the Armenian lan- 
guage by the Phrygians from the west, rather 
than by the Persians from the east, is the highly 
significant fact that the basic structure of that 
tongue shows its relationship to be with the west- 
ern or Centum rather than with the eastern or 
Satem group of Aryan languages and this, too, in 
spite of a very large Persian vocabulary. 

The Armenians themselves, like all the other 
natives of the plateaux and highlands as far east 
as the Hindu Kush Mountains, while of Aryan 


speech, are of the Armenoid subdivision, in sharp 
contrast to the predominant types south of the 
mountains in Persia, Afghanistan and Hindustan, 
all of which are dolichocephalic and of Mediter- 
ranean affinity but generally betraying traces of 
admixture with still more ancient races of Negroid 
origin, especially in India. 

We now come to the last and easternmost exten- 
sion of Aryan languages in Asia. As mentioned 
above, the grasslands and steppes of Russia ex- 
tend north of the Caucasus Mountains and the 
Caspian Sea to ancient Bactria, now Turkestan. 
This whole country was occupied by the Nordic 
Sacae and the closely related Massagetae. These 
Sacae may be identical with the later Scythians. 

Soon after the opening of the second millennium 
B. C. and perhaps even earlier, the first Nordics 
crossed over the Afghan passes, entered the plains 
of India and organized a state in the Punjab, "the 
land of the five rivers," bringing with them Aryan 
speech to a population probably of Mediterranean 
type and represented to-day by the Dravidians. 
The Nordic Sacae arrived later in India and intro- 
duced the Vedas, religious poems, which were at 
first transmitted orally but which were reduced to 
written form in Old Sanskrit by the Brahmans at 
the comparatively late date of 300 A. D. From 
this classic Sanskrit are derived all the modern 
Aryan languages of Hindustan, as well as the 


Singalese of Ceylon and the chief dialects of 

There is great diversity among scholars as to the 
date of the first entry of these Aryan-speaking 
tribes into the Punjab but the consensus of opinion 
seems to indicate a period between 1600 and 1700 
B. C. or even somewhat earlier. However, the very 
close affinity of Sanskrit to the Old Persian of 
Darius and to the Zenda vesta would strongly indi- 
cate that the final introduction of Aryan languages 
in the form of Sanskrit occurred at a much later 
time. The most recent tendency is to bring these 
dates somewhat forward. 

If close relationship between languages indicates 
correlation in time then the entry of the Sacae into 
India would appear to have been nearly simultane- 
ous with the crossing of the Caucasus by the Nor- 
dic Cimmerians and their Persian successors. 

The relationship between the Zendavesta and 
the Sanskrit Vedas is as near as that between High 
and Low German and consequently such close 
affinity prevents our thrusting back the date of the 
separation of the Persians and the Sacae more than 
a few centuries. 

A simultaneous migration of nomad shepherds 
on both sides of the Caspian-Aral Sea would nat- 
urally occur in a general movement southward 
and such migrations may have taken place several 
times. In all probability these Nordic invasions 


occurred one after another for a thousand years or 
more, the later ones obscuring and blurring the 
memory of their predecessors. 

When shepherd tribes leave their grasslands 
and attack their agricultural neighbors, the reason 
is nearly always a famine due to prolonged drought 
and causes such as these have again and again in 
history put the nomad tribes in motion over large , J 
areas. During many centuries fresh tribes com- / 
posed of Nordics or under the leadership of Nor- 
dics but all Aryan-speaking, poured over the 
Afghan passes from the northwest and pushed be- 
fore them the earlier arrivals. Clear traces of these/ 
successive floods of conquerors are to be found in 
the Vedas themselves. 

The Zendic form of the Iranian group of Aryan 
languages was spoken by those Sacae who remained 
in old Bactria and from it is derived a whole group 
of closely related dialects still used in the Pamirs of 
which Ghalcha is the best known. 

The Sacae and Massagetae were, like the Persians, 
tall, blond dolichocephs and they have left behind 
them dim traces of their blood among the living 
Mongolized nomads of Turkestan, the Kirghizes. 
Ancient Bactria maintained its Nordic and Aryan 
aspect long after Alexander's time and did not be- 
come Mongolized and receive the sinister name of 
Turkestan until the seventh century, when it was 
the first victim of the series of ferocious invasions 


from the north and east, which under various 
Mongol leaders destroyed civilization in Asia and 
threatened its existence in Europe. These con- 
quests culminated in 1241 A. D. at Wahlstatt in 
Silesia where the Germans, though themselves 
badly defeated, put a final limit to this westward 
rush of Asiatics. 

The Sacae were the most easterly members of 
the Nordic race of whom we have definite record. 
The Chinese knew well these "green eyed devils, ,, 
whom they called by their Tatar name, the "Wu- 
suns," — the tall ones — and with whom they came 
into contact about 200 B. C. in what is now Chi- 
nese Turkestan. Other Nordic tribes are recorded 
in this region. Evidence is accumulating that cen- 
tral Asia had a large Nordic population in the 
centuries preceding the Christian era. The discov- 
ery of the Aryan Tokharian language in Chinese 
Turkestan considered in connection with other 
facts indicates intensive occupation by Nordics of 
territories in central Asia now wholly Mongol, just 
as in Europe dark-haired Alpines occupy large ter- 
ritories where in Roman times fair haired Nordics 
were preponderant. In short we find both in Eu- 
rope and in western and central Asia the same 
record of Nordic decline during the last two thou- 
sand years and their replacement by races of in- 
ferior value and civilization. 

This Tokharian is undoubtedly a pure Aryan 


language related, curiously enough, to the western 
group rather than to the Indo-Iranian. It has 
been deciphered from inscriptions recently found 
in northeast Turkestan and was a living language 
prior to the ninth century A. D. 

Of all the wonderful conquests of the Sacae there 
remain as evidence of their invasions only these 
Indian and Afghan languages. Dim traces of 
their blood have been found in the Pamirs and 
in Afghanistan, but in the south their blond traits 
have vanished, even from the Punjab. It may be 
that the stature of some of the Afghan hill tribes 
and of the Sikhs and some of the facial characters 
of the latter are derived from this source, but all 
blondness of skin, hair or eye of the original Sacae 
has utterly vanished. 

The long skulls all through India are to be at- 
tributed to the Mediterranean race rather than to 
this Nordic invasion, while the Pre-Dra vidians and 
Negroids of south India, with which the former are 
largely mixed, are also dolichocephs. 

In short, the introduction in Iran and India of 
Aryan languages, Iranian, Ghalchic and Sanskrit, 
represents a linguistic and not an ethnic conquest. 

In concluding this revision of the racial founda- 
tions upon which the history of Europe has been 
based it is scarcely necessary to point out that the 
actual results of the spectacular conquests and in- 


vasions of history have been far less permanent 
than those of the more insidious victories arising 
from the crossing of two diverse races and that in 
such mixtures the relative prepotency of the vari- 
ous human subspecies in Europe appears to be in 
inverse ratio to their social value. 

The continuity of physical traits and the limi- 
tation of the effects of environment to the indi- 
vidual only are now so thoroughly recognized by 
scientists that it is at most a question of time when 
the social consequences which result from such 
crossings will be generally understood by the public 
at large. ('As soon as the true bearing and import 
of the facts are appreciated by lawmakers a com- 
plete change in our political structure will inevitably 
occur and our present reliance on the influence of 
education will be superseded by a readjustment 
based on racial values. )> 

Bearing in mind the extreme antiquity of physi- 
cal and spiritual characters and the persistency 
with which they outlive those elements of environ- 
ment termed language, nationality and forms of 
government, we must consider the relation of these 
facts to the development of the race in America. 
We may be certain that the progress of evolution 
is in full operation to-day under those laws of na- 
ture which control it and that the only sure guide 
to the future lies in the study »f the operation of 
these laws in the past. 


We Americans must realize that the altruistic 
ideals which have controlled our social develop- 
ment during the past century and the maudlin sen- 
timentalism that has made America "an asylum 
for the oppressed," are sweeping the nation toward 
a racial abyss. If the Melting Pot is allowed to 
boil without control and we continue to follow our 
national motto and deliberately blind ourselves to 
all "distinctions of race, creed or color," the type 
of native American of Colonial descent will be- 
come as extinct as the Athenian of the age of Per- 
icles, and the Viking of the days of Rollo. 


The maps shown facing pages 266, 268, 270, and 272 of 
this book attempt in broad and somewhat hypothetical lines 
to represent by means of color diagrams the original distri- 
bution and the subsequent expansion and migration of the 
three main European races, the Mediterranean, the Alpine 
and the Nordic, as outlined in this book. 

The Maximum Expansion of the Alpines with 
Bronze Culture, 3000-1800 B. C. 

The first map (PL I) shows the distribution of these races 
at the close of the Neolithic, as well as their later expansion. 
It also indicates the sites of earlier cultures. The distribu- 
tion of megaliths in Asia Minor on the north coast of Africa 
and up the Atlantic seaboard through Spain, France and 
Britain to Scandinavia is set forth. These great stone 
monuments were seemingly the work of the Mediterranean 
race using, however, a culture of bronze acquired from the 
Alpines. The map also shows the sites throughout Russia 
of the kurgans, or ancient artificial mounds, distribution of 
which seems to correspond closely with the original habitat 
of the Nordics. 

In southwestern France there is indicated the area where 
the Cro-Magnon race persisted longest and where traces of it 
are still to be found. The site is shown of the type station 
of the latest phase of the Paleolithic known as the Mas 
d'Azil — a great cavern in the eastern Pyrenees from which 
that period took its name of Azilian. 

At the entrance of the Baltic Sea is also shown the type 
station of the Maglemose culture which flourished at the 
close of the Paleolithic and was probably the work of early 

In the centre of the district occupied by the Alpines is 
located Robenhausen, the most characteristic of the Neolithic 



lake dwelling stations and also the Terramara stations in 
which a culture transitional between the Neolithic and the 
Bronze existed. In the Tyrol the site is indicated of the 
village of Hallstatt, which gave its name to the first iron 

The site of La Tene at the north end of Lake Neuchatel 
in Switzerland is also shown. From this village the La 
Tene Iron Age takes its name. 

The difficulty of depicting the shifting of races during 
twelve centuries is not easily overcome, but the map attempts 
to show that at the close of the Neolithic all the coast 
lands of the Mediterranean and of the Atlantic seaboard up 
to Germany and including the British Isles were populated 
by the Mediterranean race, in addition, of course, to rem- 
nants of earlier Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons, who prob- 
ably, at that date, still formed an appreciable portion of 
the population. 

The yellow arrows indicate the route of the migrations of 
Mediterranean man, who appears to have entered Europe 
from the east along the African littoral. But the main in- 
vasions passed up through Spain and Gaul into the British 
Isles, where from that time to this they have formed the 
substratum of the population. In the central portion of 
their range these Mediterraneans were swamped by the 
Alpines, as shown by the spreading green, while in northern 
Gaul and Britain the Mediterraneans were submerged after- 
ward by Nordics, as appears on the later maps. 

The arrows and routes of migration shown on the yellow 
area of this map indicate changes which occurred during the 
Neolithic and perhaps earlier, but the pink and red arrows in 
the northern and southeastern portions represent migrations 
which were in full swing and in fact were steadily increasing 
during the entire period involved. The next map shows 
these Nordics bursting out of their original homeland in 
every direction and in their turn conquering Europe. 

Between these two races, the Mediterranean and the Nor- 
dic, there entered a great intrusion of Alpines, flowing from 
the highlands of western Asia through Asia Minor and up 
the valley of the Danube throughout central Europe and 


thence expanding in every direction. Forerunners of these 
same Alpines were found in western Europe as far back as 
the closing Azilian phase of the Paleolithic, where they are 
known as the Furfooz-Grenelle race and are thus contem- 
porary in western Europe with the earliest Mediterraneans. 

During all the Neolithic the Alpines occupied the moun- 
tainous core of Europe, but their great and final expansion 
occurred at the close of the Neolithic and the beginning of 
the Bronze Period, when a new and extensive Alpine invasion 
from the region of the Armenian highlands brought in the 
Bronze culture. This last migration apparently followed the 
routes of the earlier invasions and, in the extreme south- 
west, it even reached Spain in small numbers, where its 
remnants can still be found in the Cantabrian Alps. The 
Alpines occupied all Savoy and central France, where from 
that day to this they constitute the bulk of the peasant 
population. They reached Brittany and to-day that pe- 
ninsula is their westernmost outpost. They crossed over in 
small numbers to Britain and some even reached Ireland. 
In England they were the men of the Round Barrows, but 
nearly all trace of this invasion has vanished from the liv- 
ing population. 

The Alpines also reached Holland, Denmark and south- 
western Norway and traces of their colonization in these 
countries are still found. 

The author has attempted to indicate the lines of this 
Alpine expansion by means of the solid green spreading over 
central Europe and Asia Minor, with outlying dots showing 
the outer limits of the invasion. Black arrows proceeding 
from the east denote its main lines and routes. Those 
Alpines who crossed the Caucasus passed through southern 
Russia and a side wave of the same migration passed down 
the Syrian coast to Egypt and along the north coast of 
Africa, entering Italy by way of Sicily. The last African 
invasion left behind it the Giza round skulls of Egypt. 
This final Alpine expansion taught the other races of Europe, 
both Mediterranean and Nordic, the art of metallurgy. 

The Nordics apparently originated in southern Russia, 
but long before the Bronze Period they had spread north- 


ward across the Baltic into Scandinavia, where they special- 
ized into the race now known as the Scandinavian or Teu- 
tonic. On the map the continental Nordics are indicated 
by pink and the Nordics of Scandinavia are shown in red. 
At the very end of the period covered by this map, these 
Scandinavian Nordics were beginning to return to the con- 
tinent. The routes of these migrations and their extent are 
indicated by red arrows and circles respectively. 

To sum up, this map shows the expansion from central 
Asia of the round skull Alpines across central Europe, sub- 
merging, in the south and west, the little, dark, long skulled 
Mediterraneans of Neolithic culture, while at the same time 
they pressed heavily upon the Nordics in the north and intro- 
duced Bronze culture among them. 

This development of the Alpines at the expense of the 
Mediterraneans had a permanent influence in western Eu- 
rope, but in the north their impress was of a more temporary 
character. It is probable that in the first instance they 
were able to conquer the Nordics by reason of the superi- 
ority of bronze weapons to stone hatchets. But no sooner 
had they imparted the knowledge of the manufacture and 
use of metal weapons and tools to the Nordics than the latter 
turned on their conquerors and completely mastered them, 
as appears on the next map. 

The Expansion of the Pre-Teutonic Nordics, 
1800-100 B. C. 

The second map (PI. II) of the series shows the shatter- 
ing and submergence of the green Alpine area by the pink 
Nordic area. It will be noted that in Italy, Spain, France 
and Britain the solid green and the green dots have steadily 
declined and in central Europe the green has been torn 
apart and riddled in every direction by pink arrows and 
pink dots, leaving solid green only in mountainous and in- 
fertile districts. This submergence of the Alpines by the 
Nordics was so complete that their very existence was for- 
gotten until in our own day it was discovered that the 
central core of Europe was inhabited by a short, stocky, 
round skulled race originally from Asa. To-day these Al- 


pines are gradually recovering their influence in the world 
by sheer weight of numbers. On this map the green Alpine 
area is shown to be everywhere shrinking except in the 
countries around the Carpathians and the Dnieper River, 
where the Sarmatians and Wends are located. It was in 
this district that the Slavic-speaking Alpines were develop- 
ing. Simultaneously with this expansion toward the west, 
south and east of the continental Nordics, the Scandinavian 
or Teutonic tribes appear on the scene in increasing numbers, 
as shown by the red area and red arrows, pressing upon and 
forcing ahead of them their kinsmen on the mainland. 

The pink arrows in Spain show the invasion of Celtic- 
speaking Nordics, closely related to the Nordic Gauls who 
a little earlier had conquered France. This same wave of 
Nordic invasion crossed the Channel and appears in the 
pink dots of Britain and Ireland, where the intruders are 
known as Goidels. These early Nordics were followed 
some centuries later by another wave of kindred peoples 
who were known as Brythons or Cymry in Britain and as 
Belgae on the continent. These Cymric Belgas or Brythons 
probably represented the mixed descendants of the earliest 
Teutons who crossed from Scandinavia and had adopted 
and modified the Celtic languages spoken by the continental 
Nordics. These Cymric-speaking Nordics drove before 
them the earlier Gauls in France and the Goidels in Britain, 
but their impulse westward was very likely caused by the 
oncoming rush of pure Teutons from Scandinavia and the 
Baltic coasts. 

In Italy the pink arrows entering from the west show the 
route of the invading Gauls, who occupied the country north 
of the Apennines and made it Cisalpine Gaul, while the ar- 
rows entering Italy from the northeast show the earlier in- 
vasions of the Nordic Umbrians and Oscans, who introduced 
Aryan speech into Italy. Farther east in Greece and the 
Balkans, the pink arrows show the routes of invasion of the 
Achaeans and the kindred Phrygians of Homer as well as the 
later Dorians and Cimmerians. In the region of the Cau- 
casus, the routes of the invading Persians are shown and, 
north of the Caspian Sea, the line of migration of the Sacee 


from the grasslands of southern Russia toward the east. In 
the inset map in the upper right corner is shown the expan- 
sion of these Nordics into Asia, where the Sacae and closely 
related Massagetae occupied what is now Turkestan and 
from this centre swarmed over the mountains of Afghanis- 
tan into India and introduced Aryan speech among the 
swarming millions of that peninsula. 

In the northern part of the main map the expansion of the 
Teutonic Nordics is shown, with the Goths in the east and 
Saxons in the west of the red area, but the salient feature is 
the expansion of the pink at the expense of the green and 
the ominous growth of the red area centring around Scan- 
dinavia in the north. 

The Expansion of the Teutonic Nordics and Slavic 
Alpines, 100 B. C. to 1100 A. D. 

This map (PL III) shows the yellow area greatly diminished 
in central and northern Europe, while it retains its suprem- 
acy in Spain and Italy as well as on the north coast of 
Africa. In the latter areas the green dots have nearly van- 
ished and have been replaced by pink and red dots. In cen- 
tral Europe the green area is still more broken up and re- 
duced to a minimum. In the Balkans and eastern Europe, 
however, two large centres of green, north and south of the 
Danube respectively, represent the expanding power of the 
Slavic-speaking Alpines. The pink area of the continental 
Nordics is everywhere fading and is on the point of vanish- 
ing "as a distinctive type and of merging in the red. The 
expansion of the Teutonic Nordics from Scandinavia and 
from the north of Germany is now at its maximum and 
they are everywhere pressing through the Empire of Rome 
and laying the foundations of the modern nations of Europe. 
The Vandals have migrated from the coasts of the Baltic to 
what is now Hungary, then westward into France and 
finally, after occupying for a while southern Spain, under 
pressure of the kindred Visigoths to northern Africa, where 
they established a kingdom which is the sole example we 
have of a Teutonic state on that continent. The Visigoths 
and Suevi laid the foundations of Spain and Portugal, while 


the Franks, Burgundians and Normans transformed Gaul 
into France. 

Into Italy for a thousand years floods of Nordic Teutons 
crossed the Alps and settled along the Po Valley. While 
many tribes participated in these invasions, the most im- 
portant migration was that of the Lombards, who, coming 
from the basin of the Baltic by way of the Danubian plains, 
occupied the Po Valley in force and scattered a Teutonic 
nobility throughout the peninsula. The Lombard and 
kindred strains in the north give to that portion of the 
peninsula its present predominance over the provinces south 
of the Apennines. 

The conquest of the British Isles by the Teutonic and Scan- 
dinavian Nordics was far more complete than was their con- 
quest of Spain, Italy or even northern France. When these 
Teutons arrived upon the scene, the ancient, dark Neolithics 
had very largely absorbed the early Nordic invaders, Goidels 
and Cymry alike. Floods of Saxons, of Angles and later of 
Danes, crossed the Channel and the North Sea and displaced 
the old population in Scotland and the eastern half of Eng- 
land, while Norse Vikings following in their wake occupied 
nearly all of the outlying islands and much of the coast. 
Both these later invasions, Danish and Norse, passed around 
the greater island and inundated Ireland, so that the big, 
blond or red-haired Irishman of to-day is to a large extent a 
Dane in a state of culture analogous to that of Scotland 
before the Reformation. 

This map shows that the vitality of Scandinavia was far 
from exhausted after sending for upward of two thousand 
years tribe after tribe across to the continent and that it 
was now producing an extraordinarily vigorous type, the 
Vikings in the west and the equally warlike and energetic 
Varangians in the east, who migrated back to the mother- 
land of the Nordics and laid the foundations of modern 

While all these splendid conquests were in full swing a 
little known group of tribes was growing and spreading in 
eastern and southern Germany and in Austria-Hungary 
and occupying the lands left vacant by the Teutonic nations, 


which had invaded the Roman Empire. From this centre 
in the neighborhood of the Carpathians and in Galicia east- 
ward to the head of the Dnieper River, the Wends and Sarma- 
tians expanded in all directions. They were the ancestors 
of those Alpines who are to-day Slavic-speaking. From this 
obscure beginning came the bulk of the Russians and the 
South Slavs. The expansion of the Slavs is one of the most 
significant features of the Dark Ages and the author has 
attempted to indicate the centre of expansion of these 
tribes by green dots and green arrows, radiating in all direc- 
tions from the solid green area in Europe. To sum up this 
map, the yellow area has steadily declined everywhere, 
while in western Europe the green area is now limited to 
the infertile and backward mountain regions. In eastern 
Europe, however, this same green Alpine area is showing a 
marvellous capacity for recovery, as will appear from the 
map of the races of to-day. 

The red area is widely spread and occupies the river val- 
leys and the fertile lands and represents everywhere the rul- 
ing, military aristocracy more or less thinly scattered over 
a conquered peasantry of Mediterranean and Alpine blood. 
One phenomenon of dire import is shown on the map, where, 
coming from the districts north and east of the Caspian Sea, 
certain black arrows are seen shooting westward into Europe, 
reaching in one extreme instance as far as Chalons in France, 
where Attila nearly succeeded in destroying what remained 
of western civilization. These arrows mark respectively 
Huns, Cumans, Avars, Magyars, Bulgars and other Asiatic 
hordes, probably for the most part of Mongoloid origin and 
coming originally from central Asia far beyond the range 
of Aryan speech. These hordes of Mongoloids destroyed 
the budding culture of Russia, while at a later date kindred 
tribes under the name of Turks or Tatars flooded the Balkans 
and the valley of the Danube but these later invasions en- 
tered Europe from Asia Minor. 

The Present Distribution of European Races 

The preparation of the last map (PI. IV), showing the 
present distribution of European races, was in some respects 


a more intricate task than that of the earlier maps. The 
main difficulty is that, as a result of successive migrations 
and expansions, the different races of Europe are now often 
represented by distinct classes. Numerically one type may 
be in a majority, as are the Rumanians in eastern Hungary, 
where they constitute nearly two-thirds of the population. 
At the same time this majority is of no intellectual or social 
importance, since all the professional and military classes in 
Transylvania are either Magyar or Saxon. Under the exist- 
ing scheme of showing majorities by color these ruling mi- 
norities do not appear at all. In this last map the yellow is 
beginning to expand, especially in the British Isles. The 
green also is recovering somewhat in central and western 
Europe, but in the Balkans, eastern Germany, Austria 
and above all in Poland and Russia, it has largely replaced 
the former Nordic color. The pink, i. e., the continental 
Nordics as a distinct type, has entirely vanished and has 
been everywhere replaced by the Teutonic red. This does 
not mean that there are no existing remnants of the con- 
tinental Nordics, but it does mean that these remnants can- 
not now be distinguished from the all-pervading and master- 
ful type of the Teutonic Nordics. 

In general, this last map, as compared with the earlier ones, 
although showing a steady shrinkage of the Nordic area, 
brings out clearly the manner in which it centres around the 
basins of the Baltic and the North Sea, radiating thence in 
every direction and in decreasing numbers. The menace 
of the continued expansion of the green area westward and 
northward into the red area of the Nordics is undoubtedly 
one of the causes of the present world war. This expansion 
began as far back as the fall of Rome, but only in our day and 
generation has this backward race even claimed a parity of 
strength and culture with the Master Race. 


The purpose of these notes is to meet an insistent demand 
for authorities for the statements made in the body of the 
book. As was mentioned in the Introduction, in a work of 
this compass and aim, mere lack of space forbade all but 
the barest outlines, so that often an appearance of dogma- 
tism was the result. 

There is a vast literature on the subjects discussed and 
to give all the references would be almost a physical impos- 
sibility. It is particularly difficult to name all that has ap- 
peared in periodicals, since they have become so numerous, 
especially during the last few years. 

The author has in mind to refer only to those works which 
bear directly on the most essential statements made and, 
necessarily, to but a part of these. In many cases only books 
which are most easily available have been used. The author 
has intentionally quoted chiefly works in English, where 
these exist, and when using foreign authorities has trans- 
lated the statements. 

It must be clearly understood that the references are given 
for the facts rather than the theories they contain. In no 
case, unless specifically stated, is the author committed to 
the conclusions drawn in the works cited. In order to pre- 
sent all sides, authorities who differ in view-point are some- 
times listed, the reader being left to make his own decision 
of the case. 

It is hoped that the references will be of assistance to stu- 
dents of anthropology and to those who care to inquire 
further into the subjects under discussion. 

Where an author is quoted frequently or for more than 
one book, he is referred to merely by name; the book is 
given by number immediately following. Its full title may 
be ascertained in the bibliography. 




Page xix : line 22. Immutability of somatological or 
bodily characters. Charles B. Davenport, pp. 225 seq. and 
252 seq.: William E. Castle, 1, pp. 125 seq.; Frederick 
Adams Woods, 3, p. 107; and Edwin G. ConkUn, 1, pp. 191 
seq. See the note to p. 226, 7 for a quotation from Conklin 
bearing on this point. 

xix : 23. Immutability of psychical predispositions and 
impulses. See note above. Professor Irving Fisher said, 
on p. 627 of National Vitality, speaking of laws relating to 
eugenics: "What such laws might accomplish may be judged 
from the history of two criminal families, the 'Jukes' and 
the 'Tribe of Ishmael.' Out of 1,200 descendants from the 
founder of the 'Jukes' through 75 years, 310 were profes- 
sional paupers ... 50 were prostitutes, 7 murderers, 60 
habitual thieves, and 130 common criminals." Certainly 
these facts were not all due entirely to identity or similarity 
of environment. On p. 675 we read: "Similarly, the 'Tribe 
of Ishmael,' numbering 1,692 individuals in six generations, 
has produced 121 known prostitutes and has bred hundreds 
of petty thieves, vagrants and murderers. The history of 
the tribe is a swiftly moving picture of social degeneration 
and gross parasitism extending from its seventeenth-century 
convict ancestry to the present-day horde of wandering and 
criminal descendants." See R. L. Dugdale and Oscar C. 
McCulloch, pp. 154-159. For transmission of opposite ten- 
dencies see pp. 675-676, Fisher. The Jukes were a family of 
Dutch descent, living in an isolated valley in the mountains 
of northern New York. The Ishmaels were a family of 



central Indiana which came from Maryland through Ken- 
tucky. The Kalikak family is another striking instance. 
See also Davenport, 1, and the note to p. 226: 7. 

xxi : 5. Professor Charles B. Davenport says in corre- 
spondence: "By the way, it was Judge John Lowell who 
added 'free and' to the words of the Declaration in writing 
the Constitution of Massachusetts in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century." 

xxiii : 20-25. A Statistical Account of the British Empire. 
J. R. McCulloch, vol. I, pp. 400 seq. 


4 : 6. Archbishop Ussher, 1581-1656. See the New Schaff- 
Herzog Religious Encyclopedia; also other religious encyclo- 
pedias. Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, p. 8. 

5 : 15. See fimile Faguet, Le Culte de V Incompetence. 

6 : 3. Cf. The Loyalists of Massachusetts, by James H. 

9:7. A good description of conditions is to be found 
in Bryce's The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, p. 73, all of chapter XLII and elsewhere. 

10 : 3 seq. Charles B. Davenport, passim, has discussed 
migratory instincts, see especially 1. 

10 : 16-17. These conditions are quaintly described in 
what is known as the Italian Relation, translated by Charlotte 
Augusta Sneyd. See especially pp. 34 and 36. The result- 
ing laws may be found in Sir James Fitzjames Stephen's His- 
tory of the Criminal Law of England, vol. Ill, pp. 267 seq.; 
Pollard's Political History of England, vol. VI, pp. 29-30; 
Green's History of the English People, vol. II, pp. 20; and 

11:3. See the note to p. 79 : 15. 

11 : 17. See Notes to p. 218 : 16. 

11 : 20. For a very interesting series of letters written 
from Santo Domingo in 1808 concerning conditions among 
the whites as the negro slaves were gaining the ascendancy, 
consult the anonymous Secret History, or The Horrors of 
Santo Domingo, in a series of letters written by a lady at 


Cape Francois to Colonel Burr (late Vice-President of the 
United States), principally during the command of General 
Rochambeau. Lothrop Stoddard, in his French Revolution 
in San Domingo, pp. 25 seq., gives a vivid picture of these 
times and conditions. 

n : 24. Immigration Restriction and World Eugenics, 
Prescott Hall, pp. 125-127. 


13 : 7. See W. D. Matthew, Climate and Evolution; John 
C. Merriam,TAe Beginnings of Human History, Read from the 
Geological Record: The Emergence of Man, especially pp. 208- 
209 of the first part; and Madison Grant, The Origin and 
Relationships of North American Mammals, pp. 5-7. 

13 : 20. Mendelism. See Edwin G. Conklin, 1, chap. 
Ill, C, pp. 224 seq., or 2, vol. X, no. 2, pp. 170 seq. Also 
Punnett's Mendelism, or the appendix to Castle's Genetics 
and Eugenics, which is a translation of Mendel's paper. 
Practically all late writers on heredity give Mendel's prin- 

13 : 22-14 : IO - For these and other statements on hered- 
ity see the writings of Charles B. Davenport, Frederic Adams 
Woods, G. Archdall Reid, Edwin G. Conklin, Thomas Hunt 
Morgan, E. B. Wilson, J. Arthur Thomson, William E. 
Castle, and Henry Fairfield Osborn, 2. 

14 : 10 seq. Blends. E. G. Conklin remarks in corre- 
spondence: "In so far as races interbreed, their characters 
mingle but do not blend or fuse, and come out again in all 
their purity in descendants." See also the same authority, 
1, pp. 208, 280, 282-287. 

Every now and then an observation is met with which 
corroborates this statement. The inheritance from one par- 
ent or the other of the shape of the skull, in a fairly pure 
form, has been noted a number of times. 

Fleure and James in their study of the Anthropological 
Types in Wales, p. 39, make the following observation: "It 
may be said that certain component features of head form, 
in many cases, seem to segregate more or less in Mendelian 


fashion, but this is a matter for further investigation; we 
are on safer ground in saying that the children of parents 
of different head form very frequently show a fairly complete 
resemblance to one or other parent, i. e., that head form is 
frequently inherited in a fairly pure fashion." 

Von Luschan found still more striking evidence of this 
in his study of modern Greeks, which he describes in his 
Early Inhabitants of Western Asia. He has found that the 
children of parents of different head form inherit in quite 
strict fashion the shape of skull of one or the other parent, 
and that the population, instead of being mesaticephalic, is 
to-day as distinctly divided into two groups, dolicho- and 
brachycephalic, as in prehistoric times, in spite of the con- 
stant intermixture that has occurred. 

14 : 18. See notes to p. 13. This is a statement made 
by Dr. Davenport, in correspondence. 

15 : 17. On the Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon types con- 
sult Professor Arthur Keith, 1, pp. 101-1 20, and 2 ; also Henry 
Fairfield Osborn, 1, the table on p. 23, pp. 214 seq., 289 seq., 
291-305 and elsewhere, and the authorities given. 

On the resurgence of types, see Beddoe, 4; Fleure and 
James; Giuffrida-Ruggeri; Parsons; and numerous other re- 
cent anthropologists. 

15 : 25. See the notes to p. xix of the Introduction to 
this book, and Keith, 2. 

15 : 29 seq. Professor G. Elliot Smith, The Ancient Egyp- 
tians, chap. IV, and pp. 41 seq. On p. 43 we read: "If we 
want to add to such sources of information and complete 
the picture of the early Egyptian ... he can be found re- 
incarnated in his modern descendants with surprisingly little 
change, either in physical characteristics or mode of life, to 
show for the passage of six thousand years." On p. 44: 
"Although alien elements from north and south have been 
coming into Upper Egypt for fifty centuries, it has been a 
process of percolation, and not an overwhelming rush; the 
population has been able to assimilate the alien minority 
and retain its own distinctive features and customs with only 
slight change; and however large a proportion of the popula- 
tion has taken on hybrid traits resulting from Negro, Arab, 


or Armenoid admixture, there still remain in the Thebaid 
large numbers of its people who present features and bodily 
conformation precisely similar to those of their remote an- 
cestors, the Proto-Egyptians." See also G. Sergi, 1, p. 65, 
and 4, p. 200. 

17:5. See Franz Boas, Changes in the Bodily Form of the 
Descendants of Immigrants, pp. 9, 27, etc. 

17 : 28-18 : 7. See the notes to p. 13. 

18 : 13. See notes to p. 14. Also Ripley, pp. 465-466 for 
a statement as to brunetness. 

18 : 24-19 : 2. E. G. Conklin, 1, pp. 454 _ 455> and 2, es- 
pecially vol. X, no. 1, pp. 55-58. 

19 : 3. Anders Retzius was the first to make use of the 
head form in anthropological study, and to give the impetus 
to the index measurement system in The Form of the Skulls 
of the Northern Peoples of Europe. See also A. C. Haddon, 1, 
chap. I, in which he discusses these traits in full, and Ripley, 
chap. Ill, especially pp. 55 seq. Modern physical anthro- 
pologists still agree that the skull form is a most stable and 
reliable character. 

19 : 25. Ripley, p. 39. 

19 : 27-pp. 20 and 21. Beddoe, Broca, Collignon, Livi, 
Topinard and a host of other anthropologists all affirm the 
existence of three European racial types, which Ripley has 
discussed exhaustively. Deniker alone differs from them in 
classifying the populations of Europe, from the same data, 
into six principal races and four or more sub-races. See 
Appendix D, in Ripley's Races of Europe. 

The three terms, Nordic, Alpine and Mediterranean, have 
now become quite generally accepted designations for the 
three European races. The term Nord, rather than Nordic, 
has been chosen, perhaps more wisely, by some authors. 
In the present book these names are applied with quite dif- 
ferent connotations from those usually understood. 

It cannot be too clearly stated that in speaking of Nordics, 
the proto-type was probably quite generalized, with hair 
shades including the browns and reds. In the author's 
opinion the blond Scandinavian represents an extreme spe- 
cialization of Nordic characters. (See p. 167 of this book.) 


20 : 5-24. The term Nordic was first used by Deniker. 
The authorities for the descriptions of these races may all 
be found in Ripley. The Mediterranean race was first de- 
fined by Sergi, who also calls it Eurafrican. The term Al- 
pine, proposed by Linnaeus, was revived by DeLapouge, and 
later adopted by Ripley, since when it has come into general 
use. Sergi and Zaborowski prefer that of Eurasian. While 
this latter name does cover the requirements, since it correctly 
signifies not only the European and Asiatic range of the peo- 
ple under discussion, but also their actual relationship to 
Asiatics, it is objectionable because it implies the adoption 
of the similarly constructed term Eurafrican, which, as de- 
fined by Sergi, is misleading. Correct as Eurafrican may be 
for signifying the European and African range of the Medi- 
terranean race, it involves an acceptance of the theory put 
forward by its sponsor, that the Mediterranean race orig- 
inated in Africa and is closely related to the negro, both being 
long-skulled peoples, descended from a common stock, the 

The chief objection to the term Mediterranean is that the 
race extends in habitat beyond the Mediterranean region, 
but the name is now so generally accepted and this fact so 
well known that misunderstandings are unlikely. The term 
Alpine, also, is not as inappropriate as it might seem, since 
the word Alps is frequently not confined to the Swiss ranges 
but extended to many other mountain chains, and Alpine, 
like the term Mediterranean, is not, at this late date, apt to 
be misunderstood. 

20 : 24-21 : 9. Von Luschan, The Early Inhabitants of 
Western Asia, pp. 221-244, and G. Elliot Smith, The Ancient 

22 : 10. Thomson, Heredity, p. 387; Darwin, Descent of 
Man; Boas, Modern Populations of America, p. 571. 

22 : 25. Haddon, 1, pp. 15 seq. 

22 : 29. The same, pp. 12-14. 

23 : 8. Clark Wissler, in The American Indian, makes 
clear the general uniformity of American Indian types in 
chap. XVIII. See also Haddon, 1, p. 8, and Hrdlicka, The 
Genesis of the American Indian, pp. 559 seq. 


23 : 13. Haddon, 1, pp. 10 and 11. There are numerous 
other references to this fact, especially in articles in various 
anthropological journals, and general works on anthropology, 
such as those of Deniker, Collignon, Martin and Ratzel. 

23 : 16. For the differentiation of skull types in Europe 
during the Paleolithic period, see Keith, 2, the chapters on 
Pre-Neolithic, Mousterian and Neanderthal man; and 1, 
pp. 74 seq.; as well as Osborn, 1, who also gives the dates of 
the Paleolithic in the table on p. 18. 

24 : 3-5. This claim was put forth by Sergi, in his Medi- 
terranean Race, pp. 252, 258-259, and was followed by Ripley 
in his Races of Europe. 

24 : 14. Deniker, Races of Man, pp. 48-49; Ripley, p. 465. 

25 : 5. Topinard, 1, 4; Collignon, 1; and Virchow, 1, p. 
325; Ripley, p. 64. Ripley says: "If the hair be light, one 
can generally be sure that the eyes will be of a correspond- 
ing shade. Bassanovitch, ... p. 29, strikingly confirms 
this rule even for so dark a population as the Bulgarian." 

25 : 6. See p. 163 of this book on the Albanians. 

25 : 8. Ripley, pp. 75-76 and the footnote on p. 76. 

25 : 11. Deniker, 2, p. 51. Also Davenport, passim. 

25 : 13. Sir Edmund Loder, in correspondence, February, 
191 7, asks: "Has it been noticed at Creedmore and elsewhese 
in America that nearly all noted shots have blue eyes? It 
has been very noticeable at Wimbledon and Bisby, where it 
was quite exceptional to find a man in the front rank of 
marksmen with dark colored eyes. There was, however, one 
man who shot in my team who had very dark eyes and was 
one of the best shots of the day." 

25 : 16. There are said to be blue eyes occasionally in 
other races, where traces of Nordic blood cannot be discov- 
ered. Green and blue eyes have been found among the 
Rendeli (Desert Masai), although they are otherwise normal 

25 : 19. The following quotation is from Von Luschan, 
1, p. 224: "In Marmaritza near Halikarnassos, where a 
British squadron had a winter station for many years, a 
very great proportion of the children is said to be 'flaxen- 
haired.'" According to a statement made to the author by 


Professor G. Elliot Smith on May 4, 1920, a similar nest of 
blondness is found in the Egyptian delta near Aboukir and 
is due to the fact that after the battle of the Nile the Sea- 
forth Highlanders were long stationed there. At one time 
this blondness was supposed to bear some relation to the 
ancient Lybian blondness depicted on the monuments. 

25 : 25 seq. On the Berbers see Sergi, 4, pp. 59 seq., and 
Topinard, 3. In regard to the Albanians, Ripley refers to 
their blondness, on p. 414, as follows: "The Albanian colo- 
nists, studied by Livi and Zampa in Calabria, still, after four 
centuries of Italian residence and intermixture, cling to many 
of their primitive characteristics, notably their brachy- 
cephaly and their relative blondness." See also Zampa, 1, 
and Deniker, 1, for scientific discussions of their physical 
characters. Giuffrida-Ruggeri gives a summary of the most 
recent literature on Albania. 

25 : 29-26 : 6. See Beddoe, The Races of Britain, pp. 14, 
15 and passim. 

26 : 18. Beddoe, 4, p. 147. 

27 : 1 seq. See Ripley, pp. 399-400 for a summary of ob- 
servations on this point. See also Darwin, Descent of Man, 
pp. 340-341 and 344 seq.; and Fleure and James, p. 49. 

27 : 14-28 : 19. Haddon, 1, p. 2; also 2; Deniker, 2, chap. 
II and passim. 

28 : 19. Davenport, passim; Ripley, passim; and any 
general book on anthropology. 

28 : 24-29 : 17. Ripley, pp. 80, 81, 84, 108-109, 131, 132, 
252, 271, 307. Also see Davenport and Conklin, passim, 
and the notes to p. 18 of this book. 

30 : 18-31 : 8. For a very interesting discussion of this 
question see Conklin, 2, vol. IX, no. 6, pp. 492-6; Deniker, 
2, p. 18; Haddon, 2, chap. IV; and Louis R. Sullivan, The 
Growth of the Nasal Bridge in Children, are other authorities. 
Some special studies of the nose have been made by Majer 
and Koperniki, Weisbach, and Olechnowicz, for which see 
Ripley, pp. 394-395. Jacobs, pp. 23-62, is particularly good 
on nostrility. 

31 : 9. Deniker, 2, p. 83. 

31 : 13. On the shape of the foot as a racial character see 


Rudolf Martin, Lehrbuch der Anthropologic, pp. 317 seq.; and 
Beddoe, 4, pp. 245 seq.; W. K. Gregory, 2, p. 14, and John 
C. Merriam, vol. LX, pp. 202 seq., have both discussed the 
evolution of the foot and the hand, and the anatomical differ- 
ences which distinguish those of man from those of the 

31 : 16. P. Topinard, 2, chap. X, and Rudolf Martin, 
pp. 367 seq. 

32 : 4. Beard lighter than head hair. Darwin, Descent 
of Man, p. 850. 

32 : 8. The red-haired branch of the Nordics. On red 
hair see Beddoe, 4, pp. 3, 151-156; Fleure and James, Anthro- 
pological Types in Wales, pp. 118 seq.; Ripley, pp. 205-207, 
based on Arbo; T. Rice Holmes, Ccesar's Conquest of Gaul, 
p. 337; and F. G. Parsons, Anthropological Observations on 
German Prisoners of War, pp. 32 seq. 

32 : 21. See notes to p. 66. 

t,^ : 7. Haddon, 1, p. 9 seq.; Deniker, Races of Man; 
Ratzel, History of Mankind; etc. 

33 : 13. Haddon, 1, p. 16 seq.; Deniker; Ratzel; etc. 

33 : 23-34 : 21. Haddon, 1, pp. 2 and 3, and Deniker, 2, 
pp. 42 seq. While this classification is substantially sound, 
and sufficient for our purpose, recent investigations have 
shown that other factors also contribute to straightness or 
kinkiness, such as coarseness of texture, as opposed to fine- 
ness. Probably these will be determined by Mr. Louis R. 
Sullivan, of the American Museum of Natural History, who 
is working on the subject. It has been found that the Japa- 
nese and Eskimo are exceptions to the rule of " straight hair, 
round cross-section," for they show an ellipse. There is also 
a wide range of variation in the cross-sections of hair for in- 
dividuals of any race, who are classified according to the 
preponderance of cross-sections of a single type. For a fine 
series of plates which are photographs of the magnified hair 
of individuals of various races, see Das Haupthaare und seiner 
Bildungsstatte bei den Rassen des Menschen, Gustave Fritsch. 
Another recent paper is the study by Leon Augustus Haus- 
mann of Cornell, "The Microscopic Structure of the Hair 
as an Aid in Race Determination." 


35 : 27. Livi, Antropometria Militate, and Ripley, pp. 
115, 255 and 258. 

36. Deniker, 1 ; Zampa, 1, 2; Weisbach, 1, 2, 3; and others 
given by Ripley, pp. 411-415- 


37 : 6. Sir G. Archdall Reid, The Principles of Heredity, 
chaps. VII, VIII, DC 

37 : 17. Ripley discusses them in full in chap. VI. 

37 : 20-38 : 2. W. Boyd Dawkins, Early Man in Britain, 
p. 233; Keane, Ethnology, pp. no seq.; Osborn, Men of the 
Old Stone Age, pp. 220, 479-486 seq.; Keith, Antiquity of 
Man, p. 16. 

38 : 10. Ellsworth Huntington, 1, p. 83; Charles E. 
Woodruff, 1, pp. 85-86; also the Report of the Smithsonian 
Institution for 1891, which contains an article on "Isothermal 

38 : 17 seq. Ellsworth Huntington, 1, pp. 86 seq. 

40 : 27. Ellsworth Huntington, 1, pp. 14, 27. 

41 : 25-42. G. Retzius, On the So-called North European 
Race of Mankind, p. 300; and many other authorities. 

43 : 23. Ripley, pp. 352 seq. and 470. 

44 : 17. G. Elliot Smith, 1, p. 61; G. Sergi, 4. 

44 : 26. Ripley, pp. 443 and 582-583. 

45 : 2. Beddoe, 4, p. 270. 


47 : 17. Prescott F. Hall, Immigration Restriction and 
World Eugenics. 

49 : 15-51. See the Eugenics Record Office Bulletins, 10A 
and 10B, by Harry H. Laughlin, Cold Spring Harbor, Long 
Island. Part I is "The Scope of the Committee's Work"; 
Part II, "The Legal, Legislative and Administrative Aspects 
of Sterilization." See also H. H. Hart, Sterilization as a 
Practical Measure; and Raymond Pearl, The Sterilization of 
Degenerates; as well as The Eugenical News for April, May 
and August, 1918. 


52 : 17. Sir Francis Gal ton, Hereditary Genius, pp. 351- 
359; Darwin, The Descent of Man, p. 218. 

53 : 6. Galton, Hereditary Genius, pp. 345-346. 

55 : 3 sea - Sir G. Archdall Reid, 2, p. 182; The Handbook 
of the American Indian, under Health and Disease; Payne, 
A History of the New World Called America; and elsewhere in 
early accounts. Also, Paul Popenoe, One Phase of Man's 
Modern Evolution, p. 618. 


60 : 18. See the note to p. 18. 

62 : 2. Ripley, passim; and the notes to pp. 142 : 23, 
172 : 22, 187 : 23, 188 : 15, 195 : 18, 213 and 247 of this 

63 : 13. This absence of round skulls was universally ac- 
cepted, but recent studies show an appreciable Alpine ele- 
ment which is increasing. 

64 : 2 seq. See pp. 201 and 203. 

64 : 18. Ripley discusses the Slavs in full in chap. XIII, 
and gives the original sources for all of his information. 

65 : 1. Ripley, pp. 422-428. 

65 : 3. Von Luschan, 1; Ripley, pp. 406-411. 

65 : 14. Ripley, pp. 361 seq. 

66 : 4. Blumenbach was the first to divide the races into 
Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian, American and Malayan, 
in his De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa, in 1775. 

66 : 8-23. Ossetes. For a full description of these peo- 
ple see Zaborowski, Les peuples aryens d'Asie et a" Europe, 
pp. 246-272. Deniker likewise treats of them in Races of 
Man, p. 356. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. 37, says: 
"Klaproth first proved in 1822 that the Ossetes are the same 
as the Caucasian Alans, and this is supported by the testi- 
mony of the chroniclers, Russian, Georgian, Greek and 
Arab. From Ammianus Marcellinus (XXXI, II, 16-25) we 
know that at the time of the Huns' invasion these Alans pas- 
tured their herds over the plains to the north of the Cau- 
casus, and made raids upon the coast of the Maeotis and the 


peninsula of Taman. The Huns passed through their land, 
plundering Ermanrich, the king of the Goths. . . . Ammi- 
anus means by Alans all the nomadic tribes about the Tanais 
(Don) and gives a description of their habits, borrowed from 
the account of the Scythians in Herodotus. For the first 
three centuries of our era we find these Alans mentioned 
(Pliny, JV. H., IV, 80; Dionysius Perigetes, 305, 306; Fl. 
Josephus, Bell. Jud., VII, VII, 4; Ptolemy, etc.), as neighbors 
of the Sarmatians on this side or the other of the Don, liv- 
ing the same life and counting as one of their tribes. That 
is, that the Ossetes, Jasy, Alans, Sarmatians* are all of one 
stock, once nomad, now confined to the valleys of the cen- 
tral chain of the Caucasus. The Ossetes are tall, well-made, 
and inclined to be fair, corresponding to the description of 
the Alans in Ammianus (XXXI, II, 21) and their Iranian 
language answers to the accounts of the Sarmatians, of 
whom Pliny says 'Medorum ut ferunt soboles' (N.H., VI, 


Chantre found among the Ossetes 30 per cent of blonds. 
See Chantre, 2. 

66 : 16. Alans. See Jordanes, History of the Goths, 
Mierow translation. Procopius, writing about 550 A. D., 
says: "At this time the Alani and the Absagi were Chris- 
tians and friends of the Romans of old and lived in the 
neighborhood of the Caucasus." In his vol. Ill, chap. II, 
2-8, we read of the period from 395-425 A. D. "There were 
many Gothic nations in earlier times just as also at the 
present, but the greatest and most important of all are the 
Goths, Vandals, Visigoths and Gepaedes. In ancient times, 
however, they were named Sauromatae and Melanchlaeni, 
and there were some too who called these nations Getic. 
All these, while they are distinguished from one another by 
their names, as has been said, do not differ in anything else 
at all. For they all have white bodies and fair hair and are 
tall and handsome to look upon, and they use the same 
laws, and practise a common religion. For they are all of 

*The author agrees with Zaborowski and differs from Minns in 
his belief that the Ossetes are of Nordic stock while the Sarmatians 
were Alpines. 


the Arian faith and have one language called 'Gothic.'" 
(Procopius thinks they all came originally from one tribe, 
and were distinguished later by the names of those who led 
each group of old. They dwelt north of the Danube and 
later the Gepsedes took possession of the portion south of the 
river. In regard to the derivation of the Goths and other 
tribes from the Sauromatae, compare the note on Sarmatians, 
for p. 143 : ax.) As to the Goths in the Crimea see Zeuss, 
Die Deutschen, pp. 432 seq.; F. Kluge, Geschichte der gotischen 
Sprache, pp. 515 seq. C rim-go tisch existed as a language in 
southern Russia up to the 16th century. 
66 : 23. Scythians. See the note to p. 214 : 10. 

66 : 24. Indo-European. The earliest known occurrence 
of this term is in an article in The Quarterly Review for 18 13, 
written by Doctor Thomas Young (no. XIX, p. 225). 

Indo-Germanic. This term, although said not to have 
been invented by Klaproth, was used by him as early as 
1823. See Leo Meyer, in Uber den Ur sprung der Namen 
Indo-Germanen, Semiten und Ugro-finner, Gottingergelehrte 
Nachrichten, philologisch-historische Klasse, 1901, pp. 454 seq. 

67 : 4. The idea of an Aryan race was first promulgated 
by Oscar Schrader in his Sprachvergleichung und Ur geschichte. 
That there was an original Aryan tongue but no Aryan race 
was the idea of Broca. P6sche identified the Aryans with 
the Reihengraber type. Consult also Penka, Herkunft der 
Arier and Origmes Ariacce. 

67 : 12. See Zaborowski, 1, pp. 1-10. 

67 : 15. See the notes to p. 70 : 22 seq. 

67 : 19. See the notes to p. 242 : 5. 

68 : 11. See pp. 192-193 and elsewhere, in this book. 


69 : 10. See T. Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 185-199. The same 
thing may have happened in Britain at Caesar's conquest, 
and still more in the Saxon conquest. 

70 : 4 seq. See p. 206 : 13 and note. 

70 : 12-71 : 6. These paragraphs elicited a very inter- 
esting letter from a British officer in Howrah, Bengal, India, 


in October, 1919. He says: "May I offer one or two re- 
marks on points of detail? On p. 70 it is stated 'The Hindu 
today speaks a very ancient form of Aryan language but 
there remains not one recognizable trace of the blood of the 
white conquerors who poured in through the passes of the 
Northwest,' and again at p. 261, 'Of all the wonderful con- 
quests of the Sacae there remain as evidence of their in- 
vasions only these Indian and Afghan languages. Dim 
traces of their blood, as stated before, have been found in 
the Pamirs and in Afghanistan, but in the South their blond 
traits have vanished, even from the Punjab. It may be 
that the stature of some of the Afghan hill tribes and of the 
Sikhs, and some of the facial characters of the latter, are 
derived from this source, but all blondness of skin, hair and 
eye of the original Sacae have utterly vanished.' 

"This hardly agrees with my own observations during two 
years' service in the Punjab and Northwest Frontier Prov- 
ince. I should say that among the Pathans living in British 
territory about Peshawar, blond traits, — fair skin, the color 
of old ivory, red or brown hair, grey, green, or blue eyes, — are 
as common as really black hair is in Scotland; while among 
Panjabi Mussulmans living about Jhelum these traits are, 
if not common, at least not extremely rare. Judging from 
the experience of one squadron of cavalry, I should put the 
proportion of men with blond traits at not less than one 
per cent. The women, whom one does not see, must be 
fairer than the men, as elsewhere. I have seen a small Pan- 
jabi Mahommedan girl, from about Dera Ismail Khan with 
yellow hair. I have also seen a Sikh with red hair, but that 
was certainly exceptional. 

"These remarks are based on what I have seen myself, 
though no statistics are kept and it is possible that I am 
generalizing from insufficient data. It would not, however, 
I think, be too much to say that 'Blond traits are not un- 
common in Afghanistan, and are even to be found among 
Mussulmans in the Northwestern Pan jab.' (Afghans and 
Indian Mussulmans of course sometimes dye their beards 
red, but this artificial blondness has not been confused with 
the real thing.) " 


The following quotation is from The Outlook for March 
10, 1920, which contains an article entitled "The Present 
Situation in India," by Major-General Thomas D. Pilcher, 
of the British Army. 

"Beside these castes there are tribes, and the Brahmin 
from the Punjab has very little indeed in common with the 
Brahmin from Bengal or Madras. Many Pathans and 
Punjabi Mohammedans have blue eyes and are no darker 
than a southern European, whereas some of the depressed 
tribes are as black as Negroes. Many of the northern peo- 
ples are at least as tall as men of our own race, whereas other 
tribes do not average five feet." 

70 : 16. Castes. Deniker, 2, p. 403 : " About 2,000 castes 
may be enumerated at the present day, 'but year by year 
new ones are being called into existence as a certain number 
disappear." In his footnote Deniker says: "The so-called 
primitive division into four castes: Brahmans (priests), 
Kshatriya (soldiers), Vaisyas (husbandmen and merchants), 
and Sudra (common people, outcasts, subject peoples?), 
mentioned in the later texts of the Vedas, is rather an indi- 
cation of the division into three principal classes of the ruling 
race as opposed, in a homogeneous whole, to the conquered 
aboriginal race (fourth caste)." He continues: "The essen- 
tial characteristics of all castes, persisting amid every change 
of form, are endogamy within themselves and the regulation 
forbidding them to come into contact one with another and 
partake of food together." 

See also Zaborowski, Les peuples aryens, p. 65. There is, 
of course, an enormous number of books which deal with the 
caste system of India. 

71:7. Sir G. Archdall Reid, 2, p. 186: "If history teaches 
any lesson with clearness, it is this, that conquest, to be 
permanent, must be accompanied with extermination; other- 
wise, in the fulness of time, the natives expel or absorb the 
conquerors. The Saxon conquest of England was perma- 
nent; of the Norman conquest there remains scarcely a trace." 

71 : 24. See pp. 217-222 and notes. 

72 : 4. See the notes to p. 141 : 4 seq. 

72 : 19. Ripley, pp. 219-220, says: "Thf r*c question 


in Germany came to the front some years ago under rather 
peculiar circumstances. Shortly after the Franco-Prussian 
War, De Quatrefages promulgated the theory . . . that the 
dominant people in Germany were not Teutons at all, but 
were directly descended from the Finns. Being nothing but 
Finns, they were to be classed with the Lapps and other 
peoples of western Russia. . . . Coming at a time of pro- 
found national humiliation in France . . . the book created 
a profound sensation. ... A champion of the Germans 
was not hard to find. Professor Virchow of Berlin set him- 
self to work to disprove the theory which thus damned the 
dominant people of the empire. The controversy, half politi- 
cal and half scientific, waxed hot at times. . . . One great 
benefit flowed indirectly from it all, however. The German 
government was induced to authorize the official census of 
the color of hair and eyes of the six million school children of 
the empire. ... It established beyond question the differ- 
ences in pigmentation between the North and the South of 
Germany. At the same time it showed the similarity in 
blondness between all the peoples along the Baltic. The 
Hohenzollern territory was as Teutonic in this respect as the 

73 : 6. Deniker is one of these. See his Races of Man, 
p. 334. Collignon is another. See the Bulletin de la Sociiti 
d' anthropologic, Paris, 1883, p. 463; and V Anthropologic, no. 
2, for 1890. 

73 : 11. See Keith, 3, p. 19; Beddoe, 4, p. 39; and Ripley, 
section on Germany. 

73 : 19. Beddoe, 4, pp. 39-40; Deniker, 2, p. 339; Ripley, 
p. 294. 

74 : 12. See the note to p. 198 : 22. 


76 : 16. An old edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
states: "The pure white population [of Venezuela] is esti- 
mated at only one per cent of the whole, the remainder of 
the inhabitants being Negroes (originally slaves, now all free), 
Indians and mixed races (Mulattos and Zambos)." 



The nth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica estimates 
the percentage of whites, the Creole element (whites of Eu- 
ropean descent), at 10 per cent, as in Colombia, and the mixed 
races at 70 per cent, the remainder consisting of Africans, 
Indians and resident foreigners. 

76 : 19. Jamaica. The New International Encyclopedia, 
1915 edition, gives as follows figures which agree with the 
1915 Statesman's Yearbook: 





















*East Indians, 17,380; Chinese, 2,111; not stated, 2,905. 

76 : 21. The nth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica 
gives the entire population of Mexico as 13,607,259, of which 
less than one-fifth (19 per cent) were classed as whites, 38 
per cent as Indians, and 43 per cent as mixed bloods. 
There were 57,507 foreign residents, including a few Chinese 
and Filipinos. 

78 : 5. The Argentine Republic. In 1810 the population 
was approximately 250,000; in 1895, 3,955,110; in 1914, 
7,885,237. For a total of fifty-nine years in which the sta- 
tistics have been kept, the number of immigrants from Mon- 
tevideo is 4,711,013. They were divided by nationality as 

Italians 2,259,933 

Spaniards 1,492,848 

French 225,049 

English . 







Other nationalities. 










For added information on the Argentine, see the Statistical 
Book of the Argentine Republic, 191 5; Argentine Geography, 
published by Urien & Colombo; and Juan Alsina's European 
Immigration to the Argentine. 

78 : 22. Philippines. The following figures were taken 
from the New International Encyclopedia and the Statesman's 
Yearbook for 1915. The size of the population was estab- 
lished in June, 1914. 

Total population 8,650,937 

Native born 6,931,548 or 99.2% 

Chinese 41.035 or 0.6% 

Americans and Europeans. . . 20,000 or 0.3% 

The natives are mostly of the Malayan race with the excep- 
tion of 25,000 Negrito tribesmen. 

78 : 24. Dutch East Indies. The figures are taken from 
the census of 1905. 

Total population is approximately 38,000,000 

Europeans 80,910 

Chinese 563,000 

Arabs 29,000 

Other Orientals 23,000 

78 : 25. British India. The figures are from the census 
of 1911: 

Total population 315,156,396 

(Of these 650,502 were not born in India.) 

The remainder are divided according to the languages 


East Asiatics 4,410,000 

Tibeto-Chinese 12,970,000 

Dravidian 62,720,000 

Aryan 232,820,000 

European 320,000 

81 : 5. See Francis Parkman, The Old Rtgime in Canada, 
vol. II, pp. 12 and 13. 

82 : 10. See Sir Harry Johnston, The Negro in the New 
World, p. 343. 


83 : 8. See the Genealogical Records of the Society of the 
Colonial Wars. 

84 : 6. See the notes to p. 38. 

84 : 11 seq. A letter from Abraham C. Strite. a lawyer of 
Hagerstown, Maryland, contains additional information on 
the so-called Pennsylvania Dutch. Mr. Strite says: "They 
are not Palatine Germans, but largely Swiss who speak a 
dialect of German. The writer happens to be of this stock. 
Its characteristics are round head, black hair, dark brown 
eyes, stocky stature, brunet type, all clearly indicating, ac- 
cording to your analysis, an Alpine origin. This description 
fairly well averages up the prevailing Pennsylvania Dutch 
type of this section although there are some red heads and 
some blonds which would indicate a Nordic admixture, 
again meeting your argument. There are many other varie- 
ties of Teutons in this section, but I am confining my remarks 
to the class known as the Pennsylvania Dutch. I have never 
made any head measurements among them but I am of the 
opinion that the round-headed type vastly predominates. 
The ancestors of these people emigrated from southern Eu- 
rope, mostly Switzerland, in quite some numbers between the 
years 1700 and 1775, and settled in Lancaster County, Pa.; 
from thence they have spread out over the adjoining sec- 
tions of Pennsylvania, down through the Cumberland valley 
and into the valley of Virginia, and today they form an 
important element of the population. They are the organ- 
izers in America of the religious sect known as the Mennon- 

"The early settlers of Germantown who were Mennonites, 
were of Palatine stock. Of this there can be no doubt. 
Later immigration to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, which 
constituted the bulk of the Pennsylvania Dutch stock will be 
found, I think, largely to have come from Switzerland, al- 
though not exclusively. Rupp's 30,000 Names of Immigrants 
to America gives the names, dates and sailings of this Men- 
nonite stock. Your conclusions are correct enough for all 
practical purposes but it seemed to me that the immigrants 
from Switzerland and from the Palatinate might be dis- 


Doctor C. P. Noble, of Radnor, Pa., writes concerning the 
Pennsylvania Dutch: "I have seen much of them as patients 
and as I have observed them they have the medium stature 
and stocky build of the Alpines, also they have, usually, 
broad, round faces which are associated with brachycephaly 
and certainly they have always exhibited peasant traits. 
Moreover, it is unusual to find a blond among them." 

Doctor Jordan, of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, 
furnished Doctor Noble with some data concerning them. 
That there were some Alpine elements among them will ap- 
pear from what follows. Doctor Jordan agreed that the 
present-day Pennsylvania Germans are almost exclusively 
brunet, with stocky bodies of moderate height. Existing 
portraits of various leaders among them when they arrived 
in Pennsylvania showed the same types. Furthermore, 
Doctor Jordan's extensive reading of early documents re- 
lating to them tends to confirm the belief that the present- 
day descendants represent the original types. Tall blonds 
are very rare among them. 

Doctor Noble knows some individuals with Nordic traits, 
but these were acquired by intermarriage with Anglo-Saxons. 
Most of these groups came from southern Germany, from 
Silesia on the east to the Palatinate on the west. 

The following are Doctor Jordan's notes: 

Moravians. They were located in Pennsylvania, at first 
in Bethlehem and later in Nazareth. The land in Nazareth 
was purchased of Whitfield, the predestinarian Methodist. 

The Moravian immigration was carefully supervised. The 
church either owned or chartered the vessels which brought 
over the immigrants. Frequently it was definitely arranged 
as to how many artisans of each trade should come over so 
that they would prosper on arrival. 

The Moravian immigration was small — about 500 up to 
1750. Until about 1840 the Moravian settlements were 
closed towns — no non-Moravians could buy property. 

Not one quarter of the present Moravians are descendants 
of the early settlers. The rest are converts or descendants 
of converts. A connection exists between the Moravians, 
Huss and his Protestant followers, and the Waldenses. A 


short resume of this will be found in the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica — under Huss and Moravians — from the world stand- 

Moravians migrated from Bohemia to Saxony and were 
protected by Count Zinzendorf — a liberal Lutheran — and 
lived on his estates. He assisted in their migration to Penn- 
sylvania. Some went to Georgia and later to Pennsylvania. 

Schwenkfelders. These were the followers of Kaspar 
Schwenkenfeld (1490-1561). See the Encyclopaedia Britan- 
nica for a short account. They formed a sect in Silesia 
which has persisted. In 1720 a commission of Jesuits was 
sent to convert them by force. Most of them fled into Sax- 
ony and were protected by Count Zinzendorf. From thence 
they migrated to Holland, England and Pennsylvania. 
Frederick the Great, when he seized Silesia, protected those 
remaining there. 

Ursinus College, Collegeville, is Schwenkfelder. The sect 
is not large and was located in or around Montgomery County. 
Their migration to Saxony and also to Pennsylvania ante- 
dated that of the Moravians. Generally speaking, they have 
been much more aggressive and vigorous than the Moravians. 

The Dunkards, Mennonites, Amish, and Seventh Day 
Baptists (Wissahickon and Ephrata, Pennsylvania), came 
from south Germany and the Palatinate. 

The Harmony Society, small in numbers, the Lutherans 
and German Reformed, came largely from south Germany 
and the Palatinate, but also from other parts of Germany. 
The Lutherans and the Reformed were the large sects in 

Germans from the Hudson valley migrated to Berks County 
around Reading. The Swedes in New Jersey were almost 
exclusively below Philadelphia — from Gloucester down the 
Delaware River. Before the Revolution there were about 
30,000 Germans in Pennsylvania, out of a total estimated 
population of 100,000 to 120,000. 

84 : 16. Scotch-Irish. See The Scotch-Irish in America, 
by Henry Jones Ford; and also Sir George Trevelyan on the 
Irish Protestants in chap. XI, vol. II, of George HI and 
Charles Fox. 


87 : 24. In this connection it is interesting to note that 
an early Egyptian king said almost the same concerning the 
negroes of his time. The quotation is taken from Hall's 
Ancient History oj the Near East, pp. i6i-i62,andis a transla- 
tion of a portion of the manifesto of Senusert III, of the 
XHth dynasty, which he caused to be set up at the time 
of the Nubian wars: "Vigor is valiant, but cowardice is vile. 
He is a coward who is vanquished on his own frontier, since 
the negro will fall prostrate at a word; answer him, and he 
retreats; if one is vigorous, he turns his back, retiring even 
when on the way to attack. Behold, these people have noth- 
ing terrible about them; they are feeble and insignificant; 
they have buttocks for hearts. I have seen it, even I, the 
majesty; it is no lie. . . ." 

88 : 9. Barrett Wendell, A Literary History oj America, 
chap. III. 

88 : 28. The belief in the approximation of the Anglo- 
Saxon in America to the Amerindian is wide-spread, but is 
entirely without justification, scientific or otherwise. 

89 : 1. Hall, Immigration Restriction and World Eugenics, 
and especially his Immigration, pp. 107-112. 

91 : 1. Hall, 2. 

94 : 1. Beddoe, 5, p. 416. For similar conclusions see 
DeLapouge, passim; G. Retzius, 3; and Roese, Beitrage zur 
Europaischen Rassenkunde. Fleure and James, pp. 125 and 
1 51-15 2 make similar observations. 




97 : 10. Osborn, i, the tables on pp. 18 and 41. 

98 : 15. Galton, pp. 309-310; Woods, 1, chap. XVIII. 

99 : 5-10. A Statistical Study of American Men of Science, 
J. McKeen Cattell, especially Science, vol. XXXII, no. 828, 

PP- 553-555- 

99 : 22. The authorities quoted by J. B. Bury in his 
History of Greece are complete and concise. In chap. I he 
discusses the Dorian conquest from p. 57 forward, and the 
Homeric Mycenaean period (1600-1100 B. C.) from p. 20. A 
very interesting instance of the truth of the picture of My- 
cenaean culture as drawn by Homer occurs on p. 50, where 
it is stated that much described by the poet, even to small 
articles, has been unearthed during archaeological investi- 
gations. "Although the poets who composed the Iliad and 
Odyssey probably did not live before the ninth century, they 
derived their matter from older lays." 

99 : 27. Crete. For systems of Cretan writing see Sir 
Arthur J. Evans, Cretan Pictographs and Pre-Phcenician 
Script, Further Discoveries of Cretan and Mgean Script, Reports 
of Excavations at Cnossus, Prehistoric Tombs of Knossos, and 
Scripta Minoa. That the aboriginal "Eteocretan" language 
existed until historic times is attested by the discoveries of 
later inscriptions belonging to the fifth and succeeding cen- 
turies B. C, which were written in Greek letters at this time 
but in the indigenous, undecipherable tongue. They are 
described by Comparetti, Mon. Ant., IH, pp. 451 seq., and by 
R. S. Conway, 2, 3, especially pp. 125 seq., in vol. VIII. In 
1908 another discovery was made by the Italian Mission at 
Phaestus, of a clay disk with printed hieroglyphics which did 
not belong to the Cretan system of writing. It is supposed 
to have come from Asia Minor. 



For other discoveries in Crete and other authorities see 
R. M. Burrowes, C. H. and H. B. Dawes. On Cretan pot- 
tery see Sir Duncan Mackenzie, 2, and Sir Arthur Evans, 2. 
Sir Duncan Mackenzie also has a book on the Cretan pal- 
aces. Bury, in his History of Greece, pp. 9 seq., gives a brief 
description of Crete as revealed by archaeologists. Accord- 
ing to them, the palaces of Cnossus and Phaestus were erected 
before 2100 B. C, when Cretan civilization was well ad- 
vanced. See also the note to p. 119 : 1 of this book. 

99 : 28. Azilian period. See p. 115 of this book. 

100 : 20 seq. Osborn, 1, p. 49 seq., and the note VII of 
the appendix. See also the notes to p. 13 of this book. 

100 : 28. Progressive dessication. Ellsworth Hunting- 
ton, 2. 

101 : 5. Arboreal Man. See the work of W. K. Gregory, 
especially 3, p. 277; and John C. Merriam, pp. 203 and 206- 

101 : 12. Osborn, 1, note VII, p. 511, of the appendix; 
and Merriam, pp. 205-208. 

101 : 15. J. Pilgrim, The Correlation of the Siwaliks with 
Mammal Horizons of Europe. 

101:21. Java and the Pithecanthropus erectus. Dubois, 
E. Fischer, and particularly G. Schwalbe. For the land con- 
nection of Java with the mainland see Alfred Russel Wal- 
lace's Island Life, and The Geography of Mammals, by W. L. 
and P. L. Sclater. 

101 : 27. Gunz glaciation. See Osborn's table of Geo- 
logic Time, in 1, p. 41. The date given here is that made 
by Penck. 

102 : 1. W. D. Matthew, Revision of the Lower Eocene 
Primates, and W. K. Gregory, The Evolution of the Pri- 

102 : 13. Schoetensack, Der Unterkiefer des Homo Heidel- 
bergensis aus den Sanden von Mauer bei Heidelberg im Beitrag 
zur Paldontologie des Menschen. 

102 : 21. At the beginning of this Eolithic period wood 
was used for clubs and probably as levers along with the 
chance flints. Perhaps it was employed even earlier, but of 
course no remains would come down to us. 



For the material in this chapter the authorities, such as 
Cartailhac, Boule, Breuil, Obermaier and Rutot are all 
given in Osborn, 1, together with useful discussions of the 
evidence. In special instances additional sources are in- 
serted here. 

105 : 17. Piltdown Man. See Charles Dawson, the dis- 
coverer, 1, 2 and 3. There is a tremendous bibliography on 
the Piltdown Man. 

106 : 1. The Jaw of the Piltdown Man, Gerrit S. Miller. 
From a later paper by Mr. Miller (2) we quote the following 
from pp. 43-44: 

"The combined characters of the jaw, molars and skull 
were made the basis of a genus Eoanthropus, placed in the 
family Hominidae. . . . While the brain case is human in 
structure, the jaw and teeth have not yet been shown to 
present any character diagnostic of man; the recognized 
features in which they resemble human jaws and teeth are 
merely those which men and apes possess in common. On 
the other hand, the symphyseal region of the jaw, the canine 
tooth and the molars are unlike those known to occur in any 
race of men. . . . Until the combination of a human brain 
case and nasal bones with an ape-like mandible, ape-like 
lower molars and an ape-like upper canine has actually been 
seen in one animal, the ordinary procedure of both zoology 
and paleontology would refer each set of fragments to a 
member of the family which the characters indicate. The 
name Eoanthropus dawsoni has therefore been restricted to 
the human elements of the original composite (Family Ho- 
minidae), and the name Pan vetus has been proposed for the 
animal represented by the jaw (Family Pongidae)." 

See also The Dawn Man of Piltdown, England, by W. K. 
Gregory. Ray Lancaster has made some interesting ob- 
servations and is the most recent authority on this subject. 

106 : 14. On the Neanderthal Man see Osborn and his 

107 : 21. A note on p. 385 of Rice Holmes's Ancient Brit- 
ain is useful in this connection. "MM. de Quatrefages and 


Hamy affirm that the Neanderthal race has left a perma- 
nent imprint on the population, and refer to various skulls 
of the Neolithic and later periods which resemble more or 
less closely that of Neanderthal. Moreover, it is generally 
admitted that even at the present day a few individuals here 
and there belong to the same type. But it does not follow 
that these persons to whom Dr. Beddoe and M. Hamy refer 
were descended from men who lived in Britain in the Pale- 
olithic age." 

Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, mentions several famous 
men who had typical Neanderthal skulls, among them Robert 

108 : i seq. Beddoe, 4, pp. 265-266; Ripley, pp. 326-334, 
but especially pp. 266, 330-331. 

108 : 16. Ales Hrdlicka, The Most Ancient Skeletal Re- 
mains of Man, considers the Neanderthal type extinct, as 
do Keith, Antiquity of Man, passim, and A. C. Haddon. 
Consult Barnard Davis, Thesaurus Craniorum, especially p. 
70, and Beddoe, 2, as well as Osborn, 1, p. 217. 

108 : 18. Firbolgs. See the note above to line 1; also 
Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, p. 78. 

109 : 8. Broca, according to Osborn, is responsible for 
this theory. 

109 : 1 7 seq. See pp. 329 seq. of Galton's Hereditary Genius. 

no : 8. In Dordogne, France, there are people who look 
as it is thought the Cro-Magnons did. These modern people 
may belong to that type in the same way that here and there 
people resembling the Neanderthals are still found. In 
Dordogne these Cro-Magnon features are quite common, 
and differ markedly from those of other Frenchmen. For 
studies of this type see Collignon, 1. For full discussions of 
the ancient Cro-Magnons see Keith, 1 and 2, and Osborn, 1. 

no : n. Dr. Charles B. Davenport, in correspondence, 
remarks: "There can be no doubt that the prolific shall in- 
herit the earth or the proletariat shall inherit the earth, which 
is etymologically the same thing. We see this law in action 
in Russia today. . . . Can we build a wall high enough 
around this country, so as to keep out these cheaper races, 
or will it be only a feeble dam which will make the flood all 


the worse when it breaks? Or should we admit the four 
million picks and shovels which many of our capitalists are 
urging Congress to admit in order to secure what wealth we 
can for the moment, leaving it for our descendants to aban- 
don the country to the blacks, browns and yellows, and seek 
an asylum in New Zealand ? I am inclined to think that the 
thing to do is to make better selection of immigrants, admit- 
ting them in fairly large numbers so long as we can sift out 
the defective strains." 

in : 20 seq. £. Cartailhac says, in La France prihisto- 
rique: "The race of Cro-Magnon is well determined. There 
is no doubt about their high stature and Topinar4 is not the 
only one who believes that they were blonds." See also G. 
Retzius, 3. But he derives the Nordics from them. On 
the other hand, the Dordogne people to-day are dark, and 
many anthropologists are inclined to the belief that the 
Cro-Magnons were brunets, a theory in which the writer 
heartily concurs. 

112 : 1. L'Abbe H. Breuil, Les subdivisions du paleolithique 
suptrieur et leur signification, pp. 203-205. Other writers 
such as Nilsson and Dawkins have also held this theory. 

112 : 21. One of the few references to the bare possi- 
bility of a Magdalenian dog occurs in Obermaier's El H ombre 
Fdsil, the footnote on pp. 221 and 223. From this it ap- 
pears that certain conclusions are drawn that if the Alpera 
paintings are of late Magdalenian age, if certain nondescript 
animals in those paintings are intended for dogs and if 
those dogs are meant to be in a state of domestication, then 
there can be no doubt whatever that the dog was domesti- 
cated in Magdalenian times. But Obermaier does not feel 
that this furnishes satisfactory proof. 

112 : 25-p. 113. Bow and Arrow. Obermaier, 1, chap. 
V, The Upper Paleolithic, p. 112, says: "The coarse stone 
implements of the lower Paleolithic no longer exist, being 
replaced by an industry of very fine flints and . . . certain 
lances with points made of bone, horn or ivory, which were 
very generally used. The use of the bow is proved by cer- 
tain representations in mural pictures (i. e., the Archers of 
Alpera, etc., eastern Spain, Magdalenian; Archer of Laussel, 


France, Aurignacian)." See the corresponding plates in 
chap. VII. 

On p. 217 of chap. VII, Quaternary Art, there is a man 
depicted in the pose of an archer. On p. 239 Obermaier 
says: "Among . . . [the paintings of Alpera] are sketches 
of more than 70 human figures, ... 13 are shown in the 
act of shooting an arrow at other men or animals." * On 
p. 241 he continues: "The paintings of eastern Spain of 
Quaternary age also show archers." A recent letter from 
the Abbe Henri Breuil says that the bow and arrow did not 
exist in France in Paleolithic times, and he is, of course, 
aware of the Laussel figure found by Lalanne and referred 
to by Obermaier as proof. Alpera is agreed by Obermaier 
to be of Tardenoisian age, consequently of the transition 
period to the Neolithic. Beside Alpera, the only other in- 
stance of pictured bows and arrows noted occurs at Calpata, 
said to be of Upper Paleolithic age and Capsian industry. 

See Fig. 174, p. 353, of Osborn, 1, giving a large bison draw- 
ing in the cavern of Niaux on the Ariege, showing the sup- 
posed spear or arrow-heads, attached to large shafts, which 
are represented as having pierced its side. On p. 354 Os- 
born says: "It is possible, although not probable, that the 
bow was introduced at this time and that a less perfect flint 
point, fastened to a shaft like an arrowhead, and projected 
with great velocity and accuracy, proved to be far more 
effective than the spear. . . . From these drawings and 
symbols (Fig. 174), it would appear that barbed weapons of 
some kind were used in the chase, but no barbed flints occur 
at any time in the Paleolithic, nor has any trace been found 
of bone barbed arrowheads, or any direct evidence of the 
existence of the bow." On p. 410: "Here [Cavern of Niaux] 
for the first time are revealed the early Magdalenian methods 
of hunting the bison, for upon their flanks are clearly traced 
one or more arrow or spear heads with the shafts still at- 
tached; the most positive proof of the use of the arrow is 

* If the Alpera paintings are of thi9 (Magdalenian?) period, then 
the bow certainly existed at this time, but there is reason to be- 
lieve that the paintings belong to a later epoch. 


the apparent termination of the wooden shaft in the feathers 
which are rudely represented in three of the drawings." 

113 13. Osborn, p. 456: "The flint industry [of the Azil- 
ian] continues the degeneration begun in the Magdalenian 
and exhibits a new life and impulse only in the fashioning of 
extremely small or microlithic tools and weapons known as 
'Tardenoisian.'" See also pp. 465-475 for a more complete 
discussion and their distribution as traced by de Mortillet. 
Also Breuil, 2, pp. 2-6, and 3, pp. 165-238, but especially 
pp. 232-233. 

Osborn continues, p. 450: "If it is true . . . that Europe 
at the same time became more densely forested, the chase 
may have become more difficult and the Cro-Magnons may 
have begun to depend more and more upon the life of the 
streams and the art of fishing. It is generally agreed that 
the harpoons were chiefly used for fishing, and that many 
of the microlithic flints, which now begin to appear more 
abundantly, may have been attached to a shaft for the 
same purpose. We know that similar microliths were used 
as arrowpoints in pre-dynastic Egypt." 

The microliths may have been used on darts for bird 

113 : ax. See Osborn, pp. 333 seq., and in this book the 
note to p. 143 : 13 on the Tripolje culture. 

115 19. Compare what Rice Holmes has to say on pp. 
99-100 of his Ancient Britain. 

117 : 18. Maglemose. This culture was first found and 
described by G. F. L. Sarauw, in a work entitled En Stenolden 
Boplads: Maglemose ved Mullerup. The same material is 
given in "Trouvaille fait dans le nord de l'Europe datant 
de la periode de l'hiatus," in the Congrbs prihistorique de 
France. A site equivalent to the Maglemose in culture, but 
discovered later, is described in "Une trouvaille de l'ancien 
age de la pierre" (Braband), by MM. Thomsen and Jessen. 
See also Obermaier, 2, pp. 467-469. 

117 : 23. The Abbe Breuil, Les peintures rupestres d'Es- 
pagne (with Serrano Gomez and Cabre Aguilo), IV, " Les 
Abris del Bosque a Alpera (Albacete) " says: "Other peoples 
known at present only from their industries, were advanciag 


toward the close of the Upper Paleolithic along the northern 
and southern shores of the Baltic and persisted for an ap- 
preciable time before the arrival of the tribes introducing the 
early Neoh'thic-Campignian culture which accumulated in the 
Kitchen Middens along the same shores. Like the southern 
races of the Azilian-Tardenoisian times these northerly tribes 
were truly Pre-Neolithic, ignorant of both agriculture and 
pottery; they brought with them no domesticated animals 
excepting the dog, which is known at Mugem, at Tourasse 
and at Oban, in northwestern Scotland.'' 


119 : i. See the Osborn tables. As evidence of far earlier 
dates of the Neolithic in the east we may quote Sir A. J. 
Evans, 2, p. 721. He calculates that the earliest settlement 
at Knossos in Crete, which was Neolithic, is about 12,000 
years old, for he assumes that in the western court of the 
palace the average rate of deposit was fairly continuous. 
Professor Montelius, in V Anthropologic, t. XVII, p. 137, 
argues from the stratigraphy of finds at Susa that the be- 
ginning of the Neolithic Age in the east may be dated about 
18,000 B. C. 

119 : 6. See the note to p. 147. 

119 : 15. Balkh. Balkh, in Afghanistan, was the capital 
of Bactria, the ancient name of the country between the 
range of the Hindu Kush and the Oxus, and is now for the 
most part a mass of ruins, situated on the right bank of the 
Balkh River. The antiquity and greatness of the place are 
recognized by the native populations who speak of it as the 
" Mother of Cities," and it is certain that at a very early 
date it was the rival of Ecbatana, Nineveh, and Babylon. 

Bactria was subjugated by Cyrus and from then on formed 
one of the satrapies of the Persian Empire. Zaborowski, 1, 
p. 43, says: "After the conquests of Alexander there was 
founded a Greco-Bactrian kingdom . . . which embraced 
Sogdiana, Bactria and Afghanistan. The Greco-Bactrian 
kings struck a quantity of coins. They bore a double legend, 


the one Greek, the other still called Bactrian, which is not 
Zend, nor even the language really spoken in Bactria. It is 
a popular dialect derived from Sanskrit." Again on p. 185: 
"Zend has been called, and is still called, Bactrian or Old 
Bactrian, it may be because Bactria has been conceived as 
the original country or an ancient place of sojourn of the 
Persians; it may be because Zoroaster, a Median Magus, had, 
according to a legend, fled to the Bactrians where he found 
protection under Prince Vishtaspa. Eulogy of this prince 
is often incorporated in the sayings of Zoroaster." 

Later a new race appeared, tribes called Scythians by 
the Greeks, amongst which the Tochari, identical with the 
Yue-Chih of the Chinese, were the most important. Ac- 
cording to Chinese sources, they entered Sogdiana in 159 
B. C; in 139 they conquered Bactria, and during the next 
generation they had made an end to the Greek rule in eastern 
Iran. In the middle of the first century B. C. the whole of 
eastern Iran and western India belonged to the great " Indo- 
Scythian " Empire. In the third century the Kushan dynasty 
began to decline; about 320 A. D. the Gupta Empire was 
founded in India. In the fifth the Ephtalites, or "White 
Huns," subjugated Bactria; then the Turks, about A. D. 
560, overran the country north of the Oxus. In 1220 Jenghis 
Khan sacked Balkh and levelled all buildings capable of de- 
fence, while Timur repeated this treatment in the fourteenth 
century. Notwithstanding this, Marco Polo could still, in 
the following century, describe it as "a noble city and a 

See also Raphael Pumpelly, Explorations in Turkestan, 
where 10,000 years is said to be the age of the remains of 
early civilization. More modern authorities, however, do 
not accept these ancient dates. 

119 : 21. Osborn, 1, p. 479. 

120 : 1 seq. Osborn, 1, pp. 493-495; Ripley, pp. 486-487, 
and also S. Reinach, 3, and G. Sergi, 2, pp. 199-220. 

120 : 28 seq. Oman, England before the Norman Conquest, 
pp. 642 seq., says: "The position which he [Harold] chose is 
that where the road from London to Hastings emerges from 
the forest, on the ground named Senlac, where the village of 


Battle now stands. . . . This hill formed the battleground. 
... On reaching the lower slopes of the English position 
the archers began to let fly their shafts, and not without ef- 
fect, for as long as the shooting was at long range, there was 
little reply, since Harold had but few bowmen in his ranks, 
(the Fyrd, it is said, came to the fight with no defensive 
weapons but the shield, and were ill-equipped, with javelins 
and instruments of husbandry turned to warlike uses), and 
the abattis, whatever its length or height, would not give 
complete protection to the English. But when the advance 
reached closer quarters, it was met with a furious hail of 
missiles of all sorts — darts, lances, casting axes, and stone 
clubs such as William of Poictiers describes, and the Bayeux 
Tapestry portrays — rude weapons, more appropriate to the 
neolithic age. . . . Many a moral has been drawn from 
this great fight. . . . Neither desperate courage, nor num- 
bers that must have been at least equal to those of the in- 
vader, could save from defeat an army which was composed 
in too great a proportion of untrained troops, and which was 
behind the times in its organization. ... But the English 
stood by the customs of their ancestors, and, a few years 
before, Earl Ralph's attempt to make the thegnhood learn 
cavalry tactics (see the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), had been 
met by sullen resistance and had no effect." 

121:4. See the note to p. 128 : 2. 

121 : 15. F. Keller, The Lake-Dwellings of Switzerland and 
Other Parts of Europe; Schenck, La Suisse prehistorique, pp. 
S33 - 549; G. and A. de Mortillet, Le Prehistorique, part 3, 
and Munro, The Lake Dwellings of Europe. The lake-dwell- 
ing, known as Pont de la Thiele, between the lakes of Bienne 
and Neufchatel, according to Grillieron's calculations, is 
dated 5000 B. C. See Keller, p. 462; Lyell, Antiquity of 
Man, p. 29; Avebury, Prehistoric Times, p. 401; and De Mor- 
tillet, Le Prehistorique, p. 621. 

121 : 17. Schenck, p. 190, says concerning Switzerland: 
"There were three [cultural] stages, stone, bronze, and iron. 
... On the other hand, from the anthropological point of 
view, this subdivision can also be made. In the first stage 
[Neolithic Lacustrian], we find only brachy cephalic crania; 


in the second there are an almost equal number of brachy- 
cephalic and dolichocephalic; in the third there is a pre- 
dominance of dolichocephalic " (that is, Schenck divides the 
Neolithic into three periods according to skulls, and the 
last runs into the age transitionary to bronze). 

See also G. Herv6, Les populations lacustres, p. 140; His 
and Rlitimeyer, Crania Helvetica, pp. 12, 34, etc.; and the 
note on p. 275 of Rice Holmes's Ccesar's Conquest of Gaul. 
Ripley gives useful and concise discussions on pp. 120, 471, 
488 and 501. 

121 : 19. See both Keller and Schenck for the numbers of 

121 : 22. There were, of course, the caves and rock shelters 
used during a large part of the year, but probably no other 
regularly constructed dwellings served as permanent, all-the- 
y ear -round places of abode prior to the lake dwellings, and it is 
doubtful if these were inhabited in winter. It is generally be- 
lieved that the custom of building pile villages arose from con- 
siderations of safety. This protection would be absent when 
the lakes were frozen over, and at the same time the huts would 
be exposed on all sides, including the floor, to the wintry blasts 
sweeping the lakes. They would in this way be rendered prac- 
tically uninhabitable during the winter season. 

Keller declares that the same type of dwelling is found 
in the whole circle of countries which were formerly Celtic. 
(Introduction, p. 2.) The Crannoges of Scotland and Ireland 
continued in use until the age of iron in those countries. In 
Switzerland the lake-dwellings disappeared about the first 
century (p. 7). The population was numerous (p. 432), 
large enough to have to depend upon cattle and agriculture 

(P- 479)- 

This type of dwelling is found from Ireland to Japan, and 
even in South America. Many lake-dwellings exist at the 
present day. The Welsh, Scotch and Irish Crannoges are 
related in structure to the European fascine types (Keller, 
p. 684 and Introduction). Others are built somewhat dif- 
ferently, and are, of course, of independent origin. An an- 
cient site was unearthed at Finsbury, on the outskirts of 
London not long since, where there used to be a marsh. 


The inhabitants of this lake- dwelling were native outcasts 
during Romano-British times. 

121 : 26. See Schenck, and Keller, p. 6. On p. 140 of 
Keller we read: "The Pile Dwellings of eastern Switzerland 
ceased to exist before the bronze age or at its beginnings; 
those of western Switzerland came to their full development 
during this period." On p. 37, describing the settlement of 
Mooseedorfsee Keller says: "A very striking circumstance 
ought to be mentioned, namely, that even heavy implements, 
such as stone chisels, grinding or sharpening stones, etc., 
were found quite high in the relic bed, while lighter objects, 
such as those made out of bone, were met with much deeper." 
It is known that the Mooseedorfsee settlement is very old. 
No metal has been found here, but a bone arrow-head is 
described by Keller on p. 38. He remarks that the bones of 
very large animals were uncommonly numerous. It seems 
as if the earlier inhabitants were users of bone rather than 
of stone implements. 

122 : 1. Herodotus, V, 16 describes them. He also is the 
source of our information regarding the keeping of cattle, 
although archaeological finds have proved the location of 
stables out on the platforms between the houses. His in- 
teresting account is given herewith: "Their manner of 
living is the following. Platforms supported upon tall piles 
stand in the middle of the lake, which are approached from 
land by a single narrow bridge. At the first the piles which 
bear up the platforms were fixed in their place by the whole 
body of the citizens, but since that time the custom which 
has prevailed about fixing them is this: they are brought 
from a hill called Orbelus, and every man drives in three for 
each wife that he marries. Now the men all have many 
wives apiece; and this is the way in which they live. Each 
has his own hut, wherein he dwells, upon one of the platforms, 
and each has also a trap door giving access to the lake be- 
neath; and their wont is to tie their baby children by the 
foot with a string, to save them from rolling into the water. 
They feed their horses and their other beasts upon fish, 
which abound in the lake to such a degree that a man has 
only to open his trap door and to let down a basket by a 


rope into the water and then to wait a very short time, 
when he draws it up quite full of them. The fish are of two 
kinds, which they call the paprax and the tilon." 

122 13. In the Introduction, p. 2, and elsewhere Keller 
says regarding cattle: "Cattle were kept, not on land, as in 
the Terramara region, but on the platforms themselves, 
out in the lakes. Many charred remains of stables and 
stable refuse have been taken from the lakes, but only from 
certain parts of the sites, between those of the houses." 
See also Schenck, p. 188. 

Rice Holmes, pp. 89-90 of Ancient Britain, says of that 
country that agriculture was limited in the Neolithic, but 
flourished in the Bronze Age. 

122 : 14. The Terramara Period. Keller, pp. 378 seq. 
As related to Switzerland, pp. 391, 393. For swamp and 
river bank sites, pp. 391, 397 seq. For bronze in Terramara 
settlements, p. 386. For the Upper Robenhausian, see 
Schenck, p. 190, and Montelius, La civilisation primitive en 
Italic Peet, The Stone and Bronze Ages in Italy, and Munro, 
The Lake Dwellings of Europe and Paleolithic Man and the 
Terramara Settlements must also be read in this connection. 
Schwerz, Volkerschaften der Schweiz, gives, for the average 
cranial indices of the Lake Dwellers, 79 during the Stone 
Age, 75.5 in the Copper Age, and 77 in the Bronze Age. Of 
these last 14 per cent only were brachy cephalic, 20 per 
cent were extremely long-headed. In the Iron Age 46 
per cent were brachycephalic. Consult also Deniker, 2, 
p. 316. 

122 : 21. Ripley, pp. 502-503; Sergi, 2; Robert Munro, 2; 
Peet, 2. 

122 : 27-123 : 4. See the note to p. 117 : 18. 

123 15. On the Kitchen Middens, see especially Madsen, 
Sophus Miiller and others in Ajfaldsdynger fra Stenaldern i 

123 : 12. Salomon Reinach, 3 and 5; Deniker, 2, p. 314; 
and Peake, 2, p. 156, where we find the following: "Over the 
greater part of Sweden, — all, in fact, except a strip of coast- 
line on the western side of Scania, — and all along the shore of 
the Baltic from the Gulf of Bothnia southwards and west- 


wards as far as a point midway between the Vistula and the 
Oder, there are found abundant remains of a primitive civili- 
zation which dates from the Neolithic Age, and indeed, from 
early in that age. This civilization, known as the East 
Scandinavian or Arctic culture, extended, perhaps later, over 
the whole of Norway." 

Consult the notes to pp. 125 : 4 seq. for western trade. 

123 : 20. Sergi, 4; Beddoe, 4, pp. 26, 29; Fleure and James, 
pp. 122 seq. 

123 : 23. Paleolithic Population. Fleure and James, 
Anthropological Types in Wales, p. 120. Rice Holmes, An- 
cient Britain, p. 380, says they were confined to the South. 
No Paleolithic implements were found north of Lincoln, or 
at least of the East Riding of Yorkshire. 

123 : 26. John Munro, The Story of the British Race, p. 
45 ; Rice Holmes, Ancient Britain, p. 68; and Fleure and 
James, pp. 40, 69-74, 122 seq. 

124 14. For the Alpines see pp. 134 seq. of this book. 
124 : 9. Consult the note to p. 143 on this subject. 

124 : 15. On the Nordics see pp. 167 seq. and 213 seq. 
On the Scandinavian blonds see the note to p. 20 : 5. 

124 : 20. See the notes to pp. 168 seq. 

125 : 1. G. Elliot Smith, The Ancient Egyptians, especially 
pp. 146 and 149 seq.; Breasted, 1, 2 and 3; Keane, Ethnology, 
pp. 72 seq.; Sophus Miiller, L' Europe prihistorique, p. 49; 
Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 3. 

125 : 4. Deniker, 2, pp. 314-315: "The great trade route 
for amber, and perhaps tin, between Denmark and the 
Archipelago is well known at the present day; it passes 
through the valley of the Elbe, the Moldau and the Danube. 
The commercial relations between the north and the south 
explain the similarities which archaeologists find between 
Scandinavian bronze objects and those of the ./Egean dis- 

See also E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, for trade in 
the East, via the Vistula, Dnieper and Danube, pp. 438-446, 
458, 459, 465, 493, etc.; and Dechellette, Manuel d'Archto- 
logie, t. I, p. 626, and II, p. 19. Herodotus IV, 23, gives the 
trade route from the Hyperboreans to Delos. F61ix Sar- 


tiaux, Troie, La Guerre de Troie, pp. 162, 181, also discusses 
the trade routes for amber. 

125 : 7. Amber. Tacitus, Germania: "They [the tribes 
of the iEstii] ransack the sea also and are the only people 
who gather in the shallows and on the shore itself the amber 
which they call in their tongue 'gl^esum.' Nor have they, 
being barbarians, inquired or learned what substance or 
process produces it; nay, it lay there long among the rest of 
the flotsam and jetsam of the sea, until Roman luxury gave 
it a name. To the natives it is useless; it is gathered crude, 
it is forwarded to Rome unshaped; they are astonished to 
be paid for it. Yet you may infer that it is the exudation 
of trees: certain creeping and even winged creatures are con- 
tinually found embedded; they have been entangled in its 
liquid form and as the material hardens, are imprisoned. I 
should suppose, therefore, that, just as in the secluded places 
of the East, where frankincense and balsam are exuded, so 
in the islands and lands of the West, there are groves and 
glades more than ordinarily luxuriant," etc. 

Amber, if rubbed, has magnetic qualities and develops elec- 
tricity. Our word "electricity" is derived from its Greek 
name, "electron." Tacitus says: "If you try the qualities 
of amber by setting fire to it, it kindles like a torch and soon 
dissolves into something like pitch and resin." 

125 : 13. Gowland, Metals in Antiquity, pp. 236, 252 seq. 

125 : 15 seq. Copper. Reisner's opinion that the pre- 
dynastic Egyptians invented the use of copper (Naga-ed- 
Dtr, I, p. 134) which is followed by Elliot Smith (Ancient 
Egyptians, p. 3), is not the view held by all scholars. Hall 
believes that the knowledge of the use of metal came to the 
prehistoric southern Egyptians (Ancient History of the Near 
East, p. 90), toward the end of the pre-dynastic age from 
the north. But he counts the Mount Sinai and Cyprus de- 
posits as northern centres of origin from which a knowledge 
of the working of the metal radiated. 

The mines of the Sinaitic peninsula were worked for cop- 
per at the time of Seneferu, about 3733 B. C, and probably 
much earlier (Gowland, p. 245, and elsewhere), "but long 
before the actual mining operations were carried on, how 


long it is impossible to say, the metal must have been ob- 
tained by primitive methods from the surface ore. It is 
hence not unreasonable to assume that at least as early as 
about 5000 B. C. the metal copper was known and in use in 
Egypt." The same writer believes "that an earlier date 
than 5000 B. C. should be assigned to the first use of copper 
in the Chaldean region." In this he bases himself on the 
discovery of copper figures associated with bricks and tablets 
bearing the name of King Ur-Nina (about 4500 B. C), and 
the fact that the upper Tigris region is known to contain 
rich deposits of the mineral. Jastrow, Jr., assigns the date 
of 3000 B. C. to Ur-Nina, which may be more correct. 
GowlandMates copper in Cyprus at 2500 B. C, or even 3000, 
judging by the finds at Crete dated 2500 B. C. In the Troad 
he thinks it was used not later than in Cyprus. For China 
the date is unknown, but if we accept 2205, given in the 
Chinese annals as the time when the nine bronze caldrons 
were cast, which are often mentioned in the historical records, 
then copper may have been in use as early as 3000, or even 
earlier. De Morgan dates copper at 4400 B. C. in Egypt, 
where it was found in the supposed tomb of Menes. 

See also Lord Avebury, Prehistoric Times, pp. 71-72, who 
gives 3730 for copper-working in Sinai, and its first appear- 
ance about 5000 B. C. Montelius, 1, p. 380, gives copper in 
Cyprus as about 2500 B. C, hardly 3000; and for Egypt 
5000; he regards it as having been known in Babylon at 
about the same time. Breasted, Ancient Times, assigns the 
date of the earliest copper as at least 4000 in Egypt. 

125 : 27. Eduard Meyer, 1, p. 41. But cf. Reisner, Naga- 
ed-Dtr, I, p. 126, note 3. Also Hall, Ancient History of the 
Near East, p. 28. 

126 : 1. Elliot Smith, 1, p. 8: "Most serious scholars who 
concern themselves with the problems of the ancient his- 
tory of Egypt and Babylonia have now abandoned these in- 
flated estimates of the lengths of the historical periods in 
the two empires; and it is now generally admitted that 
Meyer's estimate of 34co±ioo B. C. is a close approxima- 
tion to the date of the union of Upper and Lower Egypt 
and that the blending of Semitic and Sumerian cultures in 


Babylonia took place shortly after the time of this event in 
the Nile valley." See also Hall, Ancient History of the Near 
East, p. 3. 

126 : 7. Bronze. Rice Holmes, 1, p. 125: "The oldest 
piece of bronze that has yet been dated was found at Medum, 
in Egypt, and is supposed to have been cast about 3700 B. C. 
But the metal may have been worked even earlier in other 
lands; for a bronze statuette and a bronze vase, which were 
made twenty-five centuries before our era have been ob- 
tained from Mesopotamia and the craft must have passed 
through many stages before such objects could have been 
produced. Yet it would be rash to infer that either the 
Babylonians or the Egyptians invented bronze for neither 
in Egypt nor in Babylonia is there any tin. The old theory 
that it was a result of Phoenician commerce with Britain has 
long been abandoned and British bronze implements are 
so different from those of Norway and Sweden, Denmark and 
Hungary, that it cannot have been derived from any of these 
countries. German influence was felt at a comparatively 
late period, but from first to last British bronze culture was 
closely connected with that of Gaul and through Gaul with 
that of Italy." 

126 : 9. Gowland, p. 243: "It has been frequently stated 
that the alloy used by the men of the Bronze Age generally 
consists of copper and tin in the proportions of 9 to 1. I 
have hence compared the analyses which have been pub- 
lished with the following results: 


In 25 the tin ranges from about 8 to 11 per cent. 

" 6 " '* ' 11 " 13 

" 26 " " " " " 3 " 8 

ti << 


In 13 the tin ranges from about 4.3 to 13. 1 per cent. 
" 2 " " was about 18.3 per cent. 

In 5 the tin ranges from about 11.3 to 15.7 per cent. 



In 14 the tin ranges from about 8 to 1 1 per cent. 
" 12 " " " " " 12 " 18 " 
" 7 " " is less than 9 per cent. 

"It is obvious, therefore, that these statements do not ac- 
curately represent the facts. And if we consider the differ- 
ent uses to which the implements or weapons were put, it is 
evident that no single alloy could be equally suitable for 
all. ... It is worthy of note that these proportions (i. e., 
different hardnesses for different implements) appear to have 
been frequently attained, and for this the men of the later 
Bronze Age are deserving of great credit as metallurgists and 
workers in metal." 

On the percentages of tin with copper for bronze see also 
Montelius, 1, pp. 448 seq. 

126 : 12. Schenck, p. 241, describes a copper axe exactly 
like those of polished stone, and another of bronze, of very 
primitive pattern, showing that these were copied from the 
earlier stone models. 

Some authorities think that iron, in Egypt at least, came 
in about the same time as bronze, or even earlier. Certain 
peoples missed altogether one or another of these stages, as 
the absence of remains indicates. For instance, the central 
Africans had, as far as is known, no bronze age, but passed 
directly from the use of stone to that of iron. (See Rice 
Holmes, Ancient Britain, p. 123.) See the notes to p. 129 
on the value of iron. Occasional implements of any material 
better than that ordinarily in use, which had been intro- 
duced by trade or acquired by fighting, were very highly 
prized. Any books on primitive peoples contain references 
to the value of such "foreign tools." 

126 : 24. Diodorus Siculus, V. Consult Crania Britan- 
nica, by Davis and Thurnam, the chapter on the "Historical 
Ethnology of Britain," for evidence that the Phoenicians did 
have intercourse with Britain. For a full discussion of this 
disputed question see pp. 483-514 in Rice Holmes's Ancient 
Britain. Herodotus and other early writers allude to the 
fleets of the Phoenicians, and of course the voyage of Pythias 


about the last half of the fourth century B. C. was under- 
taken to discover the source of the Phoenician tin. See 
Holmes's Britain, pp. 217-226; D'Arbois de Jubainville, Les 
premiers habitants de V Europe, vol. I, chap. V; Hall, Ancient 
History of the Near East, pp. 158,402-403 ; and G.Elliot Smith, 
Ancient Mariners, on the Phoenicians. 

On pp. 251-252 of Ancient Britain, Rice Holmes makes the 
suggestion that the export of tin from Britain may have died 
down by Roman times. 

127 : 9 seq. G. Elliot Smith, 1, p. 178, and map 3. Deniker, 
2 » P- 3 J 5> says: "It is generally admitted that the ancient 
Bronze Age corresponds with the ' iEgean Civilization ' which 
flourished among the peoples inhabiting, between the thir- 
tieth and twentieth centuries B. C, Switzerland, the north 
of Italy, the basin of the Danube, the Balkan peninsula, a 
part of Anatolia, and lastly, Cyprus. It gave rise, between 
1700 and 1 100 B. C, to the 'Mycenaean Civilization/ of 
which the favorite ornamental design is the spiral." 

Myers, in Ancient History, pp. 134-135, states that in Crete 
the metal development began as early, at least, as 3000 
B. C, and was at its height in the island about 1600 or 1500 
B. C. Articles of Cretan handiwork found in Egypt point 
to intercourse with that country as early as the sixth dynasty, 
which he makes about 2500 B. C. See also G. Elliot Smith, 
1, pp. 147, 179-180, and the authorities quoted on bronze. 

127 : 26-128 : 1 seq. G. Elliot Smith, 1, pp. 178-180. 
Rice Holmes, 1, p. 123, gives in a foot-note the sixth dynasty 
as about 3200 B. C. (cf. above), when Elliot Smith says the 
movement first began (ibid., pp. 169, 171). They do not 
agree on the date of this dynasty. See also Rice Holmes 
(ibid., p. 125), and Breasted, 3, p. 108. Montelius assigns 
2100 B. C. for the small copper daggers of northern Italy. 

128 : 2. The Eneolithic period. G. Elliot Smith, 1, pp. 
20 seq., 37 and 163 seq. Professor Orsi is responsible for the 
introduction of this term. See T. E. Peet, The Stone and 
Bronze Ages in Italy, and G. Sergi, Italia, pp. 240 seq., on the 
Eneolithic period in Italy. 

128 : 13. Oscar Montelius, The Civilization of Sweden in 
Heathen Times, and Kulturgeschichte Schwedens von den alte- 


sten Zeiten; Sophus Miiller, Nordische Alter thumskunde. The 
latter gives 1200 B. C. See also Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 64, 127, 
424-454; Beddoe, 4, p. 15; Haddon, 3, p. 41. According to 
Gjerset, in his History of the Norwegian People, the Bronze 
Age in Norway began about 1500 B. C, the Iron Age at 
500 B. C. Lord Avebury, pp. 71-72; Read, Guide to the An- 
tiquities of the Bronze Age; and Deniker, 2, p. 315, give 1800 
B. C. for Britain, and for northern Europe Avebury assigns 
2500 B. C. 1800 is the generally accepted date for the be- 
ginning of the Bronze Age in Britain. 

128 : 16. Alpines in Ireland. Beddoe, 4, p. 15; Fleure 
and James, pp. 128-129, 135, 139; Rice Holmes, 1, p. 432; 
Ripley, pp. 302-303; Abercromby, pp. in seq.; Crawford, pp. 
184 seq. But Fleure and James say, p. 138, that other Al- 
pines without brow ridges are to be found at the present 
time in considerable numbers on the east coast of Ireland. 
Ripley's strong assertion that no Alpines have remained in 
the British Isles has been proved by more recent study to 
require modification. 

128 : 17. See in this connection Fleure and James, p. 127. 

128 : 26. Cf. Elliot Smith, 1, pp. 20-21, 163, 181; Peet, 
2; Reisner, Early Dynastic Cemeteries of Naga-ed-Der; and 
Rice Holmes, 1, p. 65 seq. 

129 : 2-8. The megaliths were not erected by Alpines, 
for there are practically none in central Europe, according 
to Keane, Ethnology, pp. 135-136, and Dr. Robert Munro, in 
a discussion published in the Jour. Roy. Anth. Inst., 1889- 
1890, p. 65. On the other hand, Peet, 1, pp. 39, 64, says 
they are being discovered in the interior — a few in Ger- 
many. He does not mention bronze among the finds in the 
megaliths of France, but there was a little gold. Bronze was, 
however, found in Spain. Consult Fleure and James, pp. 
128 seq.; Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 8-9; and, for an exhaustive ar- 
chaeological study, Dechellette, Manuel d'archiologie, vol. I, 
chap. Ill, especially paragraph v, pp. 393 seq., for dolmens in 
Brittany. Concerning the contents of these we may quote 
the following: 

"Polished hatchets, often enough of rare stone, beads from 
necklaces, and pendants of Callais or of divers materials, 


implements of flint, knives, arrow points which are wing- 
shaped, scrapers, nodules, grinding stones, pottery, vases, 
grains of baked earth, some rare jewels of gold, collars and 
bracelets, such is, in general, the composition of the con- 
tents of the neolithic dolmens of Brittany, contents different, 
as we shall see, from those of the sepulchres of the Bronze 
Age in the same region. These vast Armorican crypts be- 
long certainly to the end of the Neolithic period, in spite of 
the absence of copper, the habitual forerunner of bronze ob- 
jects. The smallness of the crypt, the size of the tumulus, 
the mixture of construction in huge blocks and in walls seem 
to indicate, as M. Cartailhac has observed, a more recent 
age than that of ordinary dolmens. In the pure Bronze 
Age the monolithic supports are replaced by the walls of 
unmortared stones. 

"Moreover, we shall see that there have been found in 
certain covered alleys in Brittany, pottery of a very char- 
acteristic type called calciform vases, pottery belonging in 
the south of France and southern Europe with the first ob- 
jects of copper and bronze. Jewels of gold confirm, on the 
other hand, these chronological determinations." On p. 
397: "The dolmen sepulchres of the Bronze Age in Brittany, 
and notably in Finisterre, are distinguished more often by 
the type of their construction from those of the Stone Age." 

"The dolmens of Normandy and Isle de France contain 
some stone objects, fragments of vases, and numerous debris 
of human skeletons." The end of the pure Neolithic is the 
date of the megaliths in Armorica, as we read on p. 407. 
The first metals, imported from the south, penetrated into 
northern Gaul a little later than in the southern provinces. 
That is why certain typical objects of the end of the pure 
Neolithic in Armorica, such as Callais and the calciform 
vases, are associated with the first objects of copper or bronze 
in the funerary crypts of Provence and Portugal. 

G. Elliot Smith and W. H. R. Rivers claim that there is a 
close connection throughout the eastern hemisphere between 
the distribution of megalithic monuments and either ocean 
or fresh-water pearls, but this appears to the author to be 
far-fetched. Two very recent articles dealing with mega- 


liths are "Anthropology and Our Older Histories," by Fleure 
and Winstanley, and "The Menhirs of Madagascar," by 
A. L. Lewis. 

129 : 8. Rice Holmes, Casar's Conquest of Gaul, p. 9. 

129 : 12. Earliest iron in the north. See the notes to 
pp. 131 : 1 and 131 : 9 on the La Tene period. Also Mon- 
telius, 2, and Sophus Muller, 2, pp. 145 and 165 seq. 

129 : 13. Mound burials among the Vikings. Monte- 
lius, 2. 

129 : 15. Iron in Egypt. Some authorities think that 
iron in Egypt came in about the same time as bronze, or 
even earlier. A piece of worked iron was found in the Great 
Pyramid, to which a date of about 3500 B. C. has been as- 
signed. But, according to the archaeological investigations 
of Professor Flinders Petrie, iron came into general use only 
about 800 B. C. 

Myres, in The Dawn of History, is quoted from p. 60 for 
the following neat summary, although any of the authorities 
on Egypt, such as Petrie, Maspero, Hall, Breasted, Elliot 
Smith, Reisner, Meyer, etc., should be consulted as original 
investigators: "The presence of iron, rare though it is, as 
far back as the first dynasty, puts Egypt into a position 
which is unique among metal-using lands; for, apart from 
these rare, but quite indisputable finds, Egypt remains for 
thousands of years a bronze-using, and for long, a merely 
copper-using, country. ... In Egypt iron was known as 
a rarity, worn as a charm and an ornament, and even used, 
when it could be gotten ready made, as an implement; 
and it does not seem to have been worked in the country, 
and probably its source was unknown to the Egyptians. 
In historic times they still called it the 'metal of heaven' as 
if they obtained it from meteorites; and it looks at present 
as though their earliest knowledge of it was from the south; 
for central Africa seems to have had no bronze age but direct 
and ancient transition from stone to iron weapons. Yet 
when they conquered Syria in the sixteenth century, they 
found it in regular use and received it in tribute. At home, 
however, they had no real introduction to an 'Age of Iron' 
until they met an Assyrian army in 668 B.C. and began to 


be exploited by Greeks from over sea." In this connection 
see also Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece, pp. 613-614. 
The same author, pp. 154 seq., discusses the value of iron in 
these early times. 

Deniker, p. 315 of his Races of Man, says Italy had iron 
as early as 1200 B. C. 

Montelius assigns 1100 for iron in Etruria. 

129 : 19. Hallstatt iron culture. See Baron von Sacken, 
Das Grabfeld von Hallstatt; Dr. Moritz Hoernes, Die Hallstatt- 
periode; Bertrand and Salomon Reinach, Les Celts dans les 
valines du P6 et du Danube; and Ridgeway, The Early Age of 
Greece, pp. 407-480 and 594 seq. There is a brief summary 
by Ridgeway which it will serve to quote: "Everywhere 
else the change from iron weapons to bronze is immediate 
but at Hallstatt iron is seen gradually superseding bronze, 
first for ornament, then for edging cutting implements, then 
replacing fully the old bronze types and finally taking new 
forms of its own. There can be no doubt that the use of 
iron first developed in the Hallstatt area and that thence it 
spread southwards into Italy, Greece, the JEgea.11, Egypt and 
Asia, and northwards and westwards in Europe. At Noreia, 
which gave its name to Noricum, less than forty miles from 
Hallstatt, were the most famous iron mines of antiquity, 
which produced the Noric swords so prized and dreaded by 
the Romans. (See Pliny, Hist. Nat., XXXIV, 145; Horace, 
Epod., 17 : 71.) This iron needed no tempering and the 
Celts had found it ready smelted by nature just as the Eski- 
mos had learned of themselves to use telluric iron embedded 
in basalt. . . . The Hallstatt culture is that of the Homeric 
Achaeans (see Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece, pp. 407 seq.), 
but as the brooch (along with iron, cremation of the dead, 
the round shield and the geometric ornament), passed down 
into Greece from central Europe, and as brooches are found 
in the lower town at Mycenae, 1350 B. C, they must have 
been invented long before that date in central Europe. But 
as they are found here in the late bronze and early iron age, 
the early iron culture of Hallstatt must have originated long 
before 1350 B. C, a conclusion in accordance with the ab- 
sence of silver at Hallstatt itself." 


Keller, p. 160, describes an iron sword modelled after the 
same pattern as those of bronze; Schenck, p. 341, mentions 
a copper axe exactly like those of stone, and another of bronze 
of very primitive pattern. These and numerous other ex- 
amples show the gradual growth of each age. 

The generally accepted date for Hallstatt is about 900 or 
1000 B. C. Even Rice Holmes approves of this. (See 2, 
p. 9.) But if we believe that iron spread from Hallstatt, 
and it was in Etruria at 1 200-1 100 B. C, and in Greece, in 
the form of swords like those of Hallstatt, at 1400 B. C. 
(according to Ridge way), together with pins and various 
other objects which originated in the Tyrol, it is certainly 
very conservative to place the appearance of iron in Aus- 
tria at 1500 B. C. Iron weapons were found in the re- 
mains of Troy from the war of 11 84 B. C. See Ridgeway, 
op. cit., and Lartiaux, p. 179. 

We may quote from Hoernes as follows regarding the dates: 
"The temporal limits of the Hallstatt period are uncertain, 
according to the districts which one includes and the phe- 
nomena which one considers. It is now known that the Hall- 
statt relics for the most part belong to the first half of the 
last millennium B. C. But while some assign these relics as 
from the time of perhaps 1200 to perhaps 500, others are 
satisfied with the period from 900 to 400, or bring them even 
farther forward. It is certain that one must differentiate in 
these questions between the west and the east of the Hall- 
statt culture areas; in the one the particular Hallstatt forms 
would come nearer to the close than in the other. One or 
perhaps more centuries he between the first appearance of 
the La Tene forms in Western Germany and in the eastern 
Alps. Also the beginning varies according to the locality 
and the criteria which one takes for a guide, that is to say, 
according to whether the phenomena of the time about 1000 
B. C. are considered as belonging still in the pure Bronze 
Age, to a transition period, or indeed to the first Iron Age." 

129 : 26. Ridgeway, speaking of the Achaeans, says: 
"They brought with them iron which they used for their 
long swords and cutting implements. . . . The culture of 
the Homeric Achaeans" (these are dated about 1000 B. C, 


about the time of the Dorians, according to Bury, p. 57) 
"corresponds to a large extent with that of the early Iron 
Age of the Upper Danube (Hallstatt) and to the early Iron 
Age of Upper Italy (Villanova)." 

Myres, Dawn of History, p. 175, says that there was a 
gradual introduction of iron, first for tools and then for 
weapons. It had been known as "precious metal" in the 
iEgean since the late Minoan third period, or even the late 
Minoan second period, which is usually dated with the 
XVIIIth Egyptian dynasty as about 1 500-1350. Most other 
writers, however, including Bury, p. 57, Myers, Anc. Hist., 
p. 136, and Deniker, Races of Man, p. 315, ascribe the gen- 
eral use of iron to a much later invasion, namely that of the 
Dorians, about 1100 B. C. 

129 : 29. Iron swords of the Nordics. Ridgeway, 1, pp. 
407 seq. : "Their chief weapon was a long iron sword; with 
trenchant strokes delivered by these long swords the Celts 
had dealt destruction to their foes on many a field. They 
used not the thrust, as did the Greeks and Romans of the 
classical period. This is put beyond doubt by Polybius 
(II, 30) who in his account of the great defeat suffered by 
the combined tribes of Transalpine Gaesata?, Insubres, Boii 
and Taurisci, when they invaded Italy in 225 B. C, tells us 
that the Romans had the advantage in arms 'for the Gallic 
sword can only deliver a cut but cannot thrust.' Again in 
his account of the great victory gained over the Insubres 
by the Romans in 223 B. C, the same historian tells us that 
the defeat of the Celts was due to the fact that their long 
iron swords easily bent, and could only give one downward 
cut with any effect, but that after this the edges got so 
turned and the blades so bent, that unless they had time to 
straighten them out with the foot against the ground, they 
could not deliver a second blow. 

"'When the Celts had rendered their swords useless by 
the first blows delivered on the spears the Romans closed 
with them and rendered them quite helpless by preventing 
them from raising their hands to strike with their swords, 
which is their peculiar and only stroke, because their blade 
has no point. The Romans, on the contrary, having excel- 


lent points to their swords, used them not to cut but to thrust; 
and by thus repeatedly smiting the breasts and faces of the 
enemy, they eventually killed the greater number of them.' 
(II, 33 and III.)" 

Further evidence in support of our contention that iron 
was in use much earlier than is generally admitted, comes 
from an unexpected quarter. J. N. Svoronos, in a recent 
book on ancient Greek coinage, entitled L'HelUnism primitif 
de la Macidoine, prouve" par la numismatique, p. 171, remarks: 
"In the first place, indeed, it is forgotten that some of this 
information, that which is derived from people of 'mythical* 
times, can be referred not only to the invention of the first 
money struck in precious metal (gold, electrum, or silver), 
but even to obelisks of iron, or to cast plinths in the form of 
copper axes, which, of a determined weight, and legally 
guaranteed by the state, constituted, already before the 
XVth century, as we positively know at the present time, the 
first legal money." 

130 : 2. Keary, The Vikings in Western Christendom, 
chap. XIII; Steenstrup, N ormannerne. 

130 : 4. "Furor Normanorum." On account of the suf- 
fering inflicted by the Vikings and other northern raiders in 
Europe, a special prayer, A furore Normanorum libera nos 
was inserted in some of the litanies of the West. 

130 : 5. Rome was sacked by Alaric in 410 A. D., and 
during the forty years following the German tribes seized 
the greater part of the Roman provinces and established in 
them what are known as the Barbarian Kingdoms. Consult 
Villari, The Barbarian Invasions of Italy. 

130 : 8 seq. See chap. XIII, pp. 242 seq., of this book. 

130 : 13 seq. Ripley, pp. 125-126. The discovery of the 
Alpine type was the work of Von Baer. 

130 : 24. The Iron Age in western Europe. Deniker, 2, 
p. 315, says: "So also, according to Montelius, the introduc- 
tion of iron dates only from the fifth or third century B. C. 
in Sweden, while Italy was acquainted with this metal as 
far back as the twelfth century B. C. The civilization of 
the 'iron age/ distributed over two periods, according to 
the excavations made in the stations of Hallstatt (Austria) 


and La Tene (Switzerland), must have been imported from 
central Europe into Greece through Illyria. The importa- 
tion corresponds perhaps with the Dorian invasion of the 
Peloponnesus. . . . The Hallstattian civilization flourished 
chiefly in Carinthia, southern Germany, Switzerland, Bo- 
hemia, Silesia, Bosnia, the southeast of France and southern 
Italy (the pre-Etruscan age of Montelius). The period which 
followed, called the second, or iron age or the La Tene period, 
was prolonged until the first century B. C. in France, Bo- 
hemia and England. In Scandinavian countries the first 
iron age lasted until the sixth century, and the second iron 
age until the tenth century A. D." Referring to the La Tene 
period in a footnote, Deniker says: "This term, first used in 
Germany, is accepted by almost all men of science. The 
La Tene period corresponds pretty nearly with the 'Age 
Marmien' of French archaeologists and the 'Late Celtic' of 
English archaeologists. Cf. M. Hoernes, Urgeschichte d. 
Mensch., chapters VIII and LX." 

Rice Holmes, 1, p. 231, remarks: "Iron in Britain is hardly 
older than 500 B. C. (*. e. the earliest products of the British 
iron age were traded in. See p. 229). In Gaul the Hallstatt 
period is believed to have lasted from about 800 to about 
400 B. C." On p. 126: "It is certain that in the south- 
eastern districts iron tools began to be used not later than 
the fourth century B. C." 

See also Sir John Evans, Ancient Bronze Implements, pp. 
470-472. Consult especially Dechellette, Manuel d'archio- 
logie, t. II, pp. 152 seq., on iron in western Gaul during the 
La Tene period. 

130 : 28. La Tene Period. M. Wavre and P. Vouga, 
Extrait du Muste neuckatelois, p. 7; V. Gross, La Tene, un 
oppidum helvete; E. Vouga, Les Helvbtes a La Tene; and F. 
Keller, The Lake Dwellings of Switzerland. 

131 : 3. Montelius suggests this date. Lord Avebury, 
in Prehistoric Times, even goes so far as to suggest 1000 B. C. 

131 : 5. Rice Holmes, 2, the footnote to p. 9; Dechel- 
lette, Manuel d'archSologie, t. II, p. 552. 

131 : 9. La Tene culture and the Nordic Cymry. This 
is also in Britain termed the "Late Celtic period." See Rice 


Holmes, 2, p. 318. For the expansion of the Celtic empire 
and La Tene see Jean Bruhnes, p. 779. G. Dottin, in his 
Manuel celtique, devotes a whole chapter to the Celtic empire. 

Cymry. See the note to p. 174 : 22 of this book. As to 
the Nordic characters of these people, see Rice Holmes, 1, 
p. 234. 

131 : 12. Nordic Gauls and Goidels as users of bronze. 
Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 126, 229, and elsewhere. 

131 : 15. Haddon, Wanderings of People, p. 49. 

131 : 19. S. Feist, Europa im Lichte der Vorgeschichte, 
p. 9, etc. 

131 : 23. Tacitus, Germania. 

131 : 26. Tacitus, Germania, 4: "Personally I associate 
myself with the opinion of those who hold that in the peoples 
of Germany there has been given to the world a race un- 
tainted by intermarriage with other races, a peculiar people 
and pure, like no one but themselves; whence it comes that 
their physique, in spite of their vast numbers, is identical; 
— fierce blue eyes, red hair, tall frames," etc. 

See Beddoe, 4, pp. 81-82; Fleure and James, pp. 122, 126, 
151-152; and Ripley, passim, for remarks on the increasing 
brunetness of Britain and other parts of Europe which were 
formerly more blond. 

The recent article by Parsons entitled "Anthropological 
Observations on German Prisoners of War," contains an in- 
teresting reference, on p. 26, to the resurgence of Alpine 
types in central Europe. 


134 : 1. There seem to have been at least three distinct 
types of Alpines, one with a broad head and developed occi- 
put typical of western Europe, a second with a flat occiput 
and a high crown, represented by such peoples as the Arme- 
noids of Asia Minor, and a third, of which little notice has 
been taken, except by such men as Zaborowski (2) and 
Fleure and James, pp. 137 seq. This third type is encoun- 
tered here and there in nests which "stretch at least from 
southern Italy to Ireland, by way of the Straits of Gibraltar 


and across France by the dolmen line." Fleure and James 
may be quoted for the following discussion. "Questions 
naturally arise as to the homologies of this type, and its dis- 
tribution beyond the line here mentioned. If we had the 
type in Britain, by itself, we should be inclined to connect 
it with the general population of Central Europe, the dark, 
broad-headed Alpine type. We should, however, retain a 
little hesitation about this, as our type is sometimes of ex- 
traordinary strength of build and, while often fairly short, 
it is occasionally outstandingly tall; moreover, the hair is 
frequently quite black, and this is not on the whole an 
Alpine character. But, when we note the coastal distribu- 
tion of this type, our hesitation is much increased, for the 
Alpine type has spread typically along the mountain flanks 
and its characteristic rarity in Britain is evidence of how 
little it has followed the sea. 

''We cannot but wonder also whether what Deniker calls 
the Atlanto-Mediterranean type is not a result of averaging 
these dark broad-heads with the true Mediterranean type. 

"Seeking further distributional evidence, we find that the 
dark broad-heads are highly characteristic of Dalmatia and 
may be an old-established stock, but it would appear that 
this region is famous for the height of the heads there, and 
our type is not specially high-headed. Broad-head brunets 
do, however, occur farther east in Asia Minor, the JEge&n, 
and Crete, for example. Many are certainly hypsicephalic, 
but in others it seems that the brow and head are moderate 
and the forehead rather rectangular, as in our type. . . . 

"It is interesting that there should be evidence of our dark 
broad-heads beyond the Irish end of the line now discussed, 
the line of intercourse which Dechellette thinks must be older 
than the Bronze Age. The chief evidences for the type be- 
yond Ireland are: 

"1. Ripley (p. 309) shows that a dark, broad-headed ele- 
ment is present in Shetland, West Caithness, and East 
Sutherland. This is sometimes called the Old Black 

"2. Arbo finds the coast and external openings of the 
more southerly Norwegian fjords have a broad-headed pop- 


ulation, whereas the inner ends of the fjords and the interior 
are more dolichocephalic. The broad-heads stretch from 
Trondhjemsfjord southward, and from their exclusively 
coastwise distribution he supposes them to have come across 
from the British Isles. 

"The population is darker than the rest of Norway and 
its area of distribution, as Dr. Stuart Mackintosh has kindly 
pointed out to us, is, like that of the same type in the British 
Isles, characterized by a pelagic climate." 

Von Luschan has fully discussed the Armenoid type in 
his Early Inhabitants of Western Asia, and with E. Petersen, 
in Reisen in Lykien, Milyas, und Kibyratis. A special study 
was made by Chantre in his Recherches anthropologiques dans 
I'Asie occidentale. 

The first type, then, the western European, has a short, 
thick stature, round head, and rather light pigmentation; 
the second, Armenoid, a rather tall stature, square, high 
head, flat occiput, and dark pigmentation. The third, the 
Old Black Breed, is rather small and dark. 

In addition to these we have a fourth type, which has been 
called the Bronze Age race, or, better, the Beaker Maker 
type (Borreby). This has been discussed by Greenwell and 
Rolleston, Beddoe, and Keith, especially as to their possible 
survivors at the present day; by Abercromby, in Bronze Age 
Pottery; by Crawford, The Distribution of Early Bronze Age 
Settlements in Britain; and by Peake, in a discussion of the 
last work in the same number of the Geographical Journal. 
Fleure and James describe it also. See the note to p. 138 : 1 
of this book. 

Further anthropological studies may simplify the prob- 
lem somewhat, but the author is now inclined to believe 
that the above-mentioned third brachycephalic type, the 
"Old Black Breed," represents the survivors of the earliest 
waves of the round-head invasion — in Britain antedating the 
arrival of the Neolithic Mediterraneans, while the first type 
mentioned above represents the descendants of the last 
great Alpine expansion. This type in southern Germany 
has been so thoroughly Nordicized in pigmentation that these 
blond South Germans are sometimes discussed as though 


they were a distinct Alpine sub-species. The type is scantily 
represented in England, and when found may be partly at- 
tributed to ecclesiastics and other retainers brought over 
by the Normans. 

The second of the above types, the Armenoids, are virtually 
absent from Europe, and seem to be characteristic of eastern 
Anatolia and the immediately adjacent regions. 

The author regards the fourth, Borreby or Beaker Maker 
type of tall, round heads as distinct from the three pre- 
ceding types. The distribution of their remains would in- 
dicate they they entered Britain from the northeast. We 
have no clew as to their origin. A similar type is found in 
the so-called Dinaric race of Deniker (which Fleure and James 
mention in connection with the third type but hesitate to 
class with it), which extends from the Tyrol along the moun- 
tainous east coast of the Adriatic into Albania. Further 
study of the Tripolje culture (see note to p. 143 : 15) and the 
mixture of population north of the Carpathians, where the 
early Nordics and early Alpines came in contact, may throw 
light on this question, as well as upon the problem of the 
acquisition of Aryan languages by the Alpines. 

All these four round-skulled types seem to have been of 
West Asiatic origin, but their relationship to each other and 
to the true Mongols of central Asia is as yet undetermined. 
One thing is certain, that the Alpine Slavs north and east of 
the Carpathians, and, to a less degree, the inhabitants of 
Hungary and Bulgaria, have in their midst a very consider- 
able Mongoloid element, which has entered Europe since the 
beginning of our era. 

134 : 12 seq. For further characters of the Alpines see 
Ripley, pp. 123-128, 416 seq., and p. 139 of this book. 

135 : 1. Haddon, Races of Man, pp. 15-16; Deniker, 
Races of Man, pp. 325-326. 

135 : 14 seq. Zaborowski, Les peuples aryens, p. no. 

135 : 17. See the authorities given in Ripley; for the 
Wurtemburgers, pp. 233-234; for Bavaria and Austria, p. 
228; for Switzerland, pp. 282-286; and for the Tyrolese, p. 

135 : 22. Beddoe, 4, chap. VI, is particularly good on the 


physical anthropology of the Swiss, while His and Riitimeyer, 
Crania Helvetica, are classic authorities. 

135 : 23. The Historical Geography of Europe, by Free- 
man; and Beddoe, 4, pp. 75 seq. 

135 : 25 seq. Beddoe, 4, p. 81, says: "As Switzerland, 
especially its central region, was for ages the great recruiting 
ground of mercenary soldiers, it is probable that the tall, 
blond, long-headed element would emigrate at a more rapid 
rate than the brown, short-headed one. In this way may 
also be accounted for the apparent decline in the stature of 
the modern Swiss, who certainly do not, as a rule, now justify 
the descriptions given of their huge physical development 
in earlier days, the days of halberds, morgensterns and two- 
handed swords. " These mercenaries were Teutonic, but their 
Celtic predecessors were addicted to the same habit as G. 
Dottin has shown on p. 257 of his Manuel Celtique: "When 
the Celts could not battle on their own account or against 
their neighbors, they offered their services for the price of 
silver to foreign kings. There is hardly a country that was 
not overrun with Celtic mercenaries, nor struggles in which 
they had not taken part. As far back as 368 B. C. an army 
sent by Denys, the Ancient, to Corinth to aid the Spartiates, 
was in part formed of Celtic foot-soldiers." 

"Pas d'argent, pas de Suisses," as the old saying has it. 

See also Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, 
chap. LV, where are described the Teutonic Varangians in 
Constantinople, who became the body-guard of the Greek 

136 : 5. Osborn, 1, pp. 458 and 479 seq. See p. 116 of 
this book. 

136 : 7. G. Elliot Smith, 1, p. 179; Haddon, 3; Peake, 2, 
pp. 160-163; Deniker, 2, p. 313; Zaborowski, 1, pp. 172 seq.; 
Herve, 1, IV, p. 393, and V, p. 18; and the authorities quoted 
in Osborn. 

136 : 14. Russian brachycephaly. See Ripley, pp. 358 
seq., and the authorities quoted. 

136 : 16. See p. 143 : 13 of this book, and notes. 

136 : 19-26. Brachycephalic colonies in Scandinavia. 
See p. 211 : 6 and notes. 


136 : 29. Ripley, p. 472. 

137 : 2. See the notes to p. 128 : 13. 

137 : 8. See pp. 138 : 1, and 163 : 26 of this book. 
137 : 21. See the notes to p. 128 : 16. 

137 : 29 seq. Beddoe, 4, pp. 231-232. 

138 : 1 seq. Beddoe, 4,pp. 15,17, 231-233; Davis and Thur- 
nam; Keane, 1, p. 150; Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 194, 441; Ripley, 
pp. 308-309. Holmes suggests that the Beaker Makers may 
have come from Denmark. Compare this theory with that 
expressed by Fleure and James, pp. 128 seq. and 135; and 
by Abercromby, Crawford and Peake as given there. The 
Beaker Makers are quite fully discussed on pp. 86-88, 117, 
1 28 seq., and 135-137, in the article by Fleure and James. See 
also Greenwell, British Barrows, pp. 627-718, and J. P. Har- 
rison, On the Survival of Certain Racial Features in the Popu- 
lation of the British Isles. Fleure and James describe the 
type as follows on p. 136: "With the beakers have long been 
associated the broad-headed, strong-browed type, long known 
to archaeologists as the Bronze Age race, but better called 
the 'Beaker Makers,' or Borreby type, for we now think that 
these people reached Britain without a knowledge of bronze. 
. . . The general description of them is that they must 
have been taller than the Neolithic British, averaging 5 
feet 7 inches, rather strongly built, with long forearms and 
inclined to roughness of feature. The head was broad 
(skull index over 80, often 82 or more) and the supraciliary 
arches strong, but very distinctly separated in most cases 
by a median depression, and thus strongly contrasted with 
the continuous supraciliary ridges of e. g., Neanderthal 
man. . . . Keith . . . thinks it [the type] was usually 
brown to fair in colouring at all periods, and this seems to 
be a very general opinion." 

138 : 3. Beddoe, 4, p. 16: "On the whole, however, we 
cannot be far wrong in describing the British skulls of the 
bronze period as distinctly brachycephalic; and this seems 
to have been the case in Scotland as well as in England (see 
D. Wilson, Archaeological and Prehistoric Annals, pp. 168- 
171). Whencesoever they came, the men of the British 
bronze race were richly endowed, physically. They were, as 


a rule, tall and stalwart, their brains were large and their 
features, if somewhat harsh and coarse, must have been 
manly and even commanding. The chieftain of Gristhorpe, 
whose remains are in the Museum of York, must have looked 
a true king of men with his athletic frame, his broad forehead, 
beetling brows, strong jaws and aquiline profile." 

138 : 14. Rice Holmes, 1, p. 425. 

138 : 17. Dinaric Race. Deniker, 1, pp. 113-133; also 
2 > P* 333- For allusions to this and descriptions see Ripley, 
pp. 350, 412, 597, 601-602. 

138 : 18. Remains of Alpines. Fleure and James, pp. 
117, no. 3, and pp. 137-142. 

138 : 22. See the notes to p. 122 : 3. Also Jean Bruhnes 
in Le Correspondant for September, 191 7, p. 774. 

139 : 3. See p. 121 : 16. 

139 : 6 seq. Sergi, Africa, p. 65 ; Studer and Bannwarth, 
Crania Helvetica Antiqua, pp. 13 seq.; His and Rutimeyer, 
Crania Helvetica, p. 41. 

139 : 16. See p. 144 of this book. 

139 : 22 seq. See p. 130. 

140 : 1 seg. See DeLapouge, passim; Ripley, p. 352; 
Johannes Ranke, Der Mensch, vol. II, pp. 296 seq.; part II 
of Topinard's V anthropologic generate, and the note to p. 
131 : 26. 

140 : 4 seq. Alpines in the Cantabrian Alps. See Ripley, 
p. 272, and Oloriz, Distribucion geogrdfica del Indice cephalica. 

140 : 9. Basques and the Basque language. See the notes 
to p. 234 : 24 seq. 

140 : 15. Aquitanian. See p. 248 : 14. Ligurian. See 
the notes to p. 235 : 17. 

140 : 17. Round skulls on North African coast. See pp. 

140 : 22 seq. See the authorities quoted in Ripley, chap. 
VH. For the Walloons see Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 323-325, 334; 
Deniker, 2, p. 335; D'Arbois de Jubainville, 2, pp. 87-95; 
G. Kurth, La frontUre linguistique en Belgique; L. Funel, 
Les parlers poptdaires du dipartement des Alpes-Maritimes, 
pp. 298-303. 

The dialects or patois spoken to-day in France all fall 


under one of these two languages. They can be classified 
as follows: 


Patois Spoken in the Departments of 

Languedocian Gard, Herault, Pyr6n6es-Orientales, Aude, 

Ariege, Haute- Garonne, Lot -et- Ga- 
ronne, Tarn, Aveyron, Lot, Tarn-et- 

Provencal Drome, Vaucluse, Bouches-du-Rhdne, 

Hautes- and Basses-Alpes, Var. 

Dauphinois Isere. 

Lyonnais Rh6ne, Ain, Sa6ne-et-Loire. 

Auvergnat Allier, Loire, Haute- Loire, Ardeche, Lo- 

zere, Puy-de-D6me, Cantal. 

Limousin Correze, Haute- Vienne, Creuse, Indre, 

Cher, Vienne, Dordogne, Charente, 
Charente-Inferieure, Indre-et-Loire. 

Gascon Gironde, Landes, Hautes- Pyrenees, Bas- 
ses-Pyrenees, Gers. 


Norman Normandie, Bretagne, Perche, Maine, 

Anjou, Poitou, Saintonge. 

Picard (modern French) . . Picardie, lle-de-France, Artois, Flandre, 
Hainault, Basse Maine, Thierache, 

Burgundian Nivernais, Berry, Orl6anais, lower Bour- 

bonnais, part of Ile-de-France, Cham- 
pagne, Lorraine, Franche-Comte\ 

140 : 28 seq. For the distribution of the Alpines see Rip- 
ley, p. 157. 

141 : 6. Austria and the Slavs. See Ripley's authorities 
mentioned on pp. 352 seq. 

141 : 9. See p. 143 of this book. 

141 : 13. See the notes to chap. LX. 

141 : 23-142 : 4. Introduction of the Slavs into eastern 
Germany. See Jordanes, History of the Goths, V, 34, 35, and 
XXIII, 119; Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, pp. 
113 seq. 

141 : 25. Wends, Antes and Sclaveni. See the notes to 
p. 143 : 13 seq. 

142 : 4. Haddon, 3, p. 43. 


142 : 9. Ripley, p. 355 and the authorities quoted. The 
word Slave originally signified illustrious or renowned in 
Slavic language, but in Europe was a word of disdain for the 
backward Slavs. See T. Peisker, The Expansion of the 
Slavs, Hist., vol. II, p. 421, n. 2. 

142 : 13. See pp. 143-144 of this book. 

142 : 23. Russian populations. Ripley, based on Anut- 
schin, Taranetzki, Niederle, Zakrewski, Talko-Hyrncewicz, 
Olechnowicz, Matiezka, Kharuzin, Retzius, Bonsdorff, etc. 
Consult his chap. XIII, especially pp. 343-346 and 352. 
Olechnowicz and Talko-Hyrncewicz both remark on the 
dolichocephaly and blondness of the upper classes of 

143 : 1. Keane, 2, pp. 345-346; Beddoe, 1, p. 35; Freeman, 
1, pp. 107, 113-116, 155-158- 

143 : 3. Avars. See the authorities just given; also 
Eginhard, The Life of Charlemagne; Gibbon, Decline and Fall 
of the Roman Empire, chaps. XLII, XLV and XL VI. 

143 : 4. Hungarians. That the Hungarians as such 
were known earlier than this date appears from a passage in 
Jordanes, written about 550 A. D. See the History of the 
Goths, V, 37, where he says: "Farther away and above the 
sea of Pontus are the abodes of the Bulgares, well known from 
the disaster our neglect has brought upon us. From this 
region, the Huns, like a fruitful root of bravest races, sprouted 
into two hordes of people. Some of these are called Alt- 
ziagiri, others, Sabiri; and they have different dwelling places. 
The Altziagiri are near Cherson, where the avaricious traders 
bring in the goods of Asia. In summer they range the 
plains, their broad domains, wherever the pasturage for their 
cattle invites them, and betake themselves in winter beyond 
the sea of Pontus. Now the Hunuguri are known to us 
from the fact that they trade in marten skins. But they 
have been cowed by their bolder neighbors." Also on the 
Hunuguri see Zeuss, p. 712. 

143 : 5 seq. The invasion of the Avars and the Magyars. 
See Freeman, 1, pp. 107, 113, 115-116; Beddoe, i,p. 35; and 
Ripley, p. 432. 

*43 ' 13 seq. Haddon, 3, chap. Ill, Europe, especially p. 


40; and A. Lefevre, Germains et Slavs, p. 156. Minns, in an 
article on the Slavs, says: "Pliny (N. H., IV, 97) is the first 
to give the Slavs a name which can leave us in no doubt. 
He speaks of the Venedi (cf. Tacitus, Germania, 46, Veneti) ; 
Ptolemy (Geog., Ill, 5, 7, 8) calls them Venedae and puts 
them along the Vistula and by the Venedic Gulf, by which 
he seems to mean the Gulf of Danzig; he also speaks of the 
Venedic mountains to the south of the sources of the Vis- 
tula, that is, probably the northern Carpathians. The name 
Venedae is clearly Wend, the name that the Germans have 
always applied to the Slavs. Its meaning is unknown. It 
has been the cause of much confusion because of the Armori- 
can Veneti, the Paphlagonian Enetae, and above all the 
Enetae-Venetae at the head of the Adriatic. . . . Other 
names in Ptolemy which almost certainly denote Slavic 
tribes are the Veltae on the Baltic. The name Slav first oc- 
curs in Pseudo-Caesarius (Dialogues, II, no; Migne, P. G., 
XXXVIII, 985, early 6th century), but the earliest definite 
account of them under that name is given by Jordanes 
(Getica [History of the Goths], V, 34, 35), about 550 A. D.: 
'Within these rivers lies Dacia, encircled by the Alps as by 
a crown. Near their left ridge, which inclines toward the 
north, and beginning at the source of the Vistula, the pop- 
ulous race of the Venethi dwell, occupying a great expanse 
of land. Though their names are now dispersed amid vari- 
ous clans and places, yet they are chiefly called Sclaveni and 
Antes. The abode of the Sclaveni extends from the city of 
Noviodunum and the lake called Mursianus, to the Dnaster, 
and northward as far as the Vistula. They have swamps 
and forests for their cities. The Antes, who are the bravest 
of these peoples dwelling in the curve of the sea of Pontus, 
spread from the Dnaster to the Dnaper, rivers that are 
many days' journey apart.'" See also Zaborowski, 1, pp. 
272 seq. 

The name Wends, as has been said, was used by the Ger- 
mans to designate the Slavs. It is now used for the German- 
ized Polaks, and especially for the Lusatian Wends or Sorbs. 
It is first found in English used by Alfred. Canon I. Taylor, 
in Words and Places, p. 42, says: "The Sclavonians call them- 


selves either Slowjane, 'the intelligible men,' or else Srb 
which means 'kinsmen/ while the Germans call them 

Haddon, 3, p. 47, says: "The Slavs, who belong to the 
Alpine race, seem to have had their area of characterization 
in Poland and the country between the Carpathians and the 
Dnieper; they may be identified with the Venedi." 

In the author's opinion these people have, so far as is 
known, nothing whatever to do with the tribe of Veneti at 
the head of the Adriatic, nor with the Veneti in western 
Europe in what is now Brittany. Of the former Ripley, p. 
258, says that they have been generally accepted as of II- 
lyrian derivation and cites D'Arbois de Jubainville, Von 
Duhn, Pigorini, Sergi, Pull6, Moschen and Tedeschi as 

The Veneti in Italy are tall, broad-headed and some 
are blond, having mixed with the Teutons. They possessed 
some eastern habits, such as their marriage customs, as set 
forth in Herodotus. They were flourishing, wealthy and 
peaceful. Later they were driven to what is now Venice. 

The Veneti in Gaul were a powerful maritime people, who 
carried on a sea trade with Britain. Strangely, perhaps, the 
ancient name of northern Wales was Venedotia. The name 
Veneto, however, has nothing to do with that of Vandal. 
For some theories as to the relationships of some of these 
Veneti, see Zaborowski, 3. 

143 : 15. Gallicia and the Tripolje Culture. Cf. pp. 
113-114. Gallicia is not far from the known location of the 
Briinn-Pre'dmost race, which was dolichocephalic with a long 
face. This early appearance of a dolichocephalic race at the 
point where the dolichocephalic Nordics later came in con- 
tact with the Alpines is very significant. 

The locality is in the neighborhood of the Tripolje area in 
southern Russia, for which see Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 
pp. 130-142, and Peake, 2, p. 164. 

Minns says: "The first finds of Neolithic settlements in 
Russia were made near the village of Tripolje, on the Dnepr, 
forty miles below Kiev, and this name has since been extended 
to the culture of a large area in southern Russia. The re- 


mains consist of so-called 'areas' with buildings which had 
wattled, clay-covered walls which were fired when dry to 
give them greater hardness. Pottery is present in great 
abundance and variety of forms. These bear painted deco- 
rations which are very artistic. There are a few figurines. 
The buildings were not dwellings but probably chapels. 
The homes were probably pit dwellings. Bodies of the dead 
were incinerated and deposited in urns. 

"The theory has been abandoned that this was an autoch- 
thonous development, typical of the Indo-Europeans [Nor- 
dics] before they differentiated (cf. Chvojka, the first dis- 
coverer). Although similar to JEgean art this was earlier 
(see Von Stern, Prehistoric Greek Culture in the South of 
Russia). It came suddenly to an end and had no successor 
in that region. The people were agriculturalists long before 
the Scythians, but the next people who lived there were thor- 
ough nomads. Niederle (Slav. Ant., I) dates them 2000 
B. C. The Tripolje people either moved south or were 
overwhelmed by new comers." As Peake says, 2, pp. 164-165, 
here was a very likely point of contact between the Nordic 
and Alpine stocks, a mixture which, in the opinion of the 
author, may ultimately throw some light on the origin of 
the Dinaric and Beaker Maker types. Through this region 
both Alpines and Nordics must have passed many times in 
their wanderings. Here perhaps the Alpines became partly 
Nordicized, especially as to their language. 

143 : 21. Sarmatians. There has been considerable con- 
fusion over these people, owing to the various ways in which 
the name has been spelled by early and later writers, and to 
the fact that they dwelt in the region where both Alpines 
and Nordics must have existed side by side. The name Sar- 
matians has been applied at one time to Nordics, at another 
to Alpines or even Mongolians, depending on the dates when 
they were discussed and the bias of various writers. We 
have no generic name for the Alpine peoples who must have 
been in this region in early times, except that of Sarmatians 
or Scythians. As the Scythians are apparently strongly 
Nordic in character, the name Sarmatians seemed more fit- 
ting to apply to the Alpine tribes who were certainly there. 


Not all authorities are agreed as to their affiliations, however, 
as has been said. 

Jordanes declares that the Sarmatians and the Sauromatae 
were the same people. Stephanus Byzantius states that 
the Syrmatae were identical with the Sauromatae. They are 
first mentioned by Polybius as being in Europe in 179 B. C. 
(XXV, II; XXVI, VI, 12). But in Asia we hear of them as 
early as 325 B. C, according to Minns, p. 38, who says that 
they gradually shifted westward, until in 50 A. D. they 
were in the Danube valley. Jordanes later speaks of the 
Carpathian mountains as the Sarmatian range. Mierow, 
in the notes to his translation of Jordanes, makes the Sar- 
matians a great Slavic people dwelling from the Vistula to 
the Don, in what is now Poland and Russia. (See also 
Hodgkin, Italy, vol. I, part I, p. 71.) According to Jordanes, 
the Sarmatians were beyond Dacia (the ancient Gothic land) 
and to the north (XII, 74). It is with these statements in 
mind that the author has designated them as Alpines. 

Minns describes the Sarmatians as nomads of the Cas- 
pian steppes who wore armor like the Hiung-nu. About 
325 B. C. there was a decline of the Scyths and they appear. 
During the second and third centuries A. D. was the time 
when they spread over the vast regions from Hungary to the 
Caspian. Minns, however, is firm in the belief that they 
were Iranians [Nordics], like the Alans, Ossetes, Jasy, etc. 
In the second half of the fourth century B. C. they were still 
east of the Don or just crossing; for the next century and a 
half we have very scanty knowledge of what was happen- 
ing in the steppes. Procopius, III, II, also makes them 
Goths. (See the note to p. 66 : 16.) Feist, 5, p. 391, quotes 
Tacitus as to their being horse-loving nomads of south 
Russia. See also D'Arbois de Jubainville, 4, t. I, and Gib- 
bon, chaps. XVIII, XXV, etc., for further discussions. 

144 : n seq. See the authorities quot*4 in Ripley, pp. 
361-362. The Bashkirs, however, are partly Finn, partly 
Tatar as well. 

144 : 26-145 : 1. Ripley, pp. 416 seq. and 434. 

145 : 3- Ripley, p. 434- 

145 : 7. Freeman, 1, pp. 113-115; Haddon, 3, p. 45. 


145 : 10. Ripley, p. 421. These are the Volga Finns. 
Old Bulgaria, according to Pruner-Bey, 2, t. I, pp. 390-433, 
P. F. Kanitz and others, seems to have been between the 
Ural mountains and the Volga. The old Bulgarians were a 
Finnic tribe (just which is a matter of much dispute). They 
crossed the Danube toward the end of the seventh century. 
See Freeman, 1, pp. 17, 155. 

145 : 11 seq. Ripley, p. 426, based on Bassanovic, p. 30. 

145 : 16. Ripley, p. 421. 

145 : 19. Of the numerous tribes who, since the Christian 
Era, have entered Europe and Anatolia from western Asia 
some were undoubtedly pure Mongoloids, like the Huns of 
Attila, or the hordes of Genghis Khan. Others were prob- 
ably under Mongoloid leaders, and included a large proportion 
of West Asiatic Alpines (i. e., Turcomans), while still others 
may have been substantially Alpines. The Mongols in their 
sweep into Europe would naturally gather up and carry with 
them many of the tribes of western Asia, or perhaps more 
often would drive the latter ahead of them. 

146 : 3 seq. Ripley, p. 139; Taylor, 1, p. 119; Peake, 2, 
p. 162. 

146 : 8. Ripley, p. 136. These primitive nests occur also 
in Norway. 

146 : 12. See the note to p. 131 : 26. 

146 : 19-147 : 6. See pp. 122 and 138 of this book. 

147 : 7 seq. Accad and Sumer. Prince, and Zaborowski 
(after de Sarzec) give the earliest date of Accad as about 
3800 B. C, but Prince thinks this date too old by 700-1000 
years. See also Zaborowski, 1, pp. 118-125. H. R. Hall, in 
The Ancient History of the Near East, reviews^the entire work 
in this field in his first chapter. According to him, dates in 
Babylonia can be traced as far back as those of Egypt, 
without coming to a time when there was no writing or metal, 
while Egyptian records begin in a Neolithic culture. The 
earliest dates so far established are in the fourth millennium 
B. C, but already a high degree of civilization had been 
reached there or elsewhere by people who brought it to 
Babylonia. Hall, p. 176, says: "The most ancient remains 
that we find in the city mounds are Sumerian. The site of 


the ancient Shurripak, at Farah in Southern Babylonia, has 
lately been excavated. The culture revealed by this excava- 
tion is Sumerian, and metal-using, even at the lowest levels. 
The Sumerians apparently knew the use of copper at the 
beginning of their occupation of Babylonia, and no doubt 
brought this knowledge with them." See chap. V of Hall's 
book, and the two great works of King, the Chronicles Con- 
cerning the Early Babylonian Kings, and The History of Sumer 
and Akkad, as well as Rogers's History of Babylonia and As- 
syria. In his preface to the first-mentioned of his two works 
King states that the new researches are resulting in a tendency 
to reduce the dates of these ancient empires very consider- 
ably, especially for the dynasties. Thus for Su-abu, the 
founder of the first dynasty, a date not earlier than 2100 
B. C. is now given, and for Hammurabi one not earlier than 
the twentieth century B. C. Accad is by many authors, in- 
cluding Breasted, considered to have been Semitic from the 
beginning, and to have been established about 2800 B. C. 
But Zaborowski claims that it was not originally Semitic, but 
Semitized at a very early date. He makes both city-king- 
doms originally Turanian [by which he means Alpine and 
pre-Aryan] with an agglutinative language related to the 
Altaic. See also Zaborowski, 2. He dates the cuneiform in- 
scriptions between 3700 and 4000 B. C, after de Sarzec and 
de Morgan. Hall draws attention to the remarkable re- 
semblance of the Sumerians to the Dravidians, and is in- 
clined to believe that they may have come from India. 
Both G. Elliot Smith and Breasted claim the Babylonians 
derived their culture from Egypt, but the weight of evi- 
dence is gradually accumulating against them. See Hall, 
chap. V. The relations of the two regions and Egyptian 
dates are treated in Reisner's Early Dynastic Cemeteries of 
Naga-ed-Der; and Eduard Meyer, Geschichte des Alter turns, 
should also be consulted. Against these Egyptologists are 
most of the later writers, such as Hall and King and many 
others. The location of Babylonia is a fact distinctly in 
favor of its earlier beginnings. There is no denying the very 
remote origin of Egyptian culture, which in its isolation for 
so many centuries had ample time to develop its own peculiar 


features and to become sufficiently strong to later extend a 
very wide influence. There is an interesting study of the 
fauna of Egypt by Lortet and Gaillard, which proves that 
much of it was originally African, not Asiatic, as those who 
wish to prove the opposite theory, that Egyptian culture was 
derived from the east in very remote times, have endeavored 
to establish. There is no doubt that the Egyptians were 
sufficiently plastic and adaptable in the earlier centuries of 
their development, wherever they may have come from, to 
make use of what the continent of Africa contributed in the 
way of resources. (See also Gaillard, Les Talonnements des 
Egyptiens, etc., and H. H. Johnston, On North African An- 
imals.) To claim that the civilization of Sumer was derived 
directly from Elam, which in turn obtained its earliest cul- 
ture from Egypt, is, in the opinion of the author, to reverse 
the truth. Some authorities believe that Elam was the 
origin from which came the civilization found by Pumpelly 
in Turkestan, and believed by him to have been not earlier 
than the end of the third millennium B. C. (For a further 
reference to this see the note to p. 119 : 15 of this book, on 

See Hall as to the relationship of the Accadians and Sume- 
rians with Elam. Zaborowski says they were all of the same 
Alpine stock, that is, the very early Sumerians and Accadians 
and Elamites. See 2, p. 411. For Susa, Elam and Media, 
see Les peuples Aryens, pp. 125-138, and Hall, chap. V. 
For the Persians, Zaborowski, 1, pp. 134 seq. Ripley, pp. 
417, 449-450, discusses some of the eastern tribes, among 
them the Tadjiks, whom general opinion makes round- 
skulled. These, according to Zaborowski, are the living 
prototypes of the Susians, Elamites and Medes. Many 
writers consider the Medes to have been Nordics and related 
to the Persians. The author, however, follows Zaborowski 
in classing them as the early brachycephalic population of 
Elam or its highlands or plateau, which was conquered by 
the Persians. On the Medes and Media see the notes to 
P- 254 : 13- 



148 : 1. The Mediterranean Race. Sergi, 4; Ripley; and 
Elliot Smith, 1. 

148 : 14. Deniker, 2, pp. 408 seq.; Ripley, pp. 450-451. 

148 : 15. See the notes to pp. 257-261. 

148 : 18. Dravidians. Bishop R. Caldwell, Comparative 
Grammar of the Dravidian or South Indian Family of Lan- 
guages; G. A. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India, vol. IV, 
Munda and Dravidian Languages; Friedrich Miiller, Reise der 
osterreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 
1 85 7-1 85 9, etc., pp. 73 seq.; Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft, 
vol. Ill, pp. 106 seq. See also Haddon, 3, p. 18. 

148 : 22 seq. Deniker, 2, p. 397; Haddon, 1, 3, but Haddon 
has pointed out that the Andamanese are not racially of the 
same stock as the Sakai, Veddahs, etc. 

149 : 6. Haddon, 3, and Sergi, 4, p. 158; Ripley; Fleure 
and James; Peake; etc. 

149 : 12. Peake, 2, p. 158. 

149 : 21. On this point, Ripley, pp. 465 seq., quotes Von 
Dueben, Retzius, Arbo, Montelius, Barth, Zograf, Lebon, 
Olechnowicz, etc. 

150 : 8. See the notes to p. 149. 
150 : 12. See the notes to p. 257. 

150 : 21. Beddoe, 4, and 3, pp. 384 seq., and Ripley, pp. 
326, 328 seq. 

150 : 24 seq. See the notes to p. 149. 

150 : 29-151 : 3. A. Retzius, 1, 2; G. Retzius, 1, 2; Peake, 
2, p. 158. Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, p. 101, says the 
Iberian type is not found in northern Europe east of Namur. 
In the British Isles, however, it extends to Caithness. 

151 : 3 seq. See the notes to p. 149; Ripley, pp. 461-465; 
Sergi, 4, p. 252; Osborn, 1, p. 458. 

151 : 18. Sir Harry Johnston, passim; G. Elliot Smith, 1, 
pp. 18, 30, 31, and chap. V. 

151 : 22 seq. G. Elliot Smith, 1, p. 30. For a contrary 
opinion see Sergi, 4. 

152 : 3. W. L. and P. L. Sclater, The Geography of Mam- 


mals, pp. 177 seq.; Flower and Lydekker, Mammals, Living 
and Extinct, pp. 96-97. 

152 : 6. Elliot Smith, 1, chap. IV and elsewhere; Sergi, 
4, chap. III. 

152 : 12. Negroes seem to have been unknown in Egypt 
and Nubia in pre-dynastic days and only appear in small 
numbers in the third and fourth dynasties, in the South. 
The great ruins on the Zambezi at Zimbabwe were probably 
the work of the Mediterranean race and are to be dated 
about 1000 B. C. In other words, all northeast Africa, in- 
cluding Nubia, the northern Sudan, the ancient Kingdom of 
Meroe at the junction of the Blue and White Niles, Abys- 
sinia and the adjoining coast were originally part of the do- 
main of the Mediterranean race. 

In the recent kingdom of the Mahdi, the predominant ele- 
ment was not Negro but Arab more or less mixed. 

152 : 16. Sir Harry Johnston, passim; Ripley, pp. 387, 
390; Hall, Ancient History of the Near East. 

152 : 27. Sardinia. See Ripley and Von Luschan. A 
recent article by V. Giuffrida-Ruggeri, entitled "A Sketch 
of the Anthropology of Italy," in the Journal of the Royal 
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, is well 
worth consideration. On pp. 91-92 the author gives a 
short sketch of the Sardinians and his authorities are to be 
found in a footnote on p. 91. 

153 : 4. Albanians. See the notes to p. 163 : 19. 

153 : 6 seq. Fleure and James, pp. 122 seq., 149; Beddoe, 
4, pp. 25-26; Davis and Thurnam, especially p. 212; Boyd 
Dawkins, Early Man in Britain. 

153 : 10. Scotland. See the notes to pp. 150 : 10 and 
204 : 5. 

153 : 14 seq. See the notes to p. 229 : 5-12. 

153 : 24 seq. The Mediterranean Race in Rome. Mon- 
telius, La Civilisation primitive en Italie; Peet, The Stone and 
Bronze Ages in Italy; Munro, Palceolithic Man and the Terra- 
mar a Settlements ; Modesto v, Introduction d, Vhistoire romain; 
Frank, Roman Imperialism. Giuffrida-Ruggeri, in A Sketch 
of the Anthropology of Italy, p. 10 1, says of the composition 
of the population of Rome: " The three fundamental European 


races, H. mediterraneus, H. alpinus, and H. nordicus, had their 
representatives among the ancient Romans, although the 
skeletal remains of the Mediterraneans and the Northerners 
are difficult to distinguish from each other. It is also pos- 
sible that the Northerners belonged to the aristocrats who 
preferred to burn their dead. In the calm tenacity and quiet 
growth of the Roman people perhaps the descendants of H. 
nordicus represented the turbulent restlessness of violent and 
bold individuals which, even in Roman history, one is able 
to discern from time to time." 

In this connection it is interesting to note what Charles 
W. Gould has said on p. 117, in America, a Family Matter, 
concerning Sulla. He describes him as follows: "Even dur- 
ing the terror Sulla found time for enjoyment. Tawny hair, 
piercing blue eyes, fair complexion readily suffused with color 
as emotion and red blood surged within, Norseman that he 
was, he presided over constant and splendid entertainments, 
taking more pleasure in a witty actor than in the degenerate 
men and women of the old nobility who elbowed their way 
in." Also see the notes to p. 215 : 21. 

1 S4 : 5- Quarrels between the Patricians and the Plebs. 
See Tenney Frank, Roman Imperialism, pp. 5 seq., for a dis- 
cussion of the mixture of races, "only we cannot agree that 
a social state can accomplish race amalgamation. The two 
races are still there." Boni, Notizie degli Scavi, vol. Ill, p. 
401, believes that the Patricians were the descendants of the 
immigrant Aryans, while the Plebeians were the offspring of 
the aboriginal Non-Aryan stock. Compare this with the 
statements of early writers concerning the conditions in 
Gaul, especially as summed up by Dottin in his Manuel 

Frank says, concerning the quarrels, in chap. II, op. cit.: 
" Roman tradition preserved in the first book of Livy presents 
a very circumstantial account of the several battles by which 
Rome supposedly razed the Latin cities one after another. 
. . . Needless to say, if the Latin tribe had lived in such 
civil discord as the legend assumes, it would quickly have 
succumbed to the inroads of the mountain tribes." Thus 
probably the quarrels between Latin and Etruscan have 
been overrated. See again, p. 14, for the oriental origin of 


some intruding people. He says, in a note at the end of 
the chapter: "Ridgeway, in Who were the Romans, 1908, 
has ably, though not convincingly developed the view that 
the Patricians were Sabine conquerors. Cuno, Vorgeschichte 
Roms, I, 14, held that they were Etruscans. Fustel de Cou- 
langes, in his well-known work, La cite antique, proposed the 
view that a religious caste system alone could explain the 
division. Eduard Meyer, the article on the Plebs in Hand- 
w'drterbuch der Staatswissenschaften, and Botsford, Roman 
Assemblies, p. 16, have presented various arguments in favor 
of the economic theory. See Binder, Die Plebs, 1909, for a 
summary of many other discussions." 

Breasted, Ancient Times, pp. 495 seq., and Sir Harry John- 
ston, Views and Reviews, p. 97, are two who have touched 
upon these questions. 

On Etruria see the note to p. 157 : 14. 

154 : 11. An allusion to the short stature of the Roman 
legions of Caesar in Gaul may be found in Rice Holmes, 2, 
p. 81. D'Arbois de Jubainville, Les Celts en Espagne, XIV, 
p. 369, says in describing a combat between P. Cornelius 
Scipio and a Gallic warrior: "Scipio was of very small stature, 
the Celtiberian warrior with the high stature which in all 
times in the tales of the Roman historians characterizes the 
Celtic race; and the beginning of the struggle gave him the 
advantage." Taylor, Origin of the Aryans, p. 76, says: 
"The stature of the Celts struck the Romans with astonish- 
ment. Caesar speaks of their mirifica corpora and contrasts 
the short stature of the Romans with the magnitudo corporum 
of the Gauls. Strabo, also, speaking of the Coritavi, a 
British tribe in Lincolnshire, after mentioning their yellow 
hair, says: 'To show how tall they are, I saw myself some of 
their young men at Rome and they were taller by six inches 
than anyone else in the city.'" See also Elton, Origins, 
p. 240. 

154 : 18 seq. Nordic Aristocracy in Rome. Tenney 
Frank, Race Mixture in the Roman Empire. But he also 
makes Gauls and Germans on the same level as other con- 
quered people, as legionaries, etc. See also Giuffrida-Rug- 
geri, p. 101. 

155:5 seq. G. Elliot Smith, 1; Peet, 2, pp. 164 seq. 


Fleure and James use the terms Neolithic and Mediter- 
ranean interchangeably. Recent study is giving a some- 
what different interpretation to the significance of the mega- 
liths. See the article by H. J. Fleure and L. Winstanley 
in the 191 8 Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland. On the megaliths see also the 
note to p. 129 : 2 seq. 

155 : 22 seq. See the notes to p. 233 seq. 

155 : 27-156 : 4. See the notes to p. 192. 

156 : 4. See the notes to p. 244 : 6. 
156 : 8. Sergi, 4, p. 70. 

156 : 10. Gauls. D'Arbois de Jubainville, 1, XIV, p. 
364, says: "Hannibal left Spain for Italy in 218, but he left 
there a Carthaginian army in the ranks of which marched 
auxiliaries furnished by the Celtic peoples of Spain; Roman 
troops came to combat this army and four years after the 
departure of Hannibal, (i. e. in 214), they gave many battles 
to the Carthaginian generals where the Celts were van- 
quished. In the booty there were found abundant Gallic 
trappings, especially a great number of collars and bracelets 
of gold; among the dead of the Carthaginian army left upon 
the plain were two petty Gallic kings, Moencapitus and Vis- 
marus. Livy, who tells us these things, says distinctly that 
the trappings were Gallic (Gallica) and that the kings were 
Gallic. See Livy, I, XXIV, c. 42." 

156 : 13. See the note to p. 192. 

156 : 16. Feist, 5, p. 365, is one of the authors who notes 
the fact that classic writers spoke of light and dark types in 

156 : 18. This of course means racial evidence. See 
Mommsen, History of the Roman Provinces, I, chap. II, and 
Burke, History of Spain, p. 2. 

156 : 25-157 : 3. On the history of the Albigenses the 
most important authority is C. Schmidt, Histoire de la secte 
des Cathares on Albigeois, Paris, 1849. The Albigenses were 
deeply indebted to the Arabic culture of Saracenic Spain, 
which was the medium through which much of the ancient 
Greek science and learning was preserved to modern times. 

157 : 4. Ripley, pp. 260 seq. For an exhaustive resume 


of the subject see Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 277-287. Also con- 
sult the notes to p. 235 : 17 of this book. 

157 : 6. See p. 122 for the predominance of the Mediter- 

157 : 10. Umbrians and Oscans. It is fair to assume that 
some people brought the Aryan languages into Italy from the 
north, and this introduction is credited to the Umbrians and 
Oscans. (See Helbig, Die Italiker in der Poebene, pp. 29-41 ; 
Ridgeway,£ar/y^4ge of Greece; Conway, Early Italic Dialects.) 
The Umbrians and Oscans were closely allied in regard to 
their language, whatever may have been their ethnic affini- 
ties. In a remoter degree they were connected with the 
Latins. From the time and starting-point of their migra- 
tions, as well as from their type of culture, it would appear 
that they were cognate with the early Nordic invaders of 
Greece. Whether they were wholly Nordic, or were thor- 
oughly Nordicized Alpines, or merely Alpines with Nordic 
leaders is not of particular moment in this connection, but 
if they were the carriers of Aryan language and culture they 
were Nordicized in a degree comparable to the genuine Nor- 
dics who invaded Greece. Giuffrida-Ruggeri, in one of the 
latest papers on Italy, as well as many earlier authorities, 
regards the Umbrians as Alpines, but he says they were not 
all round-skulled. "The Osci, the Sabines, the Samnites, 
and other Sabellic peoples were Aryans or Aryanized, al- 
though they inhumated their dead instead of burning them. 
It is possible that the founders of Rome consisted of both 
families, as we find both rites in ancient Rome" (p. 100). 

157 : 14. Etruscans. The author is familiar with the 
persistent theory that the Etruscans came from Asia Minor 
by sea, but he nevertheless regards them as indigenous in- 
habitants of Italy, that is, the Pre-Aryan, Pre-Nordic Medi- 
terraneans, who, as part of a large and extended group, were 
spread over a great part of the shores of the Mediterranean, 
and were at that time the Italian exponents of the prevailing 
yEgean culture. During the second millennium in which this 
culture flourished, they were much influenced by Crete, al- 
though they developed their civilization along special lines. 
The Etruscan language, excluding the borrowed elements 


from later Italic dialects, is apparently in no sense Aryan. 
Cf. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, pp. 53-54. 

157 : 16. The date 800 is given by Feist, 5, p. 370. 

157 : 18. Livy, V, 33 seq., is the authority for the date of 
the sixth century. See also Polybius, 1, II, c. XVII, § 1. 
Myers, Ancient History, makes the settlement of the Gauls 
in Italy about the fifth century B. C. Most authorities fol- 
low Livy. 

157 : 21. To show how approximate the authorities are 
on this date, Rice Holmes, 2, p. 1, and Myers, Ancient His- 
tory, make it 390, while Breasted gives 382. 

157 : 23. Livy, V, 35-49, treats of the taking of Rome by 
the Gauls. The name Brennus means raven; it is from the 
Celtic bran, raven, crow. 

157 : 26. There is a considerable Frankish element there 
also, among the aristocracy. 

158 : 1 seq. An interesting discussion of this event is 
given by Salomon Reinach, 2. The invasion was resisted 
first at Thermopylae and later at Delphi. On p. 81 Reinach 
says: "In the detailed recital which Pausanius has left us 
of the invasion of the Galatic bands in Greece, dealing with 
the glorious part which the Athenians played in the de- 
fence of the Pass of Thermopylae. But, when the defile had 
been forced, the Athenians departed and Pausanius makes 
no more mention of them in relating the defence of Delphi, 
where only the Phocians, four hundred Locrians and two 
hundred ^Etolians figured. It is only after the defeat of the 
Gauls that the Athenians, according to Pausanius, came back, 
together with the Boeotians, to harass the barbarians in 
their retreat. . . ." On p. 83 he says: "The barbarians are 
incontestably the Galatians." See also by the same author, 
The Gauls in Antique Art. G. Dottin, pp. 461-462 gives us the 
following: "Hannibal, traversing southern Gaul, found on 
liis passage only Gauls. On the other hand, Livy mentions 
the arrival of Gauls in Provence at the same time as their 
first descent into Italy, and Justinius places the wars of the 
Greeks of Marseilles against the Gauls and Ligurians before 
the taking of Rome by the Gauls. The invasion of the 
Belgae is placed then in the third century. It is doubtless 


contemporaneous with the Celtic invasion of Greece which 
was perhaps caused by it." See also the notes to p. 174 : 21 
of this book. According to Myers, Ancient History, where 
the account of these events is briefly given on pp. 269-270, 
the year was 278 B. C. Breasted, 1, p. 449, gives 280 B. C. 

As late as the fourth century of our era, Celtic forms of 
speech prevailed among the Galatians of Asia Minor. Ac- 
cording to Jerome (Fraser's Golden Bough, II, p. 126, foot- 
note), the language spoken then in Anatolia was very sim- 
ilar to the dialect of the Treveri, a Celtic tribe on the Moselle, 
of whose name Treves is the perpetuator. "It was to these 
people that St. Paul addressed one of his epistles." 

It is interesting to note that at the present time the finest 
soldiers of the Turkish army are recruited in the district of 
Angora which includes the territory of ancient Galatia. 

158 : 13. Procopius, IV, 13, says that a number of Moors 
and their wives took refuge in Sicily and also in Sardinia 
where they established colonies. The recent article by 
Giuffrida-Ruggeri sums up the data for Sicily, Sardinia and 
Corsica. See also Gibbon, passim, and Ripley, pp. 115-116. 

158 : 16. G. Elliot Smith, 1, pp. 94 seq., and the notes to 
pp. 127 : 26 and 128. 

158 : 21. Pelasgians. Sergi, 4, followed by many an- 
thropologists, describes as Pelasgian one branch of the Medi- 
terranean or Eurafrican race of mankind and one group of 
skull types within that race. Ripley, pp. 407, 448, considers 
them Mediterraneans in all probability, as this is the oldest 
layer of population in these regions. So also do Myres, 
Dawn of History, p. 171, and most of the other authorities. 
In his History of the Pelasgian Theory, Myres sums up all 
that was written up to that time. Homer and other early 
writers make them the ancient inhabitants of Greece, who 
were subdued by the Hellenes. It is generally agreed that 
a people resembling in its prevailing skull forms the Mediter- 
ranean race of north Africa was settled in the ^Egean area 
from a remote Neolithic antiquity. D'Arbois de Jubain- 
ville, 4, t. I, devotes a chapter or more to them, and declares 
on p. no: "In fact the Pelasgians and the Hellenes are of 
different origin; the first are one of the races which preceded 


the Indo-Europeans in Europe, the others are Indo-Euro- 

Another recent writer who deals with this puzzling prob- 
lem is Sartiaux, in his Troie, pp. 140-143. Finally, Sir Wil- 
liam Ridgeway says: "The Achaeans found the land occupied 
by a people known by the ancients as Pelasgians who contin- 
ued down to classical times the main element in the popula- 
tion, even in the states under Achaean, and later, under Dorian 
rule. In some cases the Pelasgians formed a serf class, e. g. 
in Penestas, in Thessaly, the Helots in Laconia and the Gym- 
nesii at Argos; whilst they practically composed the whole 
population of Arcadia and Attica which never came under 
either Achaean or Dorian rule. This people had dwelt in the 
vEgean from the Stone Age, and though still in the Bronze 
Age at the Achaean conquest, had made great advances in 
the useful and ornamental arts. They were of short stature, 
with dark hair and eyes, and generally dolichocephalic. 
Their chief centers were at Cnossus, Crete, in Argolis, La- 
conia and Attica, in each being ruled by ancient lines of 
kings. In Argolis, Prcetus built Tiryns but later under 
Perseus, Mycenae took the lead until the Achaean conquest. 
All the ancient dynasties traced their descent from Poseidon, 
who at the time of the Achaean conquest was the chief male 
divinity of Greece and the islands." 

As to the Pelasgian being a Non- Aryan tongue, the ancient 
script at Crete has not yet been deciphered. Since the an- 
cient Cretans were presumably Pelasgians, it is safe to iden- 
tify them with this Non-Aryan language, although Conway, 
2, pp. 141-142, is inclined to believe that it is related to the 
Aryan family. See also Sweet, The History of Language, p. 

158 : 22. Nordic Achaeans. Ridgeway, 1, p. 683, says: 
"We found that a fair-haired race greater in stature than the 
melanochrous ^Egean people had there [in Greece and the 
yEgean] been domiciled for long ages, and that fresh bodies 
of tall, fair-haired people from the shores of the northern 
ocean continually through the ages had kept pressing down 
into the southern peninsulas. From this it followed that the 
Achaeans of Homer were one of these bodies of Celts [i. e., 


Nordics], who had made their way down into Greece and 
had become the masters of the indigenous race. 

"This conclusion we further tested by an examination of 
the distribution of the round shield, the practise of cremation, 
the use of the brooch and buckle, and finally the diffusion of 
iron in Europe, North Africa and western Asia. Our induc- 
tions showed that all four had made their way into Greece 
and the JEgean from Central Europe. Accordingly as they 
all appeared in Greece along with the Homeric Achseans, we 
inferred that the latter had brought them with them from 
central Europe." Elsewhere, in the same book, Ridgeway 
identifies the Homeric age with the Achaean and Post- 
Mycenaean, the Mycenaean with the Pre-Achaean and Pelas- 

Bury, The History of Greece, p. 44, says: "The Achseans 
were a people of blond complexion, of Indo-European speech. 
Among the later Greeks, there were two marked types, dis- 
tinguished by light and dark hair. The blond complexion 
was rarer and more prized. This is illustrated by the fact 
that women and fops used sometimes to dye their hair yellow 
or red, the KOfir)? ^avdur/xara mentioned in the Danae of Eu- 

159 : 4-5. Date of the siege of Troy. Hall, Ancient His- 
tory of the Near East, p. 69, and many other authorities ac- 
cept the Parian Chronicle, which makes it 1194-1184 B. C. 
For the whole question of the Trojan War see Felix Sartiaux, 
Troie, La Guerre de Troie. 

159 : 6 seq. See the notes to p. 225 : XX. 

159 : 10 seq. Bury, History of Greece, p. 44; DeLapouge, 
Les selections sociales. Beddoe noted in his Anthropological 
History of Europe that almost all of Homer's heroes were 
blond or chestnut-haired as well as large and tall. There are 
many passages in the Iliad which refer to the blondness and 
size of the more important personages. 

159 : 19 seq. Bury, History of Greece, pp. 57, 59, describes 
the Greek tribes which moved down before the Dorians, con- 
quering the Achaeans — the Thessalians, Boeotians, etc. But 
see Peake, 2, for Thessalians. Also D'Arbois de Jubainville, 
4, t. II, p. 297, and Myers, Anc. Hist., pp. 127, 136 seq. 


159 : 23. Dorians. See the authorities quoted above; 
also Ridgeway, Von Luschan, Deniker, 2, pp. 320-321, and 

160 : 1. C. H. Hawes, p. 258 of the Annal of the British 
School at Athens, vol. XVI, "Some Dorian Descendants," 
says the Dorians were Alpines, and this view is shared by 
many others, among them Von Luschan. See also Myres, 
The Dawn of History, pp. 173 seg. and 213. While this may 
be partially true even of the bulk of the population, all the 
tribes to the north of the Mediterranean fringe carried a 
large Nordic element, which practically always assumed the 

160 : 17. For the character of the Dorians, see Bury, 
p. 62. 

161 : 20. The philosopher Xenophanes, a contemporary 
of both Philip and his son, in discussing man's notion of 
God, insists that each race represents the Great Supreme un- 
der its own shape : the Negro with a flat nose and black face, 
the Thracian with blue eyes and a ruddy complexion. 

161 : 27. Loss of Nordic blood among the Persians. See 
the note to p. 254 : n. 

162 : 8. Barbarous Macedonia. Bury, The History of 
Greece, pp. 681-731. 

162 : 14. Alexander the Great. Descriptions of Alex- 
ander are found in Plutarch, who quotes the memoirs of 
Aristoxenus, a contemporary of Alexander, regarding the 
agreeable odor exhaled from his skin; Plutarch also says, 
without giving his authority, who was probably the same, 
that Alexander was "fair and of a light color, passing to 
ruddiness in his face and upon his breast." An authority 
for the statement of blue and black eyes is Quintus Curtius 
Rufus, a Roman historian of the first century A. D., in His- 
toriarum Alexandri Magni, Libri Decern. This was written 
three and one-half centuries after the death of Alexander. 
The quotation, from North's translation of Plutarch, reads: 
"But when Appeles painted Alexander holding lightning in 
his hand he did not shew his fresh color, but made him some- 
what blacke and swarter than his face in deede was; for 
naturally he had a very fayre white colour, mingled also 


with red which chiefly appeared in his face and in his 

In Galton's Inquiries into the Human Faculty, original Eng- 
lish edition, frontispiece, is a composite photograph of Alex- 
ander the Great from six different medals selected by the 
curator in the British Museum. The curly hair and Greek 
profile are significant features. The sarcophagus of Alex- 
ander in the Constantinople Museum called the Sidonian, 
throws some light on this point, although there is some uncer- 
tainty among archaeologists as to whether or not it is Alex- 
ander's sarcophagus. 

162 : 19. See Von Luschan, The Early Inhabitants of 
Western Asia, the section on Greece. 

163 : 7. Grceculus, -a, -um. According to the Latin dic- 
tionaries, the diminutive adjective, understood mostly in a 
depreciating, contemptuous sense — a paltry Greek. 

163 : 10. Physical types in early Greece. Ripley, pp. 
407-408, quotes Nicolucci, Zaborowski, Virchow, DeLapouge 
and Sergi. Cf. Peake, 2, pp. 158-159, also Ripley, p. 411. 

163 : 14. Physical types of modern Greeks. See the au- 
thorities given on p. 409 of Ripley's book, and Von Luschan, 
pp. 221 seq. Von Luschan and most other observers say that 
the modern Greeks, at least in Asia Minor, are a very mixed 
people. See his curve for head form. 

163 : 16. Von Luschan, p. 239: "As in ancient Greece a 
great number of individuals seem to have been fair, with 
blue eyes, I took great care to state whether this were the 
case with the modern 'Greeks' in Asia. I have notes for 
580 adults, males and females. In this number there were 
8 with blue and 29 with gray or greenish eyes; all the rest 
had brown eyes. There was not one case of really light- 
colored hair, but in nearly all the cases of lighter eyes the 
hair also was less dark than with the other Greeks." See 
Ripley for European Greeks. 

163 : 19. Albanians. Deniker, 2, pp. 333-334; Von Lu- 
schan, p. 224; Ripley, p. 410. Most Albanians are tall and 
dark. C. H. Hawes, Some Dorian Descendants, p. 258 seq., 
says that the percentage of light eyes over light hair is nearly 
ten times as great, i. e., there is 3 per cent of light hair to 


30-38 per cent light eyes among Albanians and selected 
Greeks and Cretans. Also Gliick, Zur Physischen Anthro- 
pologic der Albanesen, pp. 375-376, and the note to p. 25 : 25 
of this book. Hall gives some interesting data on p. 522 of 
his Ancient History of the Near East. 

163 : 26. See the note to p. 138 : 1 seq. 

164 : 4 seq. Dinaric type identified with the Spartans. 
See C. H. Hawes, op. cit., pp. 250 seq., where he discusses the 
Spartans and the Dinaric type, and Hall, Ancient History of 
the Near East, pp. 74 and 572. 

164 : 12. On p. 57 of his History of Greece Bury inclines 
to the belief that the Dorians came through Epirus, and at- 
tributes the cause of their invasion to the pressure of the 
Illyrians, to whom the Dorians were probably related. It is 
known that the Illyrians were round-headed. Finally they 
left the regions of the Corinthian Gulf, and sailed around the 
Peloponnesus to southeast Greece, where they settled, leaving 
only a few Dorians behind, who gave their name to the 
country they occupied, but ever afterward were of no con- 
sequence in Greek history. Some bands went to Crete, 
others on other islands and some to Asia Minor. 

164 : 15. Character of the Spartans. See Bury, History 
of Greece, pp. 62, 120, 130-135. 

164 : 22. See p. 153 of this book. 

165 : 6 seq. Cf. the note to p. 119 : 1 and that to p. 223 : 1. 
165 : 10. G. Elliot Smith, Ancient Mariners. 

165 : 14. See the note to p. 242 : 5 on languages. 

166 : 3. Gibbon, chap. XLVIII. 


167 : 1 seq. Cf. Peake, 2, p. 162, and numerous other 
authorities. Peake's summary is brief, clear and up to date. 

167 : 13 seq. R. G. Latham was the first to propound the 
theory of the European origin of the Indo-Europeans. He 
says that there is "a tacit assumption that as the east is the 
probable quarter in which either the human species or the 
greater part of our civilization originated, everything came 
from it. But surely in this there is a confusion between the 


primary diffusion of mankind over the world at large and 
those secondary movements by which, according to even 
the ordinary hypothesis, the Lithuanians, etc., came from 
Asia into Europe." 

167 : 17. See The So-Called North European Race of Man- 
kind, by G. Retzius. Linnaeus and DeLapouge were the 
first to use this term, homo Europceus. See Ripley, pp. 103 
and 121. 

168 : 13. See the notes to pp. 31 : 16 and 224 : 19. 

168 : 19 seq. Ripley, chap. IX, p. 205, based on Arbo, 
Hultkranz and others. G. Retzius, in the article mentioned 
above, pp. 303-306, and also Crania Suecica; L. Wilser; K. 
Penka; O. Schrader, 2 and 3; Feist, 5; Mathaeus Much; Hirt, 
1; and Peake, 2, pp. 162-163, are other authorities. There 
are many more. 

169 : 1 seq. G. Retzius, 3, p. 303. See also 1, for the 
racial homogeneity of Sweden. 

169 : 9. Osborn, 1, pp. 457-458, and authorities given. 
169 : 14. Gerard de Geer, A Geochronology of the Last 
12,000 Years. 

169 : 20 seq. See the note to p. 117 : 18. 

170 : 3 seq. Cuno, Forschungen im Gebiete der alien V biker- 
kunde; Posche, Der Arier. 

170 : 10 seq. Peake, 2; Woodruff, 1, 2; and Myres, 1, p. 
15. See also the notes to pp. 168 : 19 and Chap. LX of this 

170 : 21. See the notes to pp. 213 seq. 

170 : 29-171 : 12. See Osborn's map, 1, p. 189. 

171 : 12. Cf. Ellsworth Huntington, The Pulse of Asia. 

171 : 25. Peake, 2, and Montelius, Sweden in Heathen 
Times, and most of the authors already given on the subject 
of the Nordics. 

172 : 1-25. Ripley, pp. 346-348, and pp. 352 seq., together 
with the authorities quoted. Also Feist, 5, and Zaborowski, 
1, pp. 274-278. Marco Polo, about 1298, in chap. XLVI, of 
his travels, says that the Russian men were extremely well 
favored, tall and with fair complexions. The women were 
also fair and of a good size, with light hair which they were 
accustomed to wear long. 


173 : 9. See Bury, History of Greece, pp. 111-112, and the 
notes to Chap. XIV of this book. 

173 : 11. Saka or Sacae. See the notes to p. 259 : 21. 

173 : 11. Cimmerians. For an interesting summary see 
Zaborowski, 1, pp. 137-138. For a lengthy discussion of them 
and of their migrations, and of their possible affiliations with 
the Cimbri, see Ridgeway, 1, pp. 387-397. According to the 
best Assyriologists the Cimmerians are the same people who, 
known as the Gimiri or Gimirrai, according to cuneiform in- 
scriptions, were in Armenia in the eighth century B. C. 
See Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 495. Bury, 
History of Greece, also touches on their raids in Asia Minor. 
Minns, p. 115, believes them to have been Scythians. G. 
Dottin, p. 23 and elsewhere, speaking of the Cimmerians and 
Cimbri, says: "The latter are without doubt Germans, there- 
fore the Cimmerians who are the same people are not an- 
cestors of the Celts." The Cimmerians were first spoken 
of by Homer (Odyssey, XI, 12-19) who describes them as 
living in perpetual darkness in the far North. Herodotus 
(IV, n-13) in his account of Scythia, regards them as the 
early inhabitants of south Russia, after whom the Bosphorus 
Cimmerius and other places were named, and who were 
driven by the Scyths along the Caucasus into Asia Minor, 
where they maintained themselves for a century. The 
Cimmerii are often mentioned in connection with the Thra- 
cian Treres who made their raids across the Hellespont, 
and possibly some of them took this route, having been cut 
off by the Scyths as the Alani were by the Huns. Certain 
it is that in the middle of the seventh century B. C, Asia 
Minor was ravaged by northern nomads (Herodotus, IV, 12), 
one body of whom is called in Assyrian sources Gimirrai 
and is represented as coming through the Caucasus. They 
were Aryan-speaking, to judge by the few proper names pre- 
served. To the north of the Euxine their main body was 
merged finally with the Scyths. Later writers have often 
confused them with the Cimbri of Jutland. There is no re- 
lation between the Cimbri and the Cymbry or Cymry, a 
word derived from the Welsh Combrox and used by them to 
denote their own people. See the note to p. 174 : 26. 


173 : 14. Medes. See the notes to p. 254 : 13. 

173 : 14. Achaeans and Phrygians. See Peake, 2, who 
dates them at 2000 B. C. Bury says, pp. 5 and 44 seq.: 
"after the middle of the second millennium B. C, but there 
were previous and long-forgotten invasions." Consult also 
Ridgeway, x, and the notes to pp. 158-161 and 225 : 11 of 
this book. 

173 : 16. See the note to p. 157 : 10. 

173 : 18. The Nordics cross the Rhine into Gaul. Rice 
Holmes, 2, pp. 11-12, gives the seventh century B. C. as the 
date when tall fair Celts first crossed the Rhine west- 
ward, "but it is unlikely that they were homogeneous. . . . 
Physically they resembled the tall fair Germans whom Caesar 
and Tacitus describe, but they differed from them in char- 
acter and customs as well as in speech." See also p. 336, at 
the bottom, where he remarks: "Early in the Hallstatt period 
a tall dolichocephalic race appeared in the Jura and the Doubs, 
who may have been the advanced guard of the Celts." 1000 
B. C. for the appearance of the Celts on the Rhine is a very 
moderate estimate of the date at which these Nordics ap- 
pear in western Europe, as that would be nearly four cen- 
turies after the appearance of the Achaeans in Greece and 
fully two centuries after the appearance of Nordics who spoke 
Aryan in Italy. The Hallstatt culture (see p. 1 29) with which 
the invasion of these Nordics is generally associated had 
been in full development for four or five centuries before the 
date here given for the crossing of the Rhine. 700 B. C, 
given by many authorities, seems to the author too late by 
several centuries. 

173 : 18 seq. G. Dottin, Manuel Celtique, pp. 453 seq., 
says: "If the Celts originated in Gaul, it is likely that their 
language would have left in our nomenclature more traces 
than we find, and above all, that the Celtic denominations 
would be applied as well to mountains and water courses as 
to inhabited places. . . . According to D'Arbois de Jubain- 
ville, these names were Ligurian. Thus the Celts would have 
named only fortresses, and the names properly geographic 
would be due to the populations which preceded them. . . . 
These constituted for the most part the plebs, reduced almost 


to the state of slavery, which the Celtic aristocracy of Druids 
and Equites dominated. ... On the other hand, if one 
derives the Celts from central Europe, one explains better 
both the presence in central Europe of numerous place names, 
proving the establishment of dwellings of the Celts, and their 
invasions into southeastern Europe, more difficult to con- 
ceive if they had had to traverse the German forests. The 
migration of a people to a more fertile country is natural 
enough; the departure of the Celts from a fertile country like 
Gaul to a less fertile country like Germany would be very 
unlikely." And it must be remembered that Tacitus won- 
dered why anyone should want to live in Germany, with its 
disagreeable climate, trackless forests and endless swamps. 

Dottin adds the interesting bit of information, on p. 197, 
that the Gauls, mixed with the Illyrians (Alpines) were the 
farmers of old Gaul. The real Gauls were warriors and 

173 : 22. Teutons. Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 546 seq. 

173 : 26 seq. Deniker, 2, p. 321; Oman, England Before 
the Norman Conquest, pp. 13 seq. For Celts and Teutons 
consult also G. de Mortillet, La formation de la nation fran- 
caise, pp. 114 seq. 

174 : 1. Goidels. Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 229, 409-410, and 
2, pp. 319-320, says not earlier than the sixth or seventh 
centuries B. C, but Montelius and others give 800. G. Dot- 
tin, pp. 457-460, and D'Arbois de Jubainville, 4, t. I, pp. 
342-343, contend that there is no historical record of it. The 
date depends upon whether the word /cacro-iTepos, which des- 
ignates "tin" in the Iliad, is a Celtic word. See also Oman, 
2, pp. 13-14, and Rhys and Jones, The Welsh People, pp. 1, 2. 

174 : 7. Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 308 seq. and 325 seq.; Dot- 
tin, pp. 1 and 2, and his Conclusion. Also numerous other 
writers, especially D'Arbois de Jubainville, in various vol- 
umes of the Revue Celtique. 

174 : 10. Nordicized Alpines. Dottin, p. 237: "Caesar 
tells us that the Plebs of Gaul was in a state bordering on 
slavery. It did not dare by itself to do anything and was 
never consulted." Cf. note to p. 173 : 20. 

174 : 11. Gauls in the Crimea. Ridgeway, Early Age of 


Greece, p. 387, quotes Strabo (309 and 507) and the long Pro- 
togenes inscription from Olbia {Corp. Inscr. Grcec, II, no. 

174 : 15. Migration of Nordics from Germany. It oc- 
curred about the eighth century B. C, according to many 
authors, among them G. Dottin, pp. 241, 457-458. "Caesar, 
Livy, Justinius, summing up Pompeius Trogus, Appian and 
Plutarch, without doubt following a common source, even 
think that excess population is the cause of the Gallic migra- 
tions. It is one of the reasons to which Caesar attributes the 
emigration of the Helvetii. Cisalpine Gaul nourished an 
immense population." 

174 : 21. Cymry move westward. See Rice Holmes, 2, 
pp. 319-321; Oman, 2, pp. 13 seq. and especially p. 16; 
Deniker, 2, pp. 320-322 ; Dottin, pp. 460 seq. Both Rhys and 
Jones, in the Welsh People, and G. Dottin, suggest that this 
movement was only part of one great migration which dis- 
persed the Nordics from a central home. Their appearance 
in Greece as Galatians at about the same time may be ascribed 
to this migration. See the notes to p. 158 : 1 seq. 

Oman and many other authorities think the movement 
occurred some time before 325 B. C. 

174 : 21 seq. Cymry and Belgae. The Cymry or Belgae 
were "P Celtic" in speech. They first appeared in history 
about 300 B. C, equipped with a culture of the second iron 
period called La Tene. The classic authors were apparently 
uncertain as to whether or not they were Germans (or Teu- 
tons), but they appear to have been largely composed of this 
element, and to have arrived previously from Scandinavia 
and to have adopted the Celtic tongue. These Belgae drove 
out the earlier "Q Celts" or Goidels, and the pressure they 
exerted caused many of the later migrations of the Goidels 
or Gauls. 

The groups of tribes which in Caesar's time occupied the 
part of France to the north and east of the Seine were known 
as Belgae, while the same people who had crossed to the north 
of the channel were called Brythons. To avoid designating 
these groups separately the author has called all these tribes 
Cymry, although the term can properly be applied only to 


the "P Celts" of Wales, who adopted this designation for 
themselves about the sixth century A. D., according to Rhys 
and Jones, p. 26, where we read: "The singular is Cymro, 
the plural Cymry. The word Cymro, is derived from the 
earlier Cumbrox or Combrox, which is parallel to the Gaulish 
Allobrox (plural Allobroges) a name applied by the Gauls to 
certain Ligurians whose country they conquered. ... As 
the word is to be traced to Cumbra-land (Cumberland), its 
use must have extended to the Brythons" (see Rice Holmes, 
2, p. 15, where he says the Brythons spread the La Tene 
culture). "But as the name Cymry seems to have been un- 
known, not only in Brittany, but also in Cornwall, it may be 
conjectured that it cannot have acquired anything like na- 
tional significance for any length of time before the battle 
of Deorham in the year 577, when the West Saxons perma- 
nently severed the Celts west of the Severn from their kins- 
men (of Gloucester, Somerset, etc., as now known). 

"Thus it is probable that the national significance of the 
term Cymro may date from the sixth century and is to be 
regarded as the exponent of the amalgamation of the Goidelic 
and Brythonic populations under high pressure from without 
by the Saxons and Angles." Therefore it is a purely Welsh 
term, properly speaking. Broca, in the Memoires d'anthro- 
pologie, I, 871, p. 395, is responsible for the word as applied 
to the invaders of Gaul who spoke Celtic. He called them 
Kimris. See also his remarks in the Bulletin de la societi 
d? Anthropologic, XI, 1861, pp. 308-309, and the article by L. 
Wilser in U Anthropologic, XIV, 1903, pp. 496-497. 

175 : 12 seq. See the notes to p. 32 : 8; also Rice Holmes, 
2 > P- 3375 Fleure and James, pp. 118 seq. Taylor, 1, p. 109, 
says that there is a superficial resemblance between the Teu- 
tons and Celts, but a radical difference in skulls, the Teu- 
tonic being more dolichocephalic. Both are tall, large- 
limbed and fair. The Teuton is distinguished by a pink 
and white skin, the Celt is more florid and inclined to freckle. 
The Teuton eye is blue, that of the Celt gray, green, or gray- 
ish blue. 

175 : 21 seq. Rice Holmes, 2, p. 326 seq., gives a summary 
of the descriptions of various classic authors. Salomon 


Reinach, 2, pp. 80 seq., discusses Pausanias' detailed recital 
of the event. For the original see Pausanias, X, 22. Cf. 
also the note to p. 158 : 1. 

176 : 15-177 : 27. The series of notes which were col- 
lected by the author on the wanderings of these Germanic 
tribes proved so lengthy, and the relationships of the peoples 
under discussion so intricate, that they grew beyond all 
reasonable proportions as notes, and carried the subject far 
afield. Hence it has seemed best to omit them in this con- 
nection and to embody them in another work. 

Perhaps it will therefore be sufficient to say here that the 
results of the research have made it clear that all of these 
tribes were related by blood and by language, and came 
originally from Scandinavia and the neighborhood of the 
Baltic Sea. For some unknown reason, such as pressure of 
population, they began, one after another, a southward 
movement in the centuries immediately before the Christian 
Era, which brought them within the knowledge of the Medi- 
terranean world. Their wanderings were very extensive 
and covered Europe from southern Russia and the Crimea 
to Spain, and even to Africa. Many of these tribes broke 
up into smaller groups under distinct names, or united with 
others to form large confederacies. Not only did some of 
them clash with each other almost to the point of extermina- 
tion in their efforts to obtain lands, but in attempting to 
avoid the Huns came into contact with the Romans, and 
broke through the frontier of the Empire at various points. 
From the Romans they gained many of the ideas which were 
later incorporated by them in the various European nations 
which they founded. The result of their conquests was to 
establish a Nordic nobility and upper class in practically 
every country of Europe, — a condition which has remained 
to the present day. 

177 : 12. Varangians. See the note on the Varangians, 
to p. 189 : 24. 

177 : 18. See Jordanes, History of the Goths. 

177 : 27. D'Arbois de Jubainville, 2, pp. 92-93; Taylor, 
Words and Places, p. 45; and G. Dottin, Manuel Celtique, p. 
28. This word came from Volcce, the name of a Celtic tribe 


of the upper Rhine. Their name, to the neighboring Teu- 
tons, came to designate a foreigner. The Volcae were sepa- 
rated into two branches, the Arecomici, established between 
the Rhone and the Garonne, and the Tectosages, in the region 
of the upper Garonne. The term Volcae has become among 
the Germans Walah, then Walch, from which is derived 
Welsch, which designates the people of Romance language, 
such as the Italians and French. Among the Anglo-Saxons 
it has become Wealh, from which the derivation Welsh, which 
designates the Gauls, and nowadays their former compa- 
triots who migrated to England and settled in Wales. 


179 : 10. Mikklegard. "The Great City." This was 
the name given to Byzantium by the Goths. 

180 : 2-1 1. Procopius, Vandalic War; Gibbon, chaps. 
XXXI-XXXVIII; Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe. 

181 : 14. Gibbon, chaps. XXXVII and XXXVIII. 

182 : 1. Eginhard, The Life of Charlemagne. 

183 : 24. The Political History of England, vol. V, by H. 
A. L. Fisher, p. 205: "While the sovereigns of Europe were 
collecting tithes from their clergy for the Holy War, and 
papal collectors were selling indulgences to the scandal of 
some scrupulous minds, the empire became vacant by the 
death of Maximilian on January 19, 15 19. For a few months 
diplomacy was busy with the choice of a successor. The king 
of France (Francis I) poured money into Germany, and was 
supported in his candidature by the pope; the king of Eng- 
land (Henry VIII) sent Pace to counteract French designs 
with the electors; but the issue was never really in doubt. 
Germany would not tolerate a French ruler; and on June 28, 
15 19, Charles of Spain was elected king of the Romans." 

184 : 8. Depopulation. (Thirty Years' War.) Cam- 
bridge Modem History, vol. IV, p. 418, says that Germany 
was particularly afflicted. The data are unreliable, but the 
population of the empire was probably reduced by two- 
thirds, or from 16,000,000 to less than 6,000,000. Bavaria, 
Franconia and Swabia suffered most. W. Menzel says: 


"Germany is reckoned by some to have lost one-half, by 
others, two-thirds, of her entire population during the Thirty 
Years' War. In Saxony 900,000 men had fallen within ten 
years; in Bohemia the number of inhabitants at the demise 
of Frederick II, before the last deplorable inroads made by 
Barier and Torstenson, had sunk to one-fourth. Augsburg, 
instead of 80,000 had 18,000 inhabitants. Every province, 
every town throughout the Empire had suffered at an equal 
ratio, with the exception of Tyrol. . . . The working class 
had almost totally disappeared. In Franconia the misery 
and depopulation had reached such an extent that the Fran- 
conian estates, with the assent of the ecclesiastical princes, 
abolished in 1650 the celibacy of the Catholic clergy and per- 
mitted each man to have two wives. . . . The nobility were 
compelled by necessity to enter the services of the princes, 
the citizens were impoverished and powerless, the peasantry 
had been utterly demoralized by military rule and reduced 
to servitude." It has been said that the city of Berlin con- 
tained but 300 citizens; the Palatinate of the Rhine but 200 
farmers. In character, intelligence and in morality, the 
German people were set back two hundred years. There 
are, in addition to the authorities quoted here, numerous 
others who make the same observations, in fact, this de- 
population is one of the outstanding results of the Thirty 
Years' War. 

See also Anton Gindely, History of the Thirty Years' War, 
p. 398. 

184 : 22 seq. The British Medical Journal for April 8, 
1 91 6; and Parsons, Anthropological Observations on German 
Prisoners of War. 

185 : 6. See the note to p. 196 : 27. 


188 : 5. Beddoe, 4; Ripley, chap. VI. 
188 : 11. British Medical Journal for April 8, 1916. 
188 : 15. Ripley, pp. 221 and 469, and the authorities 


188 : 24-189 : 6. P. Kretschmer; and, on the history of 
High and Low German, see Herman Paul, Grundriss der 
Germanischen Philologie; The Encyclopedia Britannica, under 
German Language, gives a good summary. 

189 : 7. Ripley, p. 256. 

189 : 12. Villari, The Barbarian Invasions of Italy; Thos. 
Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders. 

189 : 15. Brenner Pass. See Rice Holmes, Ccesar's Con- 
quest of Gaul, p. 37; Ripley, p. 290; and most histories of the 
incursions of the barbarians into Italy. 

189 : 24. Varangians. Most of the early historians of 
Russia and Germany and the monk Nestor, who was the 
earliest annalist of the Russians, agree in deriving the Varan- 
gians or Varegnes from Scandinavia. They probably were 
more of the same people whom we find as Varini on the con- 
tinental shores of the North Sea. The names of the first 
founders of the Russian monarchy are Scandinavian or 
Northman. Their language, according to Constantine Por- 
phyrogenitus, differed essentially from the Sclavonian. The 
author of the annals of St. Bertin, who first names the Rus- 
sians (Rhos) in the year 939 of his annals, assigns them Sweden 
for their country. Luitprand calls them the same as the 
Normans. The Finns, Laplanders and Esthonians speak of 
the Swedes to the present day as Roots, Rootsi, Ruorzi, 
Rootslane or Rudersman, meaning rowers. See Schlozer, in 
his Nestor, p. 60; and Malte Brun, p. 378, as well as Kluchevsky, 
vol. I, pp. 56-76 and 92. The Varangians, according to 
Gibbon, formed the body-guard of the Greek Emperor at 
Byzantium. These were the Russian Varangians, who made 
their way to that city by the eastern routes. Canon Isaac 
Taylor, in Words and Places, p. no, remarks that "for cen- 
turies the Varangian Guard upheld the tottering throne of 
the Byzantine emperors." This Varangian Guard was very 
largely reinforced by Saxons fleeing from the Norman Con- 
quest of England. The name Varangi is undoubtedly iden- 
tical with Frank, and is the term used in the Levant to des- 
ignate Christians of the western rite, from the days of the 
Crusades down to the present time. Cf. Ferangistan — land 
of the Franks, or, as it is now interpreted, " Europe," especially 


: 1. 




• 13 




: 19, 

,6 : i 



western Europe. E. B. Soane, To Mesopotamia and Kurdi- 
stan in Disguise, uses the phrase d la ferangi as describing 
anything imported from western Europe. 

Deniker, 2, pp. 333-334; Ripley. 
Deniker, the same. 
Ripley, pp. 281-283. 
Ripley, pp. 343 seq. 
See the notes to pp. 131 : 26, 140 : 1 seq. and 

190 : 26. See p. 140 of this book. 

192 : 1 seq. D'Arbois de Jubainville, 1, t. XIV, pp. 357— 
395; Feist, 5, p. 365. Col. W. R. Livermore, in correspon- 
dence, says that practically all students on the Celtiberian 
question agree upon the point where the Celts entered Spain, 
namely, that designated by de Jubainville. They passed 
along the Atlantic coast, across the Pyrenees, where the rail- 
road from Paris to Madrid now crosses, about 500 B. C, 
between the time of Avienus, ±525 and Herodotus, ± 443. 
In the time of Avienus the Ligurians had both ends of the 
Pyrenees from Ampurias to Bayonne, and controlled the 
sources of the Batis. In the time of Herodotus, the Gauls 
had the country up to the Curretes. See also Miillenhoff , 
Deutsche A Iter turns kunde, II, p. 238, and Deniker, 2, p. 321. 
D'Arbois de Jubainville, op. cit., especially pp. 363-364, says: 
"The name Celtiberian was adopted at the time of Hannibal, 
who entered Spain, married a Celt, and thus won the assis- 
tance of the Celts in his march on Rome. . . . The name 
Celtiberian is the generic term for designating the Celts es- 
tablished in the center of Spain, but the word is sometimes 
taken in a less extended sense to designate only one part of 
this important group." 

192 : 8. Sergi, 4, p. 70. See also p. 156 of this book. 

192 : 14. See the note to p. 156, or Ridgeway, The Early 
Age of Greece, p. 375. 

192 : 18. Ridgeway, op. cit., p. 375. This may refer to 
the veins showing blue through the fair Nordic skin. 

192 : 18. Ridgeway, op. cit., p. 375. Here he says: "The 
Visigoths became the master race, and from them the Span- 
ish Grandees, among whom fair hair is a common feature, 


derive their sangre azul. After a glorious struggle against 
the Saracens, which served to keep alive their martial ardor 
and thus brace up the ancient vigor of the race, from the 
1 6th century onward the Visigothic wave seems to have ex- 
hausted its initial energy, and the aboriginal stratum has 
more and more come to the surface and has thus left Spain 
sapless and supine." 

192 : 22. Taylor, 2, pp. 308-309, says: "From the name of 
the same nation, — the Goths of Spain, — are derived curiously 
enough, two names, one implying extreme honor, the other 
extreme contempt. The Spanish noble, who boasts that the 
sangre azul of the Goths runs in his veins with no admixture, 
calls himself an hidalgo, that is, a son of the Goth, as his 
proudest title." A footnote to this reads: "The old etymol- 
ogy Hijo d'algo, son of someone, has been universally given 
up in favor of hi' d'al Go, son of the Goth. (More correctly 
hi' del Go'.) See a paper 'On Oc and Oyl' translated by 
Bishop Thirlwall, for the Philological Museum, vol. II, p. 
337." Taylor goes on to say, however, that the version 
hi' d' algo, son of someone, is still given as the origin of this 
word in R. Barcia's Primer Diccionaria General Etimologico 
de la Lengua Espanol. 

Concerning some other derivations Taylor continues: "Of 
Gothic blood scarcely less pure than that of the Spanish 
Hidalgos, are the Cagots of Southern France, a race of out- 
cast pariahs, who in every village live apart, executing every 
vile or disgraceful kind of toil, and with whom the poorest 
peasant refuses to associate. These Cagots are the descen- 
dants of those Spanish Goths, who, on the invasion of the 
Moors, fled to Aquitaine, where they were protected by 
Charles Martel. But the reproach of Arianism clung to 
them, and religious bigotry branded them with the name 
cd gots or • Gothic Dogs,' a name which still clings to them, 
and keeps them apart from their fellow-men." 

Elsewhere we find the following: "The fierce and intoler- 
ant Arianism of the Visigothic conquerors of Spain has given 
us another word. The word Visigoth has become Bigot, 
and thus on the imperishable tablets of language the Catholics 
have handed down to perpetual infamy the name and nation 
of their persecutors." 


193 : 14 seq. Cf. DeLapouge, UAryen, p. 343, where he 
says that the exodus of the Conquistadores was fatal to 

193 : 17. Rice Holmes, 2; and the note to p. 69 of this 

194 : 1. See the note to p. 173. 

194 : 8. Ridgeway, I, p. 372, says: " We know from Strabo 
and other writers that the Aquitani were distinctly Iberian." 
Consult also Rice Holmes, 2, p. 12, where he quotes Caesar. 

194 : 14 seq. Ridgeway, op. cit., pp. 372 and 395; Ripley, 
chap. VII, pp. 137 seq. 

194 : 19 seq. Rice Holmes, 2, under Belgae, pp. 5, 12, 257, 
259. 304-3 5, 308-309, 311, 315, 318-325; and Ancient Brit- 
ain, p. 445. The modern composition of the French popula- 
tion has been investigated by Edmond Bayle and Dr. Leon 
MacAuliffe, who find that there is decided race mixture, with 
chestnut pigmentation of hair and eyes predominating. 
Blond traits were found to be almost confined to the north 
and east, while brunet characters prevail in the south. Pure 
black hair is exceedingly rare. 

195 : 14. Vanderkindere, Recherches sur VEthnologie de 
la Belgique, pp. 569-574; Rice Holmes, 2, p. 323; Beddoe, 4, 
pp. 21 seq. and 72. 

195 : 18. Ridgeway, 1, p. 373; Ripley, p. 127; Rice 
Holmes, 2; and Feist, 5, p. 14. 

195 : 25 seq. Franks of the lower Rhine. Eginhard, in 
his Life of Charlemagne, p. 7, states the following: "There 
were two great divisions or tribes of the Franks, the Salians, 
deriving their name probably from the river Isala, the Yssel, 
who dwelt on the lower Rhine, and the Ripuarians, probably 
from Ripa, a bank, who dwelt about the banks of the middle 
Rhine. The latter were by far the most numerous, and 
spread over a greater extent of country; but to the Salians 
belongs the glory of founding the great Frankish kingdom 
under the royal line of the Merwings" (Merovingians). 

196 : 2 seq. Ripley, p. 157; DeLapouge, passim. 

196 : 7 seq. Oman, 2, pp. 499 seq.; Beddoe, 4, p. 94 and 
chap. VII; Fleure and James, pp. 121, 129; Taylor, 2, p. 129; 
Ripley, pp. 151-153, Z^-^l- 


196 : 18 seq. DeLapouge, passim; Ripley, pp. 150-155. 

197 : 3. See David Starr Jordan, War and the Breed, pp. 
61 seq. This stature has somewhat recovered in recent years. 
It is now, in Correze, only 2 cm. below the average for the 
whole of France. See Grilliere, pp. 392 seq. W. R. Inge, 
Outspoken Essays, pp. 41-42: "The notion that frequent war 
is a healthy tonic for a nation is scarcely tenable. Its dys- 
genic effect, by eliminating the strongest and healthiest of 
the population while leaving the weaklings at home to be 
the fathers of the next generation, is no new discovery. It 
has been supported by a succession of men, such as Tenon, 
Dufau, Foissac, DeLapouge and Richet in France; Tiede- 
mann and Seeck in Germany; Guerrini in Italy; Kellogg and 
Starr Jordan in America. The case is indeed overwhelming. 
The lives destroyed in war are nearly all males, thus dis- 
turbing the sex equilibrium of the population. They are in 
the prime of life, at the age of greatest fecundity; and they 
are picked from a list out of which from 20 to 30 per cent 
have been rejected for physical unfitness. It seems to be 
proved that the children born in France during the Napoleonic 
wars were poor and undersized, 30 millimeters below the 
normal height." 

197 : 11. DeLapouge, passim; Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 306 seq. 

197 : 29-198 : 10. R. Collignon, Anthropologie de la 
France, pp. 3 seq.; DeLapouge, Les Selections sociales; Rip- 
ley, pp. 87-89; Inge, p. 41; Jordan, passim. 

198 : 22. Conscript Armies. Two interesting letters bear- 
ing on the racial differences composing conscript and volun- 
teer armies in the recent World War may here be quoted. 

The first, from Mr. T. Rice Holmes, relates to the English 
army of Kitchener in 1915. " Perhaps it may interest you 
to know that in 1915 when recruits belonging to Kitchener's 
army were training near Rochampton, I noticed that almost 
every man was fair, — not, of course, with the pronounced 
fairness of the men of the north of Scotland, who are descended 
from Scandinavians, but with such fairness as is to be seen 
in England. These men, as you know, were volunteers." 

The second, from DeLapouge, concerns our American 
army in France. "I have been able to verify for myself 


your observations on the American army. The first to ar- 
rive were all volunteers, all dolicho-blonds; but the draft 
afterwards brought in inferior elements. At St. Nazaire, at 
Tours, and at Poictiers, I have been able to examine American 
soldiers by the tens of thousands and I have been able to 
formulate for myself a very definite conception of the types." 

199 : 9. H. Belloc, The Old Road; Peake, Memorials of 
Old Leicestershire, pp. 34-41; Fleure and James, p. 127. 

199 : 23. See the notes to pp. 174 : 21 and 247 : 3 of this 

199 : 29-200 : 11. See p. 131 of this book; also Rice 
Holmes, 1, pp. 231-236, 434, 455"45 6 ; and 2 , P- I 5- 

200 : 10. Cf. Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 446, 449 and the note 
on 451; also Oman, 2, p. 16. 

200 : 12. Inferred from Rice Holmes, 1, p. 232; also Bed- 
doe, 4, p. 31. 

200 : 18. Oman, 2, pp. 174-175 and chap. Ill seq., treats 
specially of these times. See also Beddoe, 4, pp. 36, 37 and 
chap. V. 

200 : 24. Oman, 2, pp. 215-219. 

201 : 1. Villari, vol I, or Hodgkin. 

201 :6 seq. Oman, 2; Ripley, pp. 154, 156; Beddoe, 4, 
p. 94; Fleure and James, pp. 121, 129; Taylor, 2. 

201 : 11 seq. Beddoe, 4, chap. VII and the notes to p. 
196 : 7 of this book. 

201 : 18 seq. See pp. 63, 64. 

201 : 23 seq. See the notes to p. 247. Decline of the 
Nordic type in England. Beddoe, H.; Fleure and James; 
Peake and Horton, A Saxon Graveyard at East Shejjord, Berks, 
p. 103. 

202 : 4. Beddoe, 4, p. 148. 

202 : 13. Beddoe, 4, p. 92 and also chap. XII. 
202 : 17. Ripley, under Ireland. 

202 : 23 seq. See the notes to p. 108 : 1. 

203 : 5 seq. The intellectual inferiority of the Irish. If 
there is any indication of the intellectual rating of various 
foreign countries to be derived from the draft examinations 
of our foreign-born, grouped according to place of nativity, 
a paper by Major Bingham of Washington, in regard to "The 


Relation of Intelligence Ratings to Nativity " may be quoted. 
The total number of foreign-born examined, which formed 
the basis of this report, was 12,407, while the total number of 
native-born whites was 93,973. Only countries were con- 
sidered which were represented by more than 100 men in the 
examinations. The tests were divided into those for literates 
and those for illiterates, so that even men not speaking Eng- 
lish could be graded. In these examinations the Irish made 
a surprisingly poor showing, falling far below the English 
and Scotch, who stood very high, as well as below the Ger- 
mans, Austrians, French-Canadians, Danes, Dutch, Bel- 
gians, Swedes and Norwegians, being about on a par with 
the Russians, Poles and Italians. Therefore, if these tests 
are any criterion of intellectual ability, the Irish are notice- 
ably inferior. 

203 : 18. See p. 123 of this book. 

203 : 24. Beddoe, 4, p. 139 and chap. XIV. 

204 : 1. See the note to p. 150 : 21. 

204 : 5. There is an amusing discussion in Rice Holmes, 
1, on the Pictish question. See pp. 409-424. Rice Holmes 
contends that the Picts were not pure remnants of the Pre- 
Celtic inhabitants, but a mixture of these with Celts. The 
term Picts has been very widely accepted as a designation for 
those Pre-Celtic inhabitants, who were certainly there. No 
other name has been given for them and it is in this sense 
that it is used here, and that Rice Holmes himself is obliged 
to use it on p. 456. It will be useful to the reader to peruse 
pp. 13-16 of Rhys and Jones, The Welsh People. Appendix 
B, of that volume (pp. 617 seq.), written by Sir J. Morris 
Jones, entitled "Pre- Aryan Syntax in Insular Celtic," shows 
the Anaryan survivals in Welsh and Irish to be remarkably 
similar to ancient Egyptian, which, with the Berber of inter- 
mediate situation, belongs to the great Hamitic family of 
languages and was the tongue of the primitive Mediter- 
raneans. For Beddoe's opinion see 4, p. 36. On p. 247 he 
says, speaking of the Highland people: " Every here and there 
a decidedly Iberian physiognomy appears, which makes one 
think Professor Rhys right in supposing that the Picts were 
in part, at least, of that stock." See Hector McLean, 1, 


p. 170, where he suggests that the Picts were originally the 
Pictones from the south bank of the Loire in Gaul. 

The name Pixie, met with so frequently in Irish legends, 
and relating to little people similar to dwarfs, may have some 
connection with these shy little Mediterraneans whom the 
Nordics found on their arrival and who were forced back by 
them into inaccessible districts. 

204 : 19. See the article on "Pre-Aryan Syntax in In- 
sular Celtic," just mentioned, and Beddoe, 4, p. 46, quoting 
Elton, p. 167. For other Non-Aryan remnants, especially in 
names, see Hector McLean, 1, passim. 

205 : 3. See Fleure and James, pp. 62, 73, 1 19-128, and 
especially pp. 125 and 151. 

205 : 10. The same, pp. 38-39, 75 and elsewhere. 
205 : 16. This is intimated by Rhys and Jones, in The 
Welsh People , p. 33. 

205 : 20 seq. The same, chap. I, especially p. 35 and pp. 
502 seq.; Fleure and James, p. 143. 

206 : 3. Fleure and James, pp. 38, 75, 119, 152. These 
gentlemen say, on p. 38, that they believe that certain types, 
without any intervening social or linguistic barrier for cen- 
turies, have apparently persisted side by side in very marked 
fashion in certain parts of Wales. 

A letter from Mr. Baring Gould confirms this: "In Wales 
there are two types, the dark Siluric and the light Norman. 
Here in the west of England we have the same two types. 
In this neighborhood one village is fair, the next dark and 
sallow. It is the same in Cornwall; in certain villages the 
type is dark and sallow, in others fair. There is no com- 
parison between the capabilities moral and physical be- 
tween the two types. The dark is tricky, unreliable and goes 
under, and the fair type predominates in trade, in business, 
in farming and in every department." 

Beddoe, Fleure and James, and also Hector McLean re- 
mark on the various moral and mental capabilities of the 
different physical types. 

206 : 13. Beddoe, 4, chap. VIII. 

206 : 16 seq. Taylor, 2, p. 129; Keary, pp. 486 seq. On 
the Normans see Beddoe, chaps. VIII, IX and X. 


207 : 2. Beddoe, the same. 

207 : 11. Gibbon, chap. LVI; Taylor, 2, p. 133. 

207 : 15. Beddoe, chap. VIII. 

208 : 8. Beddoe, 4, p. 95. The breadth of skull "of the 
Norman aristocracy may probably have been smaller, but 
the ecclesiastics of Norman or French nationality, who 
abounded in England for centuries after the conquest and 
who, in many cases, rose from the subjugated Celtic [Alpine] 
layer of population, have left us a good many broad and round 
skulls. Thus the crania of three bishops of Durham . . . 
yield an index of 85.6, while those of eight Anglican canons 
dating from before the conquest yield one of 74.9. So far, 
however, as the actual conquest and armed occupation of 
England was concerned, the aristocracy and military caste, 
who were largely of Scandinavian type, came over in much 
larger proportion than the more Belgic or Celtic lower ranks, 
insomuch that it has been said that more of the Norman 
noblesse came over to England than were left behind." 

During the Middle Ages the church was a very democratic 
institution, and it was only through its offices that the lower 
ranks succeeded in working their way up. This was partly 
because the older peoples possessed the Roman learning, and 
because the northern invaders were more addicted to martial 
than to priestly pursuits. The conquered people had no 
chance to rise in political, aristocratic or military circles, and 
contented themselves with the church. At the present time, 
in many Catholic countries, notably Ireland, the priests are 
derived from the lowest stratum of the population, as may 
be clearly recognized in their portraits. 

208 : 14. Beddoe, passim. 

208 : 20. Beddoe, 4, p. 270; G. Retzius, 3; Ripley; Fleure 
and James, p. 152; Alphonse de Candolle, Histoire des sciences 
et des savants depuis deux siecles, p. 576; Peake and Horton, 
p. 103; and the note to p. 201 : 23 of this book. 

208 : 26. Beddoe, 4, p. 148. 

210 : 5. Cf. Beddoe, p. 94. 

210 : 20. Ripley, pp. 228, 283, 345. 

210 : 24. Holland and Flanders. Ripley, pp. 157 and 
293 seq. 


210 : 25. Flemings and Franks. See Sir Harry Johnston, 
Views and Reviews, p. 101. 

211 : 6. The authorities quoted in Ripley, p. 207. See 
also Fleure and James, p. 140; Zaborowski, 2; and C. O. 
Arbo, Yner, p. 25. 

211 : 26. Ripley, pp. 363-365; Feist, 5; and Dr. Wester- 
lund as quoted in "The Finns," by Van Cleef. 

212 : 1. Ripley, p. 341. 

212 : 4. See the note to p. 242 : 16. 


213 : 1-23. Cf. O. Schrader, 2 and 3; Mathaeus Much; 
Hirt, 1, 2; Zaborowski, 1, pp. 100-110; Peake, 2, pp. 163-167; 
Feist, 1, p. 14; Taylor, 1; Ripley, p. 127; Ridgeway, 1, p. 
373 and the notes to pp. 239 : 16 seq., and 253 : 19 of this 
book. D'Arbois de Jubainville, 4, t. I, pp. ix and 214, gives 
the date when the Indo-Europeans were united as 2500 B. C. 
Feist, 5, believes the Nordics were still in their homeland 
between 2500 and 2000 B. C. This was the transition period 
from Stone to Bronze in north-middle and eastern Europe. 
Breasted, Ancient Times, says: "It has recently been scien- 
tifically demonstrated on the basis, chiefly, of the Amarna 
tablets and other cuneiform evidence, that the Aryans had 
by 2000 or 1800 B. C. begun to leave a home on the east or 
southeast of the Caspian, where they divided into two 
branches, one going southeast into India, the other south- 
west into Babylon." " The first occurrence of Indo-European 
names is in the Tell-el-Amarna (Egyptian) correspondence," 
says Myres, Dawn of History, p. 153, "which gives so vivid 
a picture of Syrian affairs in the years immediately after 
1400. They represent chieftains scattered up and down 
Syria and Palestine, and they include the name of Tushratta, 
king of the large district of Mitanni beyond Euphrates. . . . 
But this is a minor matter; nothing is commoner in the his- 
tory of migatory peoples than to find a very small leaven of 
energetic intruders ruling and organizing large native popu- 
lations without either learning their subjects' language or 
improving their own until considerably later, if at all. The 


Norman princes, for example, bear Teutonic names, Robert, 
William, Henry; but it is Norman French in which they 
govern Normandy and correspond with the king of France. 
All these Indo-European names (mentioned in the tablets), 
belong to the Iranian group of languages, which is later found 
widely spread over the whole plateau of Persia." 

214 : 1 seq. See pp. 158-159 of this book. 

214 : 7 seq. Herodotus, IV, 17, 18, 33, 53, 65, 74, etc., for 
notes on the Scythians. Wheat was cultivated in the south- 
ern part of Scythia. Corn was an article of trade, and the 
loom was used. See also Zaborowski, 1; Ripley; Feist, 5. 

214 : 10. Scythians. According to Zaborowski, 1, the 
Scythians were the earliest known Nordic nomads of Scythia, 
or southern Russia, from whom no doubt came the Achaeans, 
Cimmerians, etc., and later the Persian conquerors, the lead- 
ers of the Kassites and Mitanni, etc. The Sacae were an 
eastern branch of the Scythians (and likewise the Massa- 
getae), who threw off branches into India. Possibly the Wu- 
Suns and the Epthalites, or White Huns, were eastern off- 
shoots. Owing to the fact that Scythia has been swept time 
and again by various hordes moving east and west, and has 
served no doubt as a meeting-ground for Alpines, Nordics 
and Mongols, these may all, at some period or another, have 
been called Scythians because they inhabited this little- 
known territory. But the indications are strongly in favor 
of the original Scythians being Nordics. It is in this sense 
that the name is here applied. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 
and D'Arbois de Jubainville, 4, t. I, are two other authori- 
ties who have discussed the Scythians at length. 

214 : 11. Cimmerians. See the note to p. 173. On the 
Persians, see the notes to p. 254. For the Sacae, the note to 
p. 259 : 21; for the Massagetae, the same; for the Kassites, 
that to p. 239 : 13. These last are Non-Aryan, according 
to some authors, including Prince, but Hall, The Ancient 
History of the Near East, says they are undeniably Aryans. 
For the Mitanni see the note to p. 239 : 16. 

214 : 26-215 : 3. See p. 161 of this book. 

215 : 15. See p. 160 of this book. 

215 : 25. Dante Alighieri. It is interesting to know that 


the name Aligheri is Gothic, a corruption of Aldiger. It be- 
longs to such German names as those which include the word 
"ger," spear, as in Gerhard, Gertrude, etc. This name came 
into the family through Dante's grandmother on the father's 
side, a Goth from Ferrara, whose name was Aldigero. With 
regard to the origin of his grandfather and mother, the at- 
tempt to connect him with Roman families is known to be 
a pure fiction on the part of the Italian biographers, who 
thought it more glorious to be a Roman than anything else; 
but his descent from pure Germanic parentage is practically 
proved, since the grandfather was a warrior, knighted by the 
emperor Conrad, and Dante himself declares that he be- 
longed to the petty nobility. Even to the beginning of the 
fifteenth century many Italians are described in old docu- 
ments as Alemanni, Langobardi, etc., ex alamanorum genere, 
legibus vivens Langobardorum, etc. Though the majority of 
them had adopted Roman law, whereby the documentary 
evidence of their descent usually disappeared, they were 
thoroughly Germanic in blood, especially those to whom 
Rome owes much. See Franz Xaver Kraus, Dante, pp. 
21-25, and Savigny, Geschichte des rbmischen Rechte im Mittel- 
alter, I, chap. III. 

216 : 1. See the notes to p. 254 : 13-15. 

216 : 4. Nordic Sacae. See the notes to p. 259 : 21. 

216 : 9. See the notes to pp. 70 and 242 : 5. 

216 : 12. Gibbon, especially vols. Ill and IV, which con- 
tain numerous references, and the note to p. 135 : 25. 

216 : 17. Tenney Frank, Race Mixture in the Roman Em- 
pire, pp. 704 seq. 

217 13. Plutarch's Life of Pompey the Great, and his Life 
of Ccesar; also Ferrero, The Greatness and Decline of Rome, 
vol. II, "Oesar," chap. VII. 

217 : 12. Decline of the Romans and the Punic Wars. 
Livy, I, XXI seq., and Appian, De rebus hispaniensibus, and 
De bello Annibalico. Also Pliny, I, and Polybius, I. D'Ar- 
bois de Jubainville, 1, section entitled "Les Celtiberes pen- 
dant la seconde guerre punique," pp. 44 seq., says that Han- 
nibal's success in Rome was due to the aid of the Celts and 
the Celtiberians. Hannibal gained much of his army from 


the Celts of Spain, Gaul, and Cis-Alpine Gaul, as he marched 
toward Rome. 

217 : 16. Social and Servile Wars. Plutarch's Lives of 
Fabius Maximus and of Sylla. 

217 : 26. See the note to p. 51 : 18. 

218 : 16. Tenney Frank, 1 and 2; Dill, 2, book II, chaps. 
II and III; and 1, book II, chap. I; Myers, Ancient History, 
pp. 498-499, 523-525. Bury, in A History of the Later Roman 
Empire, vol. I, chap. Ill, makes slavery, oppressive taxation, 
the importation of barbarians and Christianity the four 
chief causes of the weakness and failure of the Empire. 

Gibbon, vol I, at the end of chap. X, says, in speaking 
of the extinction of the old Roman families, that only the 
Calpurnian gens long survived the tyranny of the Caesars. 
See the last three or four pages of the chapter. Also Fred- 
erick Adams Woods, The Influence of Monarchs, p. 295. 

219 : 11-220 : 19. Frank, 1, p. 705. 

220 : 21. See p. 216 of this book. 

221 : 25. Gibbon ; Lecky , The History of European Morals ; 
and the note to p. 218 : 16. 


223 : 2. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, pp. 380 
seq.; Myers, Ancient History, p. 33, footnote. Also consult 
Von Luschan, The Early Inhabitants of Western Asia, p. 230. 

223 : 5. DeLapouge, L'Aryen, pp. 200 seq. 

223 : 5. Tamahu. Authorities above; Sergi, 4, pp. 59 
seq. ; Beddoe, 4, p. 14, for the question of their race. 

223 : 12. Broca, 1; Collignon, 5 and 7; Sergi, 1; and Rip- 
ley, p. 279. There are numerous articles on the blond Ber- 
bers and references to their relation to the Vandals. Ripley, 
based on Broca, gives the essential information. Gibbon, 
chap. XXXIII, is an important reference. 

Blond Moors. Procopius says, D7, 13, describing the fight- 
ing with the Moors in Mauretania beyond Mt. Aurasium, 
which is thirteen days' journey west of Carthage: "I have 
heard Ortaias say that beyond these nations of Moors, be- 


yond Aurasium, which he ruled" [apparently south] "there 
was no habitation of men, but desert land to a great distance, 
and that beyond this desert there are men, not black-skinned 
like the Moors, but very white in body and fair-haired." 

Mr. J. B. Thornhill relates that about fifteen years ago he 
was in Morocco (presumably near Tangier) and while there 
he saw several purely blond Berbers from the Riff mountains. 
A young girl, especially, was an almost pure Swedish blond. 
The coloring, however, was pale and whitish rather than 
pink; the eyes were blue and the hair wavy and very blond. 

223 : 21. For the Philistines, Anakim and Achaeans see 
Ridge way, 1, pp. 618 seq. Sir William Ridge way places the 
appearance of the Philistines as nearly synchronous with 
that of the Achaeans, and states that their weapons and armor 
were similar to those of the Achaeans, but different from those 
of the other nations of the early world. Cf. also Hall, Ancient 
History of the Near East, p. 72, especially footnote 1, where he 
says: "The Philistines were specially receptive of Hellenic 
culture and eager to claim relationship with the Greeks, and 
disassociate themselves from the Semites. Their coin types 
shew this, see p. 399, n." He regards them as Cretans. 

223 : 22-23. Sons of Anak. Numbers, XIII, 33: "And 
there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which came of 
the giants; and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers 
and so we were in their sight." Deuteronomy, I, 28: 
"Whither shall we go up? Our brethren have discouraged 
our heart, saying, 'The people is greater and taller than we; 
the cities are great and walled up to heaven; and moreover 
we have seen the sons of the Anakim there.'" 

Fairness of David. I Samuel, XVI, 11, 12: "And Samuel 
said unto Jesse, Are here all thy children? And he said, 
There remaineth the youngest, and behold, he keepeth the 
sheep. And Samuel said unto Jesse, Send and fetch him; 
for we shall not sit down till he come hither. And he sent, 
and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a 
beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. . . ." Chap. 
XVII, 41,42 : "And the Philistine came on and drew near unto 
David, and when the Philistine looked about, and saw David, 
he disdained him; for he was but a youth, and ruddy and of 


a fair countenance." In the Hebrew, the phrase Of a Beauti- 
ful Countenance means fair of eyes. 

The presence of Nordics in Syria among the Amorites is 
indicated by the tall stature, long-headedness and fair skin 
with which they are depicted on the Egyptian monuments. 
In some instances their eyes are blue. See p. 59 of Albert 
T. Clay's The Empire of the Amorites, also Sayce, and Hall. 

224 : 3. Wu-Suns and Hiung-Nu. Minns, Scythians and 
Greeks, p. 121. DeLapouge, L'Aryen, mentions the existence 
of a number of central Asiatic tribes in addition to the Wu- 
Suns, who were Nordic. See also J. Klaproth, Tableaux his- 
toriques de VAsie. Zaborowski, Les peuples aryens, p. 286, 
says: "The Hiung-Nu hurled themselves upon the Illi, and 
upon another blond people the Wu-Suns, whose importance 
was such that the Chinese, who have made them known to 
us, sought their alliance against the Huns. The Chinese 
knew then, in Turkestan, only the Wu-Suns, the Sse, or 
Sacae, and the Ta-hia (our Tadjiks)." 

"The Yue-Tchi, repulsed by the Wu-Suns in 130 B. C, 
hurled themselves upon Bactria" (see the notes to p. 119 : 13). 
"The Sacae were then masters of it and their dispossession 
resulted in pressing them in part into India where they 
founded a kingdom and also in part into the Pro-Pamirian 
valleys, especially that of the Oxus. The Yue-Tchi ruled 
over central Asia until 425 A. D. They were dispossessed 
in their turn by the Hoas, or Epthalite Huns" (White Huns). 

The remainder of the chapter, pp. 287-291 is concerned 
with Turkestan, the Wu-Suns, Huns, Kirghizes, etc. 

224 : 13. Deniker, 2, pp. 59 and 371, says the Ainus are 
dolichocephalic and have in addition other Nordic traits. 
See also Haddon, 1, pp. 8, 15-16, 49-50, Ratzel and others. 
The Ainus are, according to Darwin, Descent of Man, p. 852, 
the hairiest people in the world. 

224 : 19. See the notes to pp. 31 : 16-32 : 4. 

224 : 28. Deniker, 2, pp. 59 and 371 ; Haddon, 1, pp. 8, 15. 

225 : 11. Phrygians. Bury, History of Greece, pp. 46-48, 
says: "But about this very time (1287 B. C.) the Hittite 
power was declining and northwestern Asia Minor as far as 
the valley of the Sangarius, was wrested from their rule by 


swarms of new invaders from Europe. These were the 
Phrygians to whose race the Dardanians belonged and who 
were so closely akin to the Thracians that we may speak of 
the Phrygo-Thracian division of the Indo-European family." 
On p. 44 we read: "The dynasty from which the Homeric 
kings, Agamemnon and Menelaus sprang, was founded ac- 
cording to Greek tradition, early in the 13th century (B. C.) 
by Pelops, a Phrygian. Agamemnon and Menelaus represent 
the Achaean stock. . . . The meaning of this Phrygian re- 
lationship is not clear." But if we follow the extent of the 
Achaean invasions and the relation of the art and language 
of archaic Phrygia to archaic Greece, the difficulty seems 
solved. See Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 475. 
The Encyclopedia Britannica (Phrygia) says: "According to 
unvarying Greek tradition the Phrygians were most closely 
akin to certain tribes of Macedonia and Thrace; and their 
near relationship to the Hellenic stock is proved by all that 
is known of their language and art, and is accepted by 
almost every modern authority. . . . The inference has 
been generally drawn that the Phrygians belonged to a stock 
widespread in the countries which lie around the ^Egean 
Sea. There is, however, no conclusive evidence whether this 
stock came from the east, over Armenia, or was European in 
origin and crossed the Hellespont into Asia Minor; but mod- 
ern opinion inclines decidedly to the latter view"; and we 
may add that the recently demonstrated linguistic affilia- 
tions strengthen this assumption. See also Ridgeway, 1, 
pp. 396 and elsewhere; Peake, 2, p. 172; Feist, 5, p. 407; 
Felix Sartiaux, Troie, la guerre de Troie; and O. Schrader, 
Jevons translation, p. 430. 

225 : 15. Cimmerians. See the note to p. 173 : 11. 

225 : 17. Gauls and Galatians. See the note to p. 158 : 1. 

225 : 19. Von Luschan, p. 243, says: "All western Asia 
was originally inhabited by a homogeneous, melanochroic 
race, with extreme hypsi-brachycephaly and with a 'Hittite' 
nose. About 4000 B. C. began a Semitic invasion from the 
southeast, probably from Arabia, by people looking like 
modern Bedawy. 2000 years later commenced a second in- 
vasion, this time from the northwest by xanthochrous and 


long-headed tribes like the modern Kurds, and perhaps con- 
nected with the historic Harri, Amorites, Tamahu and Gala- 

"The modern 'Turks,' Greeks and Jews are all three 
equally composed of these three elements, the Hititte, the 
Semitic, and the xanthochrous Nordic. Not so the Armenians 
and Persians. They, and still more, the Druses, Maronites, 
and the smaller sectarian groups of Syria and Asia Minor, 
represent the old Hittite element, and are little, or not at 
all, influenced by the somatic characters of alien invaders." 

Von Luschan means by Persians, the round-headed Medic 
element, which has always been in the majority and which 
has, at the present day, practically submerged the once 
powerful, dominant Nordic class, which he says is still seen 
not rarely in some old noble families. 

225 : 20. Until rather recently nothing much was known 
about the wild Kurdish tribes living in southeast Anatolia, 
and what reports there were, were frequently conflicting. 
There are two kinds of Kurds, dark and light. More data 
has gradually accumulated, however, and it seems that the 
true Kurds are tall, blond people, who resemble very much 
the inhabitants of northern Europe. 

Ratzel, History of Mankind, says, quoting Polak: "The 
Kurds are, in color of skin, hair and eyes, so little different to 
the northern, especially the Teutonic breed, that they might 
easily be taken for Germans. There is nothing to contra- 
dict this racial affinity in the reputation for honor and cour- 
age, which in spite of their rapacious tendencies, the Kurds 
enjoy wherever it has been found possible to compel them to 
labor or to the trade of arms. In Persia the Shah entrusts 
the security of his person to Kurdish officers rather than to 
any others. Their loyalty to their hereditary Wali, which 
neither Turks nor Persians have been able to shake, is also 
noted with praise. The Kurd prefers to wander with his 
herds and in the winter lives in caves like Xenophon's Car- 
duchi. . . . The Kurds are a highly mixed race of a type 
chiefly Iranian, which has been compared with the Afghan 
but is not homogeneous. The eastern Kurds must have re- 
ceived a larger infusion of Turkish blood than the western. 


'Husbandmen by necessity, fighters by inclination,' says 
Moltke, 'the Arab is more of a thief, the Kurd more of a 
warrior.' They are a vigorous, violent race, running wild in 
tribal feuds and vendettas. . . . Their women hold a freer 
position than those of the Turks and Persians." The quo- 
tation is from vol. Ill, p. 537. 

Von Luschan, op. cit., p. 229, describes them thus: " [They] 
have long heads and generally blue eyes and fair hair. They 
are probably descended from the Kardouchoi and Gordyaeans 
of old historians. They live southeast of the Armenian moun- 
tains. The western Kurds are dolichocephalic and more 
than half of them are fair. The eastern Kurds are little 
known but are apparently darker and more round-headed." 

Soane, in To Mesopotamia and Kurdistan in Disguise, gives 
a very full description of them, confirming the above. There 
are so many tribes differing from one another, that only the 
briefest summary may be given. It is found on pp. 398 seq. 
"Judged as specimens of the human form, there is probably 
no higher standard extant that that of the Kurds. The 
northerner is a tall, thin man (obesity is absolutely unknown 
among the Kurds). The nose is long, thin and often a little 
hooked, the mouth small, the face oval and long. The men 
usually grow a long moustache, and invariably shave the 
beard. The eyes are piercing and fierce. Among them are 
many of yellow hair and bright blue eyes; and the Kurdish 
infant of this type, were he placed among a crowd of English 
children, would be indistinguishable from them, for he has 
a white skin. In the south the face is a little broader some- 
times, and the frame heavier. Of forty men of the southern 
tribes taken at random, there were nine under six feet, 
though among some tribes the average height is five feet 
nine. The stride is long and slow, and the endurance of 
hardship great. They hold themselves as only mountain 
men can do, proudly and erect. . . . Many and many a 
man have I seen among them who might have stood for the 
picture of a Norseman. Yellow, flowing hair, a long droop- 
ing moustache, blue eyes, and a fair skin — one of the most 
convincing proofs, if physiognomy be a criterion (were their 
language not a further proof), that the Anglo-Saxon and 


Kurd are one and the same stock." For a list of Kurdish 
tribes and their numbers and affiliations see Mark Sykes, 
vol. XXXVIII of the Jour, of the Roy. Anth. Soc. of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and Von Luschan, op. cit. 

From all this evidence by men who have travelled among 
them it would appear that the Kurds are descendants of 
some ancient Nordic invaders who have found refuge in the 
mountain regions north of Mesopotamia. Cf. the note to 
p. 239 : 16. 


226 : 7. Conklin, in Heredity and Environment, p. 207, 
says: "Psychological characters appear to be inherited in 
the same way that anatomical and physiological traits are; 
indeed, all that has been said regarding the correlation of 
morphological and physiological characters applies also to 
psychological ones. No one doubts that particular instincts, 
aptitudes and capacities are inherited among both animals 
and men, nor that different races and species differ heredi- 
tarily in psychological characteristics. The general ten- 
dency of recent work on heredity is unmistakable, whether 
it concerns man or lower animals. The entire organism, 
consisting of structures and functions, body and mind, de- 
velops out of the germ, and the organization of the germ de- 
termines all the possibilities of development of the mind no 
less than of the body, though the actual realization of any 
possibility is dependent also upon environmental stimuli." 

Cf. Haeckel, The Riddle of the Universe, passim. 

226 : 17. Deniker, 2, pp. 76, 97-104. 

227 : 1. Cf. their busts with other Greek statues. 

227 : 15. This does not refer to the peculiar nests of 
round-heads alluded to by Fleure and James, and Zabo- 
rowski, but to the Alpines proper. 

227 : 20. DeLapouge, Les Selections sociales. 

228 : 18. See Tacitus, Ger mania. 

229 : 6. It may be interesting in this connection to quote 
Fleure and James, pp. 118-119, who, after giving illustrations 
of Mediterranean types, say of them: "Types i(a) to i(c) 


contribute considerable numbers to the ministries of the vari- 
ous churches, possibly in part from inherent and racial lean- 
ings, but partly also because these are the people of the 
Moorlands. The idealism of such people usually expresses 
itself in music, poetry, literature and religion, rather than in 
architecture, painting and plastic arts generally. They rarely 
have a sufficiency of material resources for the latter activi- 
ties. These types also contribute a number of men to the 
medical profession, for somewhat similar reasons, no doubt. 

" The successful commercial men, who have given the Welsh 
their extraordinarily prominent place in British trade (ship- 
ping firms, for example), usually belong to types 2 or 4" 
[Nordic and Nordic- Alpine, Beaker Maker], "rather than to 
1, as also do the great majority of Welsh members of Parlia- 
ment, though there are exceptions of the first importance. 

"The Nordic type is marked by ingenuity and enterprise 
in striking out new lines. Type 2(c)" [Beaker Maker] "in 
Wales is remarkable for governmental ability of the admin- 
istrative kind as well as for independence of thought and 
critical power." 

The following remarks are taken from Beddoe, 4, p. 142: 
" In opposition to the current opinion it would seem that the 
Welsh rise most in commerce, the Scotch coming after them 
and the Irish nowhere. The people of Welsh descent and 
name hold their own fairly in science; the Scotch do more, 
the Irish less. But when one looks to the attainment of 
military or political distinction, the case is altered. Here 
the Scotchmen, and especially the Highlanders bear away 
the palm; the Irish retrieve their position and the Welsh are 
little heard of." 

See also p. 10 of Beddoe's Races of Britain, and Hector 
McLean in vol. IV, pp. 218 seq. of the Anthropological Review 
and elsewhere. The following quotation from Hall's Ancient 
History of the Near East is interesting: 

"Knowing what we do of the psychological peculiarities 
of the different races of mankind, it is perhaps not an illegiti- 
mate speculation to wonder whence the Greeks inherited this 
sense of proportion in their whole mental outlook. The 
feeling of Hellenes for art in general was surely inherited 


from their forebears on the yEgean, not the Indo-European 
side.* The feeling for naturalistic art, for truth of represen- 
tation, may have come from the ^Egeans, but the equally 
characteristic love of the crude and bizarre was not inherited: 
the sense of proportion inhibited it. In fact, we may ascribe 
this sense to the Aryan element in the Hellenic brain, to 
which must also be attributed the Greek political sense, the 
idea of the rights of the folk and of the individual in it.f 
The Mediterranean possessed the artistic sense without the 
sense of proportion: the Aryan had little artistic sense but 
had the sense of proportion and justice, and with it the polit- 
ical sense. The result of the fusion of the two races we see 
in the true canon of taste and beauty in all things that had 
become the ideal of the Greeks,J and was through them to 
become the ideal of mankind." 

229 : 22. Fleure and James, p. 146, say: "In the folk 
tales, it is true, the people are called fairies but colouring is 
mentioned only in one case — that is of a trader from the sea 
who is said to be fair; i. e., fair hair is treated as something 
worthy of special mention. The fairy children (changelings) 
are always described in such a way as to suggest they they 
were dark, and that they were the children of the Upland- 

* "We have only to look around and seek, vainly, for any self- 
developed artistic feeling among the pure Indo-Europeans. The 
Kassites had none and blighted that of Babylonia for centuries: the 
Persians had none and merely adopted that of Assyria: the Goths 
and Vandals had none : the Celts and Teutons have throughout the 
centuries derived theirs from the Mediterranean region." 

t The predominance of the Aryan element in Greek political ideas 
is obvious. It is not probable that the old JEgean had any more 
definite political ideas than had his relative the Egyptian. 

% "In matters of political and ordinary justice between man and 
man they fell short of their ideal often enough, but they had the 
reasonable ideal: the barbarians had none. The Egyptians were 
an imaginative race, but their imagination was untrammelled by 
the sense of proportion: their only thinker with reasonable and 
logical ideas, Akhenaten, soon became as mad a fanatic as any un- 
reasonable Nitrian monk or Arab Mahdi. Ordinarily speaking, 
Egyptian and Semitic ideals were purely religious, and so, to the 
Greek mind, beyond the domain of reason. The Babylonians, As- 
syrians, and Phoenicians cannot be said ever to have possessed any 
ideals of any kind." 


folk of our hypothesis — i. e., mostly of Mediterranean race. 
In the romances the princes and princesses are said to be 
fair, as though that were exceptional. Our friend, Mr. J. 
H. Shaxby, draws our attention to the probability that the 
word fair in 'fair' or 'fair-folk' does not refer to physical 
traits, but is an adulatory term such as men so generally 
use in describing beings about whom their suDerstitions 

230 : 5. Pope Gregory, about 578 A. D. 

230 : 9. For evidence as to the blond characters of 
Christ and the indications of His descent, see Haeckel, The 
Riddle of the Universe, chap. XVII. 

Every now and then some reference to this question is 
noted in the daily papers. Not long ago, in one of the large 
New York dailies, there appeared a short paragraph concern- 
ing the letter of Lentulus. All mention of the extremely 
doubtful authenticity of this letter was omitted. The 
Catholic Cyclopaedia, vol. LX, discusses the matter as follows : 

Publius Lentulus, A fictitious person said to have been 
the governor of Judea before Pontius Pilate and to have 
written the following letter to the Roman Senate : " Lentulus, 
the Governor of the Jerusalemites, to the Roman Senate 
and People, greetings. There has appeared in our times 
and there still lives, a man of great power (virtue), called 
Jesus Christ. The people call him prophet of truth; his 
disciples son of God. He raises the dead, and heals infirmi- 
ties. He is a man of medium size (statura procerus, mediocris 
et spectabilis); he has a venerable aspect, and his beholders 
can both fear and love him. His hair is of the color of the 
ripe hazel nut, straight down to the ears, but below the ears 
wavy and curled, with a bluish and bright reflection flowing 
over his shoulders. It is parted in two on the top of the 
head, after the pattern of the Nazarenes. His brow is smooth 
and very cheerful, with a face without a wrinkle or spot, 
embellished by a slightly ruddy complexion. His nose and 
mouth are faultless. His beard is abundant, of the color of 
his hair, not long, but divided at the chin. His aspect is 
simple and mature, his eyes are changeable and bright. He 
is terrible in his reprimands, sweet and amiable in his ad- 


monitions, cheerful without loss of gravity. He was never 
known to laugh, but often to weep. His stature is straight, 
his hands and arms beautiful to behold. His conversation 
is grave, infrequent and modest. He is the most beautiful 
among the children of men." The letter was first printed 
in The Life of Christ, by Ludolph the Carthusian, at Cologne, 
1474. According to the manuscript of Jena, a certain Gia- 
como Colonna found the letter in an ancient Roman docu- 
ment sent to Rome from Constantinople. It must be of 
Greek origin and have been translated into Latin during the 
thirteenth or fourteenth century, though it received its 
present form at the hands of a humanist of the fifteenth or 
sixteenth century. 

The description agrees with the so-called Abgar picture of 
Our Lord. It also agrees with the portrait of Jesus Christ 
drawn by Nicephorus, St. John Damascene, and the Book 
of Painters (of Mt. Athos). Munter, {Die Sinnbilder und 
Kunstvorstellungen der alien Christen, Altona, 1825, p. 9), 
believes he can trace the letter down to the time of Diocle- 
tian, but this is not generally admitted. The Letter of Len- 
tulus is certainly apocryphal; there never was a governor of 
Jerusalem; no procurator of Judea is known to have been 
called Lentulus; a Roman governor would not have ad- 
dressed the Senate, but the Emperor; a Roman writer would 
not have employed the expressions, "prophet of truth," 
"sons of men," "Jesus Christ." The former two are He- 
brew idioms, the third is taken from the New Testament. 
The letter, therefore, shows us a description of Our Lord such 
as Christian piety conceived him. 

There is considerable literature touching on this letter, 
for which see the Catholic Cychpcedia. Although we cannot 
credit the letter as genuine, it is interesting, as the article 
indicated, in showing the popular attitude to the traits in 
question, and in attributing these Nordic characters to 
Christ, as are the occasional efforts to bring the matter up 
again in the journals of to-day. 



233 : 4. Synthetic. See the note on languages, p. 242 : 5. 

233 : 13. Tenney Frank, 2, pp. 1, 2, and the authorities 
quoted at the end of the chapter. Also Peake, 2, pp. 154- 
173; Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, pp. 44-45. 

233 : 20. See the note to p. 99 : 27. 

233 : 24. Ridgeway, 1 ; Conway, 1 ; Peake, 2 ; and numer- 
ous other authorities. 

234 : 2. The Messapians, according to Ridgeway, 1, p. 
347, were the remnants of the primitive Ligurians, who once 
occupied central Italy but who migrated, under the pressure 
of the Umbrians, toward the south. There some of them 
survived under the name Iapyges or Messapians, in the heel 
of the peninsula. "The name Iapyges seems identical with 
that of the Iapodes, that Illyrian tribe which dwelt on the 
other side of the Adriatic, largely contaminated with the 
Celts (Nordics) who had flowed down over them. That the 
Umbrians had a deadly hatred of a people of the same name, 
who had survived in their coast area, is proved by the 
Iguvine Tables, where the Iapuzkum numen is heartily cursed 
along with the Etruscans and the men of Nar." 

See also Giuffrida-Ruggeri. 

234 : 3 seq. See the notes to pp. 157 : 10 and 157 : 14. 

234 : 7. See the note to p. 192 : 1-4. 

234 : 12. See pp. 174, 199 and 247 of this book. 

234 : 13 seq. Non-Aryan traces in central Europe. Den- 
iker, 2, pp. 317, 334; D'Arbois de Jubainville, 3, pp. 153 seq., 
gives Ligurian place names. See also 4, t. II. It all depends 
on whether one considers the Ligurians as Non-Aryan. 
D'Arbois de Jubainville is inclined to class them as Aryans. 
Burke, History of Spain, says, in his footnote to p. 2, that 
Basque place names are found all over Spain. For survivals 
in the British Isles see the notes to pp. 204 : 5 and 204 : 19, 
and for the general question, Taylor, Words and Places. 

234 : 18. Finnic dialects. Zaborowski, 3, pp. 174-175, 
says there are very ancient traces of Germanic elements in 
the Finnic languages of the Baltic. Prior to the fourth cen- 
tury they had a Gothic character. 


234 : 24 seq. Agglutinative language. See the note to 
p. 242 : 5. For the physical characters of the Basques, Col- 
lignon, 3, p. 13; and Ripley, pp. 190 seq., who bases himself 
upon Collignon. On the language see Pruner-Bey, 1 ; Feist, 5, 
pp. 362-363, and Ripley, pp. 20, 183-185. There are of course 
other writers on the Basque language. As a result of the 
epoch-making study of Keltic by Professor J. Morris Jones, 
of the University College, Bangor, Wales, which appears as 
Appendix B, in Rhys and Jones, The Welsh People, pp. 616- 
641, the assertion is made that Basque is apparently allied 
to Berber, and that other problems hitherto unsolved may 
be unravelled. It has not been possible to learn if any very 
recent progress has been the result of this new method. 

235 : 1 seq. Pseudo-brachycephaly of the Basques. A. 
C. Haddon, correspondence, says: "The Basque skull is long, 
but with a broadening in the temporal region, in the French 
Basques, which forms a spurious kind of brachycephaly." 

235 : 11. See the notes above, to p. 234 : 24. 

235 : 17. Liguria and the Ligurian language. Sergi, 4; 
Ripley, chap. X. The modern Liguria comprises virtually 
the coast lands of Italy around the Gulf of Genoa as far 
south as Pisa. For ancient Liguria, which once extended 
into Gaul, see Dechellette, Manuel d'archeologie, t. II, pp. 
6-25. D'Arbois de Jubainville treats of the Ligurians at 
length in several of his works mentioned, but Dechellette 
shows his wrong reasoning, rather convincingly it seems to 
the author. The opinions of Jullian, as given in his Histoire 
de la Gaule, are also discussed by Dechellette. A full dis- 
cussion in English, of all the authorities on ancient Liguria, 
the Ligurians and their language is given in Rice Holmes, 
Casar's Conquest of Gaul, pp. 277-287. The language is 
treated on pp. 281-284, and 318, and by Peet, The Stone and 
Bronze Ages in Italy, pp. 164 seq. ; see also D'Arbois de Jubain- 
ville, 3, pp. 152 seq. Feist, 5, p. 369, says that the Ligurians 
were Mediterraneans. A number of others agree with him. 
The evidence points rather to their having been an early 
Alpine people, somewhat less brachycephalic than those who 
came later, and this is the opinion held by Ratzel, vol. Ill, p. 
561. The name Ligurian in this book designates a Pre- 


Nordic race of Alpine affinities, with a Pre-Aryan lan- 

The peculiar and discontinuous distribution of Alpine 
peoples with names which are variations of the term Veneti, 
a condition rather analogous to the scattered groups of Pelas- 
gians as noted by various authors of antiquity, may indicate 
the last traces of a once widely distributed race. It is pos- 
sible that the Ligurians displaced these "Veneti" in southern 
Europe, and later became confined to a part of Gaul and 
northern Italy. 

235 : 23. Deniker, 2, p. 317, and the note to p. 234 : 13 
of this book. 

235 : 27-236 : 6. See the note to p. 234 : 17. 

236 : 9. Feist, 1 and 5; G. Retzius, 2, 3; Ripley, p. 351; 

236 : 14. Livs and Livonians. Ripley, pp. 358 seq.; 
Abercromby, The Pre- and Proto-Finns; Peake, 2, p. 150. 

236 : 17 seq. Ripley, pp. 365-367- feist, 5, p. 55, says the 
Finnish language was once agglutinative but is now inflec- 
tional. See also another reference to it on p. 231, and our 
note to languages, p. 242 : 5 of this book. 

236 : 26. Magyar language. The most authoritative 
books on Finnish, Ugrian, and Hungarian speech are those of 
Szinnyei. See also Feist, pp. 394 seq., and Deniker, 2, pp. 


237 : 1. Ripley, p. 415, says: "Turkish is the western- 
most representative of a great group of languages, best known, 
perhaps, as the Ural-Altaic family. This comprises all those 
of northern Asia, even to the Pacific Ocean, together with 
that of the Finns in Russian Europe. . . . According to 
Chantre the word Turk seems quite aptly to be derived from 
a native root meaning Brigand." Also see pp. 404-405 and 
419 in Ripley. 

237 : 13. Ripley, p. 418, and Von Luschan, op. cit. 

237 : 21. Gibbon, chap. LVII, on the "Seljukian Turks." 
On the Osmanli Turks see Ripley, pp. 415 seq. On Turks in 
general see Von Luschan. 

237 : 25. See the notes to p. 173 : n and to pp. 253-261. 

238 : 12. G. Elliot Smith, Ancient Egyptians, pp. 134 seq.; 


Zaborowski, i, and the table of languages in the note to p. 
242 15. Practically any book dealing with Aryans gives this 

238 : 24. Ripley, p. 415; Von Luschan. 

239 : 1. See the notes to pp. 158 and 253. 

239 : 2. Hittites and the Hittite Empire. See S. J. Gar- 
stang, The Land of the Hittites; L. Messerschmidt, Die He- 
titer (Der Alte Orient, IV, 1); Feist, 5, pp. 406 seq., and the 
Hittite Inscriptions, Cornell Expedition of 191 1. The his- 
tory of the Hittite Empire has been brought to light by the 
research and investigations of Professor Sayce. See his Hit- 
tites. There are a number of short general descriptions in 
practically all of the histories of ancient peoples, and in those 
of the Near East. See for instance, Bury, History of Greece, 
pp. 45, 64; Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, pp. 200, 
334 seq.; Myres, Dawn of History, pp. 118 seq., 152 seq. and 
199 seq.; Myers, Ancient History, pp. 91-93; Feist, Kultur, 
pp. 406 seq.; Von Luschan, pp. 242-243; and Zaborowski, 1, 
pp. 121, 134, 138 and 160, deal more with the physical char- 
acters of the Hittites. 

According to some of the most recent authorities, the Hit- 
tites were an extraordinarily powerful nation and held Syria 
from about 3700 B. C. to 700 B. C, when the Assyrians 
overcame them. They had some contact with Babylon and 
probably their development was influenced thereby. They 
seem to have been the Kheta or Khatti of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians. "About 1280 B. C," according to Von Luschan, 
"when Khattusil made his peace with Rameses II, there ex- 
isted a large empire, not much smaller than Germany, reach- 
ing from the ^Egean Sea to Mesopotamia and from Kadesh 
on the Orontes to the Black Sea. We do not know at pres- 
ent if this Hittite Empire ever had a really homogeneous 
population, but we have a good many Hittite reliefs and all 
these, without one single exception, show us the high and 
short heads, or the characteristic noses of our modern brachy- 
cephalic groups, (Armenoids)." 

As to their language, J. D. Prince, correspondence, says 
that it was not Aryan, in spite of all conjectures to the con- 
trary. "Friedrich Delitzsch analyzed some of the only sylla- 


bized material we have of this language, and I analyzed it 
still further in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, 
vol. XXII, 'Hittite Material in the Cuneiform Inscriptions,' 
reaching the conclusion as to the Non-Aryan character of 
this idiom. The so-called 'Hittite Inscriptions' are in hier- 
oglyphs and give us no clue as to the pronunciation and hence 
none to the character of the language." Von Luschan, p. 
242, says: "Orientalists are unanimous in assuming that the 
Hittite language was not Semitic." A very recent com- 
munication from Fr. Cumont, in L 'Academie des inscriptions 
et belles lettres for April 20, 191 7, says that the tongue is 
proved to have been Aryan. 

As to their physical characters, all are agreed that the 
Hittites had short, brachycephalic heads, and thick, promi- 
nent noses. Myres, p. 44, remarks that the earliest por- 
traits, which he dates about 1285 B. C, have been thought by 
some to be Mongoloid, but the evidence is still scanty and 
inconclusive. Surely if the older likenesses were Mongoloid, 
they bear no resemblance to the later types. On the monu- 
ments bearded figures are frequent and the type is Armenoid. 
See Hall, The Ancient History of the Near East, p. 334, for a 
criticism of the Mongol theory. 

239 : 10. Sumer. J. D. Prince, in his article on the Su- 
merians in the Encyclopedia Britannica, classes the Sumerian 
language as agglutinative. The language of Susiana is also 
known as Anzanite, Susian or Elamite. The Anzanite may 
have been a dialect of Susian. Schiel's work with de Mor- 
gan's mission shows that Elamite was agglutinative and 
that inflections found in derived words are due to the influ- 
ence of another language. The locality of Anzan is not 
known exactly, but is believed to have been in the plain 
south or southeast of Susa. See also Zaborowski, 1, pp. 149- 
150, and Hall, The Ancient History of the Near East. Hall 
agrees with Prince that Sumerian is agglutinative (p. 171). 
He also states that Elamite was agglutinative, but not other- 
wise like Sumerian. See his chap. V for the relationships of 
Sumerians and Elamites. 

For Media see the notes to p. 254 : 13. 

239 : 12. Assyria and Palestine. Breasted, Ancient 


Times, p. 173 and Fig. 112; Hall, History of the Near East; 
Myres, Dawn of History, pp. 114-116, 140; and other his- 
tories of the Near East. 

239 : 13. Kassites. See Hall, pp. 198-200. Very little 
is known about the Kassites. Hall declares that there is 
very little doubt but that they were Indo-European; Prince, 
from the same information, says this could not possibly be 
the case. They are supposed to have been an Elamite tribe 
who were living in the northwestern mountains of Elam, 
immediately south of Holwan, when Sennacherib attacked 
them in 702 B. C. They attacked Babylonia in the ninth 
year of; Samsu-iluma, the son of Khammurabi, overran it 
and founded a dynasty there in 1780 B. C, which lasted 576 
years. They became absorbed into the Babylonian popula- 
tion; the kings adopted Semitic names and married into the 
royal family of Assyria. Like the other languages of the 
Non-Semitic tribes of Elam, according to Prince, that of the 
Kassites was agglutinative. That the Kassites had been in 
contact with the horse-using nomads of the northern steppes, 
is indicated by the fact that they first introduced the horse 
into Mesopotamian lands, whence its use for riding and 
drawing chariots spread into Egypt in 1700 B. C. See 
Breasted, Ancient Times, p. 138. 

239 : 16. Mitanni. Very little is known of the Mitanni. 
Von Luschan, p. 230, dates them around the fourteenth cen- 
tury B. C. In 1380 they called themselves Harri, from Har- 
ri-ya, an old form of the word Aryan. Myres, Dawn of His- 
tory, says: "The conquest of Syria in 1500 B. C. brought 
Egypt face to face with a homogeneous state called Mitanni, 
occupying the whole foothill country east of the Euphrates. 
. . . The Egyptian conquest came just in time to relieve 
the kingdom of Mitanni from severe pressure exerted simul- 
taneously and probably in collusion, by its neighbors in the 
foothills, — Assyria on the east, and the Hittites west of the 
Euphrates. Egypt made friends with Mitanni and more 
than one marriage was arranged between the royal houses. 
Soon after the treaty between Egypt and Mitanni, Subilu- 
liuma, king of the Hittites of Cappadocia, whom Egyptian 
scribes conveniently abbreviate as Saplel, was overlord ap- 


parently of a number of outpost baronies in north Syria. 
Assured of their help, and watching his opportunity, he flung 
his whole force, about 1400 upon Mitanni. . . . This closed 
the career of Mitanni." 

The racial affinities of Mitanni are doubtful. Prince, cor- 
respondence, says the language of Mitanni was certainly not 
Aryan. It has been thoroughly analyzed by Ferdinand 
Bork, in his Die Mitanni Sprache, who compares it with the 
Georgian or Imeretian branch of the Caucasic linguistic 
groups. The Mitanni are not to be confused with the Ossetes, 
who speak a highly archaic, real Aryan language. Mitanni, 
in structure, is like the polysynthetic North American groups. 
Feist, 1, p. 14, says the Mitanni were Nordics and inhabited 
the western mountains of Iran, in Zagros. In 5, p. 406, he 
places them on the north of the Euphrates during the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries B. C. See also Hall, p. 200, the fol- 
lowing note and that to p. 213 : 1-23 of this book. Hall 
also considers them Nordics. 

239 : 16 seq. Von Luschan, p. 230, asks: "Can it be mere 
accident that a few miles north of the actual frontier of 
modern Kurdish languages there is Boghaz-Koi, the old 
metropolis of the Hittite Empire, where Hugo Winckler in 
1908 found tablets with two political treaties of King Subilu- 
liuma with Mattiuaza, son of Tusrata, king of Mitanni, and 
in both of these treaties Aryan divinities, Mithra, Varuna, 
Indra and Nasatya are invoked, together with Hittite divini- 
ties, as witnesses and protectors ? And in the same inscrip- 
tions, which date from about 1380 B. C, the king of Mitanni 
and his people are called Harri, just as nine centuries later 
in the Achaemenidian inscriptions Xerxes and Darius call 
themselves Har-ri-ya, 'Aryans of Aryan stock.' So the 
Kurds," concludes Von Luschan, "are the descendants of 
Aryan invaders and have maintained their type and their 
language for more than 3300 years." 

See also the notes to p. 173 : n. 

239 : 29. See pp. 128 and 137 of this book. 

240 : 4 seq. See the notes to p. 173. 
240 : 15 seq. See the notes to p. 242 : 5. 



242 : 5. The following notes on languages were taken 
mostly from the History of Language, by Henry Sweet, and 
were supplemented by the writings of W. D. Whitney, and 
an article on "Indo-European Languages," by Peter Giles. 

All languages may be roughly divided into two great 
groups, isolating and agglutinative. 

The isolating languages are constructed on the principle 
of single, distinct words for each idea, and do not employ 
forms which add or drop syllables, or letters, in order to ob- 
tain variety of expression, tense, mode, person, number, etc. 
However, the element of intonation frequently plays a large 
part in multiplying the number of possible forms, and there- 
fore of ideas, in isolating languages, by imparting to other- 
wise identical words different meanings through pitch, ris- 
ing or falling inflection or accent. 

To the isolating languages belong most of those of south- 
eastern Asia, — Chinese, Burmese, Siamese, Thibetan, An- 
namite, Cochin-Chinese, Malayan, etc. The term isolating 
does not necessarily imply words of one syllable, although 
there is a tendency in this direction since the roots are 
stripped of all incumbrances of a modifying nature so com- 
mon in agglutinative or synthetic languages. The Chinese, 
Burmese, Siamese and Annamite are classed as monosyllabic, 
the Thibetan as half-monosyllabic, while the Malay is 

Because languages are isolating in structure does not mean 
that they necessarily all belong to one family. They merely 
have this structural principle in common. To establish 
family relationships it is necessary to investigate the sets of 
phonetics used, the root forms, the types of ideas expressed, 
the composition of the sentence and various other important 
points included under the psychology of habit and growth 
forms of speech. No one of these alone is ordinarily suffi- 
cient to prove that two languages are of one common stock, 
since extensive borrowing of all kinds has occurred since time 


Nevertheless, in point of fact, taking languages as they 
now exist, only those have been shown related which possess 
a common structure, or have together grown out of the more 
primitive radical stage, since structure proves itself a more 
constant and reliable evidence than vocabulary. But, on 
the other hand, since all structure is the result of growth, 
and any degree of difference of structure, as well as of differ- 
ence of material, may be explained as the result of discordant 
growth from identical beginnings, it is equally inadmissible 
to claim that the diversities of languages prove them to have 
had different beginnings. 

In isolating languages, word order is very important, but 
here again the peculiar character of any tongue of this type 
depends upon the order selected, or the relative importance 
of ideas (general, specific, etc.). The employment of par- 
ticles makes possible a freer word order. 

The agglutinative languages are those which combine roots 
or parts of words or elements into new wholes to express 
other related ideas than those imparted by the single forms, 
or else entirely new concepts. Frequently these combina- 
tions are still separable on occasion into their original ele- 
ments, or, if inseparable in their secondary meanings, their 
original parts with their derivations are still recognizable as 
such. Again, the component parts are no longer independent, 
but form a firmly knit whole. 

In some languages certain classes of elements have arisen 
which may be added in a perfectly formal manner to other 
fixed roots or elements, with or without slight phonetic modi- 
fications of either or both parts. Since this occurs in con- 
formity with fairly fixed rules, the meanings of the resultant 
combinations are, according to the class of the attached ele- 
ments used, fairly analogous. Thus in English many verb 
roots obtain the present participle by the addition of the 
formal element ing, in itself now meaningless, but once, no 
doubt, a separate root. 

The process of agglutination may be accomplished in many 
different ways, any of which may be characteristic of whole 
groups of unrelated languages. These may be roughly 
divided first into mono- or oligo-synthetic and polysynthetic. 


The former very nearly approach the isolating languages, 
since usually only one element may be added at a time, but 
the process of addition may be accomplished in any of the 
ways possible to agglutination. 

Agglutination includes prefixing, suffixing and infixing 
in all degrees of complexity and fixity. Thus languages may 
be spoken of as agglutinative only in a relative sense. Some 
are much more so than others, both in point of the number 
of elements which it is possible to add, and their dependence 
upon one another and the root, denoting a higher or lower 
degree of inextricability in blending. 

Many languages are only loosely agglutinative and the 
component parts of the compounds readily resolve. In 
others, as in the inflecting languages, the combination is 

Thus under the head of agglutinative we have the merely 
agglutinative or synthetic, readily resolvable combinations, 
which are often hardly distinguishable from isolating lan- 
guages, and the less easily divisible inflectional and incor- 
porating types. Any or all of the three processes of infixing, 
prefixing and suffixing may be employed in simple agglutina- 
tive combinations. 

In inflectional languages the root is attended by prefixes 
or suffixes which form inseparable modifiers. At times 
phonetic changes occur which render the complex unlike the 
simple joining of its component parts. 

As Mr. Sweet says: "If we define inflection as 'agglutina- 
tion run mad' we may regard incorporation as inflection 
run madder still, for it is the result of attempting to develop 
a verb into a complete sentence." In some languages, such 
as the incorporating, a verb is sufficiently distinct in its mean- 
ing not to require an independent pronoun. French and 
Spanish, though not belonging to this category, contain 
words with the incorporating idea, as in Spanish hablo, I 
speak, and French, pluit, it rains. Where polysynthesism 
is the prevailing character, the verb may be sufficiently com- 
prehensive to include the objective pronoun as well as the 
subjective, so that it is possible to find in one word a transi- 
tive, as well as in others an intransitive, sentence. But this 


is only rudimentary incorporation, and borders on inflection. 
Some American Indian languages carry it to a very high 
degree, appending to or inserting into this simple complex 
not only nouns which may stand in apposition to the implied 
or actual pronouns, but particles and modifiers of every de- 
scription. (See the Handbook of American Indian Languages, 
published by the Bureau of American Ethnology at Wash- 
ington.) Frequently during this process various parts un- 
dergo phonetic changes in accordance with fixed laws, so that 
the final complex may not at all resemble a string of the 
original elements, but becomes a new, inseparable and fixed 
word containing a whole sentence of ideas. This sentence, 
in some languages, may carry throughout certain modifiers 
for all noun elements — for instance, as to whether the objects 
under discussion are visible or invisible. These modifiers 
bear definite relationships to the nouns, and the "sentence 
word" in each of its parts must then be conjugated as a verb 
in an even more complicated manner. This is agglutination 
par excellence, and is frequently so complex as to be utterly 
bewildering to the Indo-European mind, even though the 
Indo-European languages themselves employ agglutination 
to a limited degree and of certain varieties, particularly of 
the inflectional order. 

Compared to the most complicated Indian tongues, Eng- 
lish is in the position of Chinese to Indo-European languages 
in its structural simplicity, though of course in Chinese we 
have an added complexity in the use of pitch, etc. 

There are certain types of speech which secure changes 
(plurals, etc.) by internal vowel modification. English it- 
self makes use of this device, but it is the outstanding feature 
of Semitic tongues. 

Sweet says: "There are many other minor criteria of mor- 
phological classification. The most important of these is 
perhaps that of the agglutinative or inflectional elements 
before or after the word or stem [modified]. In Turkish 
and in other Altaic languages, as also in Finnish, these are 
always post-positions, so that every word begins with the 
root which always has chief stress. The Bantu languages of 
South Africa, on the other hand, favor prefixes. . . . The 


Semitic languages favor prefixes and post-positions about 
equally. The Aryan languages are mainly post-positional, 
with occasional use of prefixes, most of which, however, are 
of later origin." 

It must not be supposed that languages fall into abso- 
lutely distinct categories because of their structure. No 
language to-day is purely of one type or another. There 
have been too many centuries of borrowing and change for 
that condition to now be possible for any language, nor 
are there any longer what might be called primitive tongues. 
They have all long since outgrown that state, whatever it 
may have been, even the Botocudo of Brazil, which is gen- 
erally ranked as the most primitive. 

Languages may now be classified only according to their 
prevailing tendencies. Thus, modern English is in part 
isolating, in part inflectional and in part agglutinative, as 
that term is generally applied. Basque is an incorporating 
language, far removed geographically and linguistically from 
any other of that character. The Indo-European family 
may be considered as inflectional, because that process is a 
prominent feature, but it is by no means the only one pres- 
ent, nor is it exclusively typical of that family. 

There is no doubt that all languages pass through certain 
stages in their development, but it is not at all true that they 
all have eventually the same or even similar histories. There 
are endless possibilities of growth and decay, and this fact 
alone excludes any set evolutionary scheme. Nor are the 
isolating languages the most primitive. On the contrary, 
they are as complex in their way as the most agglutinative 
North American tongues, and as expressive, for some psy- 
chological categories. 

There is little doubt that all languages have begun on an 
isolating principle of simple roots for single ideas, from which 
they have diverged in endless variety. Probably all inflec- 
tional languages had an isolating and agglutinative stage, 
although this is by no means proved. The Chinese seems to 
have undergone an agglutinative past of some sort, but to 
have resolved again into simple roots, with only traces of 
fuller forms, but with the added complexity of tone, accent, 
and order, to give, as Sweet puts it, "that extreme of el- 


liptical conciseness and concentrated force of expression, 
which excites our admiration." 

English has become analytical, for many older inflected 
words have now been worked over into combinations of in- 
dependent words, but this is far from a complete or con- 
sistent process. Probably it will never become like the Chi- 
nese, for to do away now with its inflectional system entirely 
would necessitate a complete upheaval of structure which 
is not likely to happen in the course of normal inner devel- 
opment, particularly with a vast literature to assist in stabi- 
lizing present forms. 

As regards polysynthesism, or amount of agglutination, the 
Aryan tongues are intermediate; they allow affixes, but only 
within certain limits. 

Languages undoubtedly differ from one another in their 
richness and power of expression, but may not be used as a 
test of the intellectual capacity of those who now speak them. 
In fact, men of any race can learn any language, unless ab- 
normal. To account for the great and striking difference of 
structure among human languages is beyond the power of 
the linguistic student, and will doubtless always continue so. 
We are not likely to be able even to demonstrate a corre- 
lation of capacities, saying that a race which has done this 
and that in other departments might have been expected to 
form such and such a language. Every tongue represents 
the general outcome of the capacity of a race as exerted in 
this particular direction, under the influence of historical 
circumstances which we can have no hope of tracing, but 
there are striking anomalies to be noted. 

"The Chinese and the Egyptians have shown themselves 
to be among the most gifted races the earth has known; 
but the Chinese tongue is of unsurpassed jejuneness, and the 
Egyptian, in point of structure, little better, while among 
the wild tribes of Africa and America we find tongues of 
every grade up to a high one or the highest. This shows 
clearly enough that mental power is not measured by lan- 
guage structure. On the whole the value and rank of a 
language are determined by what its users have made it 
do — a poor tool in skilful hands can do vastly better work 
than the best tool in unskilful hands, even as the ancient 


Egyptians, without steel or steam, turned out products 
which, both for colossal grandeur and for exquisite finish, 
are the despair of modern engineers and artists." In other 
words, we must not underestimate the important part played 
by habit or inertia. "The formation of habit is slow, and 
once formed it exercises a constraining as well as a guiding 

The Indo-European language is one of the most highly 
organized families of tongues that exist, and its greatest 
power lies (in modern English, etc.) in its mixed structural 
and material character. So to the Indo-European family 
belongs incontestably the first place, and for many reasons, — 
the historical position of the peoples speaking its dialects, 
who have now long been the leaders in world history, the 
abundance, variety and merit of its literatures ancient and 
modern and, most of all, the great variety and richness of its 
development. These have made it an illustration of the 
history of human speech, which is extremely valuable and 
the training ground of comparative philology. 

W. D. Whitney gives the following linguistic groups in 
order of their importance from a literary standpoint: 

1. Indo-European (Indo-Germanic). 

2. Semitic. 

3. Hamitic. 

4. Monosyllabic or Southeastern Asiatic. 

5. Ural-Altaic (Scythian, Turanian). 

6. Dravidian or South Indian. 

7. Malay-Polynesian. 

8. Oceanic — 

a. Australian and Tasmanian. 

b. Papuan and Negrito, etc. 

9. Caucasian — 

a. Circassian. 

b. Mitsjeghian. 

c. Lesghian, Georgian. 
10. European Remnants — 

Etruscan ? 
Lydian ? 



11. South African, Bantu. 

12. Central African. 

13. American. 

The first ten groups are families. So little is or was 
known about the last three groups that the author of the 
article classed together what are now known to be vast 
agglomerations of families. For instance, the American 
languages include several hundred distinct stocks, of which 
fifty are found in California alone. These are all, according 
to our present knowledge, utterly unrelated. It is known 
that the central African tongues belong to a different group 
than the southern, and it would be advisable to consult Sir 
Harry Johnston's recent large work on the Bantu languages. 

The subdivision of the Indo-European family into cognate 
languages is given here to show the great diversity of tongues 
that may spring from one ancestor. Not all the dialects, 
nor even languages, have been included, but only those best 

Centum (European). 
1. Greek. 

2. Italic 

Minor dialects of 
ancient Italy. 

3. Celtic 


Q. Celtic 

P. Celtic < 







Scotch Gaelic. 

Ancient Gaulish. 



Breton or Armorican. 

/ Tuscan. 

\ Calabrian. 



' Gothic" 

Scandinavian - 

Germanic or 

5. Armenian. 
[6. Tokharian?] 

Old Norse. 



Low Frankish ( Z utc \ 
[ Flemish. 

Low German. 

High German. 

II. Satem. (Eastern Europe and Asia.) 

I. Aryan or 


2. Balto-Slavonic 

3. Albanian. 

Old Persian. 
Modern Persian. 

Hindu, and nearly all the modern lan- 
guages of India [and of the Pamirs]. 


Old Prussian or Borussian, extinct 
since the 17th century. 



S. E. 



Old Bulgarian. 

Great Russian 
and White Rus- 

Little Russian or 



West f Polish - 

Cl . < Czech or Bohemian. 

SlaV1C lSorb. 

242 : 16. Cf S. Feist, 2, p. 250. On the archaic character 
of Lithuanian, see Taylor, 1, p. 15, and the authorities he 
quotes. Also Schrader, Jevons translation. 

242 : 20-243 : 4. Deniker, 2, p. 320, sums up Hirt's posi- 


tion on this question in the footnote: "According to Hirt the 
home of dispersion of the primitive Aryan language would 
be found to the north of the Carpathians, in the Letto- 
Lithuanian region. From this point two linguistic streams 
would start flowing around the mountains to the west and 
east; the western stream, after spreading over Germany 
(Teutonic languages), left behind the Celtic languages in 
the upper valley of the Danube, and filtered through on the 
one side into Italy (Latin languages), on the other side into 
Illyria, Albania, and Greece (Helleno-Illyrian languages). 
The eastern stream formed the Slav languages in the plains 
traversed by the Dnieper, then spread by way of the Cau- 
casus into Asia (Iranian languages and Sanscrit). In this 
way we can account, on the one hand, for the less and less 
marked relationship between the Aryan languages of the 
present day and the common primitive dialect, and on the 
other hand, for the diversity between the two groups of 
Aryan languages, western and eastern." 

If this were so, Sanskrit should more closely resemble the 
Slavic than the western languages. As it is, the old Vedic 
speech, the earliest form of Sanskrit, is said to show more 
affiliations with Greek than with any other of the Aryan 
tongues (see Taylor, 1, p. 21, and authorities quoted), a 
fact which merely adds another proof to our hypothesis that 
sometime between 2000 and 1500 B.C. the Nordics filtered 
down the Balkan peninsula in their earliest wave and about 
the same time other branches found their way into north- 
western India. The Sanskrit alphabet is more closely re- 
lated to the Phoenician than to any other. At the time of 
the first Nordic expansion their language was not reduced 
to writing. The alphabet used for early Sanskrit, was, ac- 
cording to Professor Buhler, probably introduced into India 
by traders from Mesopotamia about 800 B. C. Another 
authority on the relations of Greek and Sanskrit is Johannes 
Schmidt, Die VerwandtschqftsverhUltnisse der Indo-germanische 
Sprachen, Weimar, 1872. 

243 : 4. Prof. J. D. Prince, correspondence, in discussing 
the kinship of prehistoric Ugrian to Aryan says that, al- 
though it is a temptation to believe in it, there is insuf- 


ficient data for proving it. As careful a scholar as Szinnyei, 
in his Vergleichende Grammatik der Ugrischen Sprache, is 
careful not to commit himself. But see Zaborowski, 3; 
also the notes to p. 236 : 26; and Deniker, 2, pp. 349-351. 

243 : 12. Deniker, 2, p. 320 and the authorities he quotes. 

243 : 20. See the notes to pp. 158 : 21 and 159. 

243 : 25. See p. 158 and also the notes on languages to 
p. 242 : 5. 

244 : 1. See p. 157 and the notes. 

244 : 6. Latin derivatives. Zaborowski, 1, p. 2. See 
table of languages, in the note to p. 242 : 5 of this book. 

244 : 12-28. Ripley, pp. 423-424; Freeman, 2, p. 217; 
Obedenare, p. 350; Ratzel, vol. Ill, p. 564; and the articles 
on the Balkans and Hungary in the Geographical Review, by 
Cvijic and Wallis. Cf. G. Poisson, The Latin Origin of the 

244 : 29-245 : 3. Freeman, 1, p. 439. 

245 : 3. Jordanes, History of the Goths; Procopius, The 
History of the Wars; Gibbon, Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire, chaps. I and XI; Freeman, The Historical Geography 
of Europe, pp. 70-71; also the notes to pp. 143 and 156 : 10. 

245 : 12. Sarmatians. See the note to p. 143 : 21. The 
same for the Venethi. Under the Roman dominion Latin 
speech appears to have spread from the Adriatic coast east- 
ward over the Balkans replacing the native dialects except 
along the shores of the ^gean and in the large cities. 

246 : 9. Freeman, 1, pp. 440-441. 
246 : 15. Ripley, p. 425. 

246 : 24. See the note to p. 173 of this book. 

246 : 27. Rhys and Jones, The Welsh People, pp. 12, 13. 

247 : 3. See the note to p. 174; Oman, 2, pp. 13, 14; Rice 
Holmes, 1, pp. 409-410; 2, pp. 319-320; Rhys and Jones, 
pp. 1, 2. 

247 : 9. Goidels. Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 227, 291 and 455 - 456- 

247 : 16. Rice Holmes, 1, pp. 229, 456; Oman, 2, p. 16. 
See also p. 174 of this book. 

247 : 23. Ripley, p. 127; Feist, 4, p. 14; Ridgeway, 1, 
p. 373; and pp. 195 and 212 of this book. 

247 : 27. See the note to 247 : 3. 


248 : 3. Fleure and James, pp. 146, 148; D'Arbois de 
Jubainville, 2, p. 88. 

248 : 6. Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 319-321; Taylor, 2, pp. 138, 
167-168; Beddoe, 4, p. 20. 

248 : 12. Neo-Celtic. D'Arbois de Jubainville, 2, p. 88; 
Fleure and James, p. 143. 

248 : 14. Rice Holmes, 2, p. 12. 

248 : 20-249 : 4. See the notes to pp. 177-178 of this book. 

249 : 16. Beddoe, 4, p. 223. 

249 : 20. The same, pp. 241-242; Ripley's maps, pp. 23 
and 313; but consult Beddoe, 4, p. 66, for criticisms of evi- 
dence derived from place names; Taylor, 2, p. 119. 

249 : 27-250 : 1. Beddoe, 4, pp. 139, 241-242. 

250 : 1 seq. Taylor, 2, p. 173; Palgrave, vol. I of The Eng- 
lish Commonwealth; Oman, 2, pp. 158 seq. 

250 : 6. Taylor, 2, pp. 170-171. 
250 : 14. Ripley, p. 22; Taylor, 2, pp. I37"i3 8 - 
250 : 20. Jordanes, XXXVI; Gibbon and others. 
250 : 24. Ripley, pp. 53!-533- 

250 : 28 seq. Cf. Ripley, pp. 101, 151 seq. 

251 : 7 seq. Cf. Rice Holmes, 2, pp. 309-314. 
251 : 18. See the note to p. 182 of this book. 

251 : 26. Since the Belgae were the last wave of the Celts, 
and Cymric was the later Celtic, this deduction is inevitable, 
even if there were no facts, such as place names, history, etc., 
to prove it. See the note to p. 248 : 6. 

251 : 28-252 : 2. Beddoe, 4, p. 35; Ripley, pp. 101, 152; 
Taylor, 2, pp. 95, 98. 

252 : 5. See the note to p. 196 : 7. 


253 : 1. See p. 158 and note. Also Peake, 2, p. 165; 
Breasted, 1, p. 176; Von Luschan, pp. 241-243; Zaborowski, 
1, p. 112; DeLapouge, i,p. 252, says: "Aryans were in India 
about 1500 B. C." 

253 : 10. See Peake, 2; also pp. 170-171 and 213 of this 


253 : 13. See the note to p. 225 : 11. 
2 53 : I 3 -I 5- Eduard Meyer, Zur dltesien Geschichte der 

253 : 16 seq. See the note to p. 239 : 16 seq. 

253 : 19. Zaborowski, 1, pp. 137 and 214. 

254 : 1. See pp. 173 and 225 of this book. 

254 : 3 seq. For Sacae see the note to p. 259 : 21. Cahun, 
Histoire de I'Asie, says on p. 35: "The Sacae and the Ephta- 
lites and Massagetae were from the Kiptchak." See also 
Zaborowski, 1, pp. 94, 100-101, 215 seq. 

254 : 6. Massagetae. See the note to p. 259 : 21. 

254 : 8. Ephtalites, or White Huns. Cahun, Histoire de 
VAsie, pp. 43-55: "The Turks destroyed in the first half of 
the seventh century a powerful nation, the Ephtalites of 
Soghdiana, north of Persia. They were called Ephtalites, 
or White Huns or Tie-le-urn Turks." See also the notes to 
pp. 119 : 15 and 224 : 3 of this book, and chap. XXVI in 
Gibbon on the Huns in general. 

Procopius, vol. I, says in speaking of the Ephtalite Huns 
and describing their war with the Persians about 450 A. D.: 
"The White Huns are of the stock of the Huns in fact as 
well as in name, living in the territory north of Persia, and 
are settlers on the land in contrast to the Nomadic Huns 
who live at a distance. . . . They are the only ones among 
the Huns who have white bodies and countenances that are 
not ugly and they are far more civilized than are the other 
Huns." The general impression gained from Procopius is 
that they were not true Huns. "Massagetae" is used as 
another name for Huns by Procopius. He describes them 
as mounted bowmen. It is clear that in using this name he 
refers to Huns only. 

254 : 13. Medes. The name Medes is variously applied 
by different authorities; by many the Medes are regarded as 
a branch of the Persians, one of two kindred tribes of Nor- 
dics. The author follows Zaborowski in applying the name 
to the round-skulled population which was conquered by 
the Persians. See Zaborowski, 1, chaps. V and VI, especially 
part II and p. 125. Also Herodotus in the references given 
for Persia. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 459, 
gives an interesting bit of their story. 


254 : 15. Persians. The Persians were a branch of Nor- 
dics who invaded the territory of the round-skulled Medes, 
and gradually imposed their language and much of their cul- 
ture on the subjugated populations. See Herodotus, book 
I, especially 55, 71, 72, 74, 91, 95, 101, 107, 125, 129, 135, 136; 
and book VI, 19, where he discusses both Medes and Per- 
sians. For modern commentary the author follows Zabo- 
rowski, 1, pp. 138-139, 153 seq., chap. VI, and also pp. 212- 

Von Luschan, pp. 233-234, describes the present-day Per- 
sians, showing that there has been a resurgence of types and 
that the Nordic elements have been largely absorbed by the 
original inhabitants. He adds, however, on p. 234, that 
while he never saw Persians with light hair and blue eyes, 
he was told that in some noble families fair types were not 
very rare. 

254 : 19. See the note on the Medes, and Zaborowski, p. 
156, on the Magi. 

254 : 26. Darius. Zaborowski, 1, p. 12. Herodotus, I, 
209, says: "Now Hystaspes the son of Arsames was of the 
race of the Achaemenidae and his eldest son Darius was at 
that time twenty years old." Another name for Hystaspes 
was Vashtaspa, whose father was Arsames (Arshama). He 
traced his descent through four ancestors to Achaemenes 
(Hakhamamish) . 

Von Luschan, p. 241, says: "Nothing is known of the 
Achaemenides who called themselves 'Aryans of Aryan 
stock ' and who brought the Aryan language to Persia. 
About 1500 B. C. or earlier, there seems to have begun a 
migration of northern men to Asia Minor, Syria, Persia* 
Egypt and India. Indeed we can now connect even Further 
India with the Mitanni of central Asia Minor." 

See Zaborowski in regard to the Behistun tablet, etc., al- 
though practically any writers on Persia and Mesopotamia 
discuss this great monument. 

255 : 2. Zaborowski, 1, pp. 116-117. 

255 : 6. See the note on the Medic language, 255 : 13. 
Also Zaborowski, 1, pp. 34, 182-184. 

255 : 7 seq. Zaborowski, 1, pp. 180-184; Feist, 5, p. 423. 



255 : 13. Bactria and Zendic. See the notes to pp. 
119 : 15 and 257 : 12. 

255 : 13. Zendic or the Medic language. See Zaborowski, 
1, chap. VI. According to the Census of India, vol. I, pp. 
291 seq. t both Persian and Medic tongues belong to the 
Aryan stock. They are divided in the following table: 







(The language of 

Old Persian of the Achaemenides 

the Avesta. No 

(Darius' insc. at Behistun, c. 

transition lan- 

5th century B. C.) 

guage between 

1 1 

Medic and its 

1 1 

modern deriva- 

Pehlevi or Parthian 

tives is known.) 

3d~7th centu 



1 1 

1 1 

Galchah dialects of the Pamirs 


Modern Persian. 




Other minor 



Zaborowski, 1, p. 146, positively identifies Medic as agglu- 
tinative, in which he agrees with Oppert. See chaps. V and 
VI, especially part II and p. 125. For early data on the 
Medes see the Herodotus references given under Persia. 
Zaborowski says, p. 121, that Medic was spoken until 600 

255 : 15. Kurdish. Von Luschan, p. 229: "The Kurds 
speak an Aryan language. . . . The eastern Kurds are 
little known. . . . They speak a different dialect from the 
western tribes, but both divisions are Aryan." On the 
Kurds as a people, see the notes to p. 225 : 20. 

255 : 20. Zaborowski, 1, p. 216-217. 


255 : 23. Von Luschan, p. 234, and the note to p. 225 : 19 
of this book. 

255 : 26-256 : 10. See Plutarch's Life of Alexander; His- 
toria Alexandri Magni de prceliis; Zaborowski, 1, p. 171. 

256 : 3. Alexander the Great and the Persians. Plutarch, 
Life of Alexander: "After this he accommodated himself 
more than ever to the manners of the Asiatics, and at the 
same time persuaded them to adopt some of the Macedonian 
fashions, for by a mixture of both he thought a union might 
be promoted much better than by force, and his authority 
maintained when he was at a distance. For the same reason 
he selected 30,000 boys and gave them masters to instruct 
them in the Grecian literature as well as to train them to 
arms in the Macedonian manner. As for his marriage with 
Roxana, it was entirely the effect of love. . . . Nor was the 
match unsuitable to the situation of his affairs. The bar- 
barians placed greater confidence in him on account of that 
alliance. . . . Hephaestion and Craternus were his two 
favorites. The former praised the Persian fashions and 
dressed as he did; the latter adhered to the fashions of his 
own country. He therefore employed Hephaestion in his 
transactions with the barbarians and Craternus to signify 
his pleasure to the Greeks and Macedonians." 

256 : n seq. Armenians. Ridgeway, 1, p. 396, speaking 
of language, says: "That the Armenians were an offshoot of 
the Phrygians as mentioned in Herodotus VII, 73, is proved 
by the most modern linguistic results, which show that Ar- 
menian comes closer to Greek than to the Iranian tongues." 
Cf. also Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 475. This 
need not imply racial affinity, however. The following notes 
on Armenian were contributed by Mr. Leon Dominian: 
"The proof of Aryan affinities in the Hittite language has 
not yet been established. The great difficulty in establish- 
ing the pre-Aryan relation of Armenian is due to the fact 
that the earliest text dates only from the fifth century 

"The Cimmerians and Scythians, coming from southern 
Europe by way of the Caucasus (Herodotus, IV, 11, 12), 
reached Armenia about 720 B. C. (see Garstang, The Land of 


the Hitlites, p. 62). The old Vannic language antedating this 
invasion resembles the Georgian of the Caucasus, according 
to Sayce (Jour. Roy. As. Soc, XIV, p. 410), who has studied 
the local inscriptions. On p. 409 he infers that the Aryan 
occupation of Armenia was coeval with the victory of Ary- 
anism in Persia at the end of the sixth century, B. C. 

"The fact that Armenia is linguistically related to the 
western groups of the Indo-European languages and that 
the Persian element consists of loan words is corroborated by 
geographical evidence. The Armenian highland culminating 
in the 17000 foot altitude of Mt. Ararat has acted as a bar- 
rier dividing the plateau of Anatolia from that of Iran. 
Herodotus called the Armenians the 'beyond' Phrygians." 
See also O. Schrader, Jevons translation, p. 430. 

256 : 14 seq. Phrygians. See the note to p. 225. 

256 : 15. Felix Sartiaux, Troie, la guerre de Troie, pp. 5-9. 

256 : 16-17. See the note to p. 239 : 2 seq. 

256 : 21 seq. See the table of languages to p. 242 : 5. 

256 : 27-257 : 7. See pp. 20, 134, 238-239, of this book. 

257 : 12. Bactria. See the note to p. 119 : 15. 

257 : 16 seq. See the notes to pp. 15S and 253. Also 
Von Luschan, p. 243; Zaborowski, 1, p. 112; and the Indian 
Census, 1901, vol. I, p. 294. 

257 : 19. Punjab. Panch — five, ah — river, in Hindu- 
stani. Cf. the Greek penta — five. 

257 : 22. Dravidians. See pp. 148-149 of this book. 

257 : 23. See the note to. p. 259 : 21 and Zaborowski, 1, 
pp. 113 seq. 

257 : 28-258 : 2. See the note to p. 242 : 5. George 
Tumour's edition in 1836, of the Mahavamsa, first made it 
possible to trace Sinhalese history and to prove that about 
the middle of the sixth century B. C. a band of Aryan- 
speaking people from India, under Vijaya conquered and set- 
tled Ceylon permanently. There are a number of later 
works on Ceylon, dealing with its archaeology, flora, fauna, 
history, etc. 

According to the British Indian Census of 1901 nearly 
two-thirds of the inhabitants of Assam were Hindus, and the 
language of Hinduism has become that of the province. The 


vernacular Assamese is closely related to Bengali. E. A. 
Gait has written a History of Assam (1906). 

258 : 3. See the notes to pp. 158 and 253 of this book. 

258 : 8. Zaborowski, 1, pp. 184-185. Compare de Mor- 
gan's dates with those of Zaborowski, the Indian Census 
and Meillet. 

258 : 19. See Meillet, Introduction a Vttude des langues 
europeens. On p. 37 he claims that the relation between the 
two is comparable to that prevailing between High and Low 
German. Zaborowski', 1, p. 184, says: "The language of the 
Avesta, the Zend, is a contemporary dialect of the Persian 
of Darius (*. e., of Old Persian), from whence has come the 
Pehlevi and its very close relative. It even presents the 
closest affinities with the Sanskrit of the Vedas, from which 
was derived, in the time of Alexander, classical Sanskrit. 
This Sanskrit of the Vedas is itself so close to Old Persian 
that it can be said that one and the other are only two pro- 
nunciations of the same tongue." See also the Indian Census 
for 1001, vol. I, p. 294. 

258 : 25 seq. Zaborowski, 1, pp. 213-216; Peake, 2, pp. 
165 seq. and especially pp. 169 and 172. 

259 : 4. Ellsworth Huntington, The Pulse of Asia; Peake, 
2, p. 170; and Breasted, passim. 

259 : 9. See pp. 173, 237, 253-254 and 257 of this book. 

259 : 16. See the notes to pp. 119 : 13 and 255 : 7. 

259 : 21 . Sacae or Saka. The Sacae or Saka werefthe blond 
peoples who carried the Aryan language to India. Strabo, 
511, allies them with the Scythians as one of their tribes. 
Many tribes were called Sacae, especially by the Hindus, who 
used the term indiscriminately to designate any northern 
invaders of India. 

One tribe gained the most fertile tract in Armenia which 
was called Sacasene, after them. 

Zaborowski, 1, p. 94, relates the Sacae with the Scythians, 
and says: "The Tadjiks are a people composed of suppressed 
elements where blonds are found in an important minority. 
These blonds, saving an atavistic survival of more ancient 
or sporadic characters I can identify. They are the Sacae." 
He continues, in a note, that a great error has been com- 


mitted on the subject of the Sacae. "Repeating an asser- 
tion of Alfred Maury, whose very sound erudition enjoyed a 
merited reputation, I myself once repeated that the Sacae 
who figures on the rock of Behistun was of the Kirghiz type. 
This assertion is completely erroneous. I have proved it 
and can say that the Sacae and the Scythians were iden- 

Zaborowski, p. 216, also identifies the Sacae with the Per- 
sians. On this whole subject see Herodotus, VII, 64; also 
Feist, 5. 

259 : 21. Massagetae. Zaborowski, 1, p. 285, says: "The 
first information of history concerning the peoples of Turk- 
estan refers to the Massagetae, whose life was exactly the 
same as that of the Scythians (Herodotus, I, 205-216). 
They enjoyed a developed industrial civilization while they 
remained nomads. They were doubtless composed of ethnic 
elements different from the Scythians, but probably already 
spoke the Iranian tongue, like them. And since the time of 
Darius, at least, there were in Turkestan with them and be- 
side them, Sacae, whom the Greeks have always regarded as 
Scythians come from Europe." 

Minns, Scythians and Greeks, p. n, says: "The Scyths and 
the Massagetae were contemporaneous and different. The 
Massagetae are evidently a mixed collection of tribes without 
an ethnic unity; the variety of their customs and states of 
culture shows this and Herodotus does not seem to suggest 
that they are all one people. They are generally reckoned 
to be Iranian. . . . The picture drawn of the nomad Massa- 
getae seems very like that of the Scythians in a rather ruder 
stage of development." 

Herodotus, I, 215, describes them as follows: "In their 
dress and mode of living the Massagetae resemble the Scyth- 
ians. They fight both on horseback and on foot, neither 
method is strange to them. . . . The following are some of 
their customs, — each man has but one wife, yet all wives are 
held in common; for this is a custom of the Massagetae and 
not of the Scythians, as the Greeks wrongly say. Human 
life does not come to its natural close with this people; but 
when a man grows very old, all his kinsfolk collect together 


and offer him up in sacrifice; offering at the same time some 
cattle also. After the sacrifice they boil the flesh and feast 
on it; and those who thus end their days are reckoned the 
happiest. If a man dies of disease they do not eat him, but 
bury him in the ground, bewailing his ill fortune that he did 
not come to be sacrificed. They sow no grain, but live on 
their herds and on fish, of which there is great plenty in the 
Araxes. Milk is what they chiefly drink. [Cf. the eastern 
Siberian tribes of the present day.] The only god they wor- 
ship is the sun, and to him they offer the horse in sacrifice, 
under the notion of giving to the swiftest of the gods, the 
swiftest of all mortal creatures." 

D'Arbois de Jubainville, 4, t. I, p. 231 declares they were 
the same as the Scyths. 

Horse sacrifices are said to prevail among the modern 
Parses. On the whole, the Massagetae appear to have been 
largely Nordic. 

259 : 24. Kirghizes. See Zaborowski, i,pp. 216, 290-291. 

259 : 25 seq. See the note to p. 119 : 15. 

260 : 3. Gibbon, chap. LXIV. Also called the battle of 
Lignitz. Lignitz is the duchy, and Wahlstatt a small village 
on the battle-field. 

260 : 8. See the notes to pp. 224 : 3 and 259 : 21. 

260 : 17. Feist, 5, pp. 1, 427-431, says the Tokharian is 
related to the western rather than to the Iranian- Indian 
group of languages, and places the Tokhari in northeast 
Turkestan. (See the note to p. 119 : 13.) On p. 471 he 
identifies the Yue-Tchi and Khang with Aryans from Chinese 
Turkestan, basing himself on Chinese annals, the date being 
given as 800 B. C. Cf. also the notes to p. 224 : 3 of this 

260 : 21. See DeLapouge, 1, p. 248; Feist, 5, p. 520. 

260 : 29-261 : 5. See Feist, above, in the note to 260 : 17. 

261 : 6. Traces. See the note to p. 70 : 12. 

261 : 17. Deniker, 2, pp. 407 seq.; G. Elliot Smith, Ancient 
Egyptians, p. 61; Ripley, p. 450. 



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Erganzungsband, Zeitschr. f. Eth., Berlin, 1877. 

3. "Die Serbokroaten der Adriatischen Kustenlander," 

Zeitschr. f. Eth. (supplement), 1884. 


Weissbach, Franz H. Achamenidenschriften, Zweiter Art. 

Leipsig, 1890. 
Wendell, Barrett. A Literary History of America. Scribner, 

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Aachen, 182. 

Accad, 147; language of, 239. 

Achaeans, 158-161, 173, 189, 223, 
225, 243, 253; at Troy, 159; 
invade Greece, 158-159; lan- 
guage of, 161. 

Acheulean period, 104-106, 133. 

Achilles, 159. 

Actinic rays, 38, 84. 

Adamic theory, 13. 

Adriatic, 36, 138. 

Mgean, islands of, Hellenes in, 
162 ; Algean region, Nordics in, 


/Eolian language, 243. 

iEolians, 159. 

Afghan hil! tribes, physical char- 
acter of, 261; language, 261; 
passes, Nordics in, 257, 259. 

Afghanistan, 257, 261 ; Mediter- 
ranean race in, 148; physical 
types of, 257. 

Afghans, 148; language of, 148. 

Africa, 23, 33, 82; Alpines in, 
140, 158; Bronze Age in, 128; 
cephalic index in, 23; hunting 
tribes of, 113; Mediterraneans 
in, 148, 151, 152, 155; mega- 
liths in, 155; Negro population 
of, 33, 79, 80; no Nordic blood 
in, 180, 223; Nordic invasion 
of, 223; North Africa, as part 
of Europe, 152; Berbers of, 
152; under Vandals, 180, 233; 
South Africa, density of native 
population barrier to white 
conquest, 79, 80. 

Agglutinative languages, 148, 
234, 239, 240. 

Agriculture, 112, 122-124, 138, 
146, 240. 

Ainus, physical characters of, 
224-225; crossed with Mon- 
gols, 225. 

Alabama, 99. 

Alani, or Alans, 66, 177, 195. 

Alaska, 45. 

Albania, 30, 36, 164; stature in, 

Albanian language, 164; origin 
of, 243-244; Albanian type, 

Albanians, 25; blondness of, 163; 
in the Balkan peninsula, 153. 

Albigensians, 157. 

Albinos, 25. 

Alcoholism, 55. 

Alemanni, 135, 145, 177. 

Alexander the Great, 161-162, 
256, 259. 

Alexandria, 92. 

Algeria, 44. 

Alphabet, earliest traces of, 115. 

Alpine race, 20, 21, 25, 29, 31, 34, 
35, 63, 64, 69, 73, 134-147, 
167, 226; an agricultural race, 
138-139, 146; and Aryan lan- 
guage, 238-241 ; and Dorians, 
160; and High German, 188; 
and iron, 129; and lake dwell- 
ings, 121, 139; and Proto- 
Slavic language, 143; and 
Round Barrows, 137; as aris- 
tocracy in Rome, 154; Asiatic, 
and earliest civilizations, 147; 
bringers of bronze, 127-128; 
of cereals, 138, 146; of culture, 
138, 146; of domesticated 




animals, 138, 146; of metals, 
122, 127, 129, 146-147; of pot- 
tery, 146; Celticized, 174; cen- 
tre of radiation of, 124, 136, 
1 41-143; conquered by Nor- 
dics, 129, 145-147; crossed 
with Mediterraneans, 151; 
crossed with Nordics, 134, 135, 
151, 163; discovery of type of, 
130; distribution of, 241 ; east- 
ern spread of, 136; final inva- 
sion of Europe, 127-128; first 
appearance of, 116; in Europe, 
136; habitat of, 43-44; hair of, 
34; in Africa (North), 128, 
140, 156; Alsace, 140; Armor- 
ica, 251; Asia, 144; Austria, 
232; Auvergne, 146; Baden, 
140; Bavaria, 141; Belgium, 
138, 140; Britain, 137-138, 
239-240, 247 (present absence 
of, 137); British Isles, 199, 
Brittany, 63, 146; Canada, 81; 
cities, 94; Denmark, 136; 
Egypt, 128, 140; Europe, 117 
(central, 138-139, 141); (east- 
ern, 44) ; (western, 44) ; (during 
the Neolithic, 124); France, 
63, 64, 138, 140, 146, 194, 240, 
251; Gaul, 240; Germany, 64, 
72, 184, 232; Greece, 65; Hol- 
land, 136; Italy, 64, 128, 140, 
I54i 157 (north, 141); Ireland, 
128, 137; Lake Dwellings, 121; 
Lorraine, 140; Neolithic period 
136; Norway, 136, 211; Po 
valley, 157; Rome, 154; Rus- 
sia, 136, 142-144; Savoy, 146; 
Sicily, 140; Spain, 140; Swit- 
zerland, 131, 135, 141; Syria, 
140; Terramara, 122; Tyrol, 
141; Wiirtemburg, 140; maxi- 
mum extension of, 136-137; 
migrations, route of, 116; 
mixed with Celts, 177; with 
Nordics, 25, 35~36, 62, 135- 
136; Nordicized, 130, 141, 147; 

north of the Black Sea, 136, 
144; origin of, 134, 241; orig- 
inal language of, 140, 235; 
physical characters of, 35-36, 
73; racial aptitudes of, 227; 
reinforced by others, 144; re- 
placing Nordics in Europe, 
260; resurgence of in Europe, 
131, 146-147, 184, 190-191, 
196, 210; retreat of from north- 
west Europe, 136-138; skull 
of, 62; speech of, 64; substra- 
tum in eastern Germany, 72; 
underlying population, 136; 
(in relation to Nordics in cen- 
tral Europe, 141); unimpor- 
tant in modern culture, 147. 

Alps, 42, 123, 129, 174, 187; Al- 
pines in, 124; lake dwellings in, 
121; Mediterraneans in, 149, 
151; Nordics in, 151. 

Alsace, 182; Alpines in, 140. 

Amber, 125. 

America, 6, 10, 14, 57; change of 
religion in, 219; genius in, 98; 
immigrants to, 2 1 8 ; in Colonial 
times, 46-48, 83-85; Mediter- 
ranean element in, 45; Nordic 
immigration to, 211; Nordics 
in, 83, 84, 87, 89, 206, 231; 
Norman type in, 207; race de- 
velopment in, 262-263; re- 
placement of types in, no; 
result of immigration to, 11, 
12, 72, 86, 89-94, IO °, 209, 211; 
Scandinavian element in, 211. 

American aristocracy, 5; char- 
acters, 26; colonies, 10; democ- 
racy, 6; factories, n; farming 
and artisan classes, n; In- 
dians, 33 (eliminated by 
smallpox, 55; arrowheads of, 
113); mines, 11; Negro, pro- 
venience of, 82 ; Revolution, 6. 

Americans, 5, n, 12, 77, 83, 88- 
90, 100; birth-rate decline of, 
46, 91 ; brunet type of, 45, 150; 



destruction of in Civil War, 88 ; 
future race mixture of, 92-93, 
100; in competition with im- 
migrants, 91 ; individualism 
of, 12; national consciousness 
of, 90; Nordic element of, 88; 
race consciousness among, 86; 
southerners, 42; typical hair 
shade of, 26. 

Amerindian blood, 61. 

Amerinds, 23, 31, 33, 34. 

Amorites, 223. 

Anak, sons of, 223. 

Anaryan languages, 140, 194, 
204, 233-236; survivals of in 
Europe, 234-236, 240; in Rus- 
sia, 243; in the British Isles, 

Anatolia, 21; present population 
of, 225. 

Anatolians, 237. 

Andaman Islands, Negroids in, 

Angles, 177; in Britain, 206, 248- 
249; in England, 200; in Scot- 
land, 203; origin of, 200. 

Anglian blood of American set- 
tlers, 83. 

Anglian type, 40. 

Anglo-Norman type, 162. 

Anglo-Normans of Ireland, 64. 

Anglo-Saxons, 63, 67, 80, 154; 
and genius, 109; in Colonial 
America, 83. 

Animals, domesticated, 112, 117, 
122, 123, 138, 146, 240. 

Antes, 141. 

Anthropoid Apes, 101-102. 

Anthropology, 3, 97; in the 
British Isles, 249. 

Apes, 101-102. 

Aquitaine, Iberian language of, 
194; brunet elements from, 
208; and Celtic language, 248. 

Aquitanian language, 140. 

Arabia, 44, 152. 

Arabic language, in Spain, 156. 

Arabic race, 147. 

Arabs, in Spain, 156. 

Aral Sea; see also Caspian-Aral 
Sea, 171, 254. 

Argentine, 78. 

Arian faith of the barbarians, 

Aristocracy, 5, 10, 140-142, 153- 
154, 187-189, 191-192, 196- 
197; Alpine, 154; Austrian, 
141; Bavarian, 141; British, 
247; French, 140; German, 
141; Greek, 153; Italian, 189, 
215; military, 78; Persian, 254; 
Roman, 154; Russian, 142; 
Spanish, 192, 247; Swabian, 
141 ; a true, 7, 8. 

Aristocrats, 188, 191, 192, 197. 

Aristotle, 226. 

Armenians, 59, 63, 66, 238-239, 
256; language of, 238, 256. 

Armenoid Alpines, 254. 

Armenoids, 20, 134, 238, 254, 


Armies, conscript and volunteer, 

Armor, 120; of the Romans, 154. 

Armorica; see also Brittany; Al- 
pines in, 251; Celts in, 250- 

Armorican language, 248, 251. 

Armoricans, 250. 

Arrow, in the Azilian Period, 
115; in the Palaeolithic Period, 
112, 115. 

Art, Cro-Magnon, 112; Magda- 
lenian, 114; in the Palaeolithic 
Period, 112; decline of in the 
Solutrean Period, 114. 

Artois, 210. 

Arya, 233-241. 

Aryan deities, 253. 

Aryan language or speech, 20, 
61, 67, 130, 155, 161, 233; and 
Alpines, 238; associated with 
the Nordics, 234, 241-242; 
diversity of, 242; first appear- 



ance of in Europe, 246; im- 
posed upon the Alpines and 
Mediterraneans, 242; in Ar- 
menia, 239; in Asia, 253-263; 
in Asia Minor, 238-239; in the 
Caucasus, 238-239; in Iran, 
238-239; introduced into 
Etruria, 244; into Europe, 155; 
into Greece, 203; into India, 
258; into Media. 254; into 
Spain, 192; language of the 
Ossetes, 66; of Hindustan, 67, 
70; origin of, 242-252; place of 
development of, 243 ; primitive 
212; Pre-Aryan, 204, 233, 
2 35» 247. Proto- Aryan, 61 , 
233, 238, 242-243. 

Aryan race, 3, 67, 213. 

Asia, 20 21, 61; Alpines in, 144: 
area of man's evolution, 13; 
Aryan languages in, 253-263; 
Aryanization of, 255; blond- 
ness in, 224; cradle of man- 
kind, 100-101; cradle of the 
Negro, 33; early civilizations 
in, 119; ethnic conquest of, 78; 
(western) Hellenization of, 
162; (western) Macedonian 
dynasties of, 162; Mediter- 
ranean languages in, 253; 
Mediterranean race in, 148- 
149; Mongols destroy civiliza- 
tion in, 260; Negrito substra- 
tum in, 148-149; Nordics in, 
214, 224, 253-263. 

Asia Minor, 20; Alpines in, 127, 
I 34i x 36; Armenians in, 256; 
bronze weapons in, 127; Cim- 
merians in, 254; early iron in, 
129; Gauls in, 158; Greek col- 
onies in, 160; Hellenized, 220; 
invaded by Phrygians, 159; 
Nordics in, 214, 225; Turkish 
language in, 237. 

Asiatic types, Europeanized, 144. 

Asiatics, 22. 

Assam, dialects of, 258. 

Assyria, 147; ancient civiliza- 
tions of, 153; languages of, 


Athenians, instability and ver- 
satility of, 229. 

Athens, 160, 162. 

Atlas Berbers, 25. 

Atlas Mountains, 223. 

Attica, and genius, 109; Pelas- 
gians in, 160. 

Attila, 139, 250. 

Augustus, Emperor, 51, 154, 216. 

Aurignacian Period, 105, 108, 
m, 112, 114, 132. 

Australia, Nordic race in, 79. 

Australians, 31; opposing the 
Japanese and Chinese, 79. 

Australoids, 33, 107; hairiness of, 

Austria, 56, 183; Alpines in. 210, 
232; Nordics in, 210; present 
population of, 231-232; Slavs 
in, 141. 

Austrians, 57, 135. 

Auvergne, Alpines in, 146; an- 
cient centre of population, 149. 

Avars, 143-145; language of, 236. 

Avesta, 255. 

Azilian Period (Azilian-Tarde- 
noisian), 99, 105, 115-117. 132, 
136; and brachycephalics, 116; 
and Mediterranean race, 117; 
bow and arrow in, 113, 115. 

Azilians, 113, 138. 

Babylonia, 147; ancient civiliza- 
tion of, 153. 

Bactra, 119. 

Bactria, language of, 255; Mon- 
golization of, 259 ; Sacse in, 259. 

Baden, Alpines in, 140. 

Bahamas, 39, 40; English in, 40. 

Balkan Peninsula, Albanians tit, 
*53; Ulyrians in, 153; Medi- 
terranean substratum in, 152- 
153; Nordics in, 189; Slavs in, 
143, 153- 



Balkan Question, 156-157. 

Balkans, 56, 57, 144; Alpines in, 
116, 124, 127, 136; immigrants 
from, 89; language in, 237. 

Balkh, 119. 

Balochi dialect, 255. 

Baltic, coasts, Neolithic occupa- 
tion of, 122-123; Pre-Neo- 
lithic culture of, 117; Prov- 
inces, 211, 212; Race, see Nor- 
dic race; Russification of, 58; 
Sea, 20, 37, 117, 122, 124, 151, 
168, 169, 171, 173, 174, 180; 
subspecies, 20; see also Nordic 

Baluchistan, 148. 

Bantus, 80. 

Barbadoes, 39. 

Bashkirs, 144. 

Basques, 140; language of and its 
affinities, 140; 234; physical 
characters of, 234-235. 

Bas-reliefs, 112. 

Batavia, 210. 

Batavians, 177. 

Bavaria, Alpines in, 116, 141; 
dolichocephalics in, 116. 

Bavarians, 135, 141. 

Beaker Maker type, 138, 164. 

Bedouins, 100. 

Belgae, 145, 194-195, 200, 269; 
in Britain, 251; in England, 
1 75 ; in France, 1 75 ; Gaul, 251; 
Normandy, 251; mixed with 
Teutons, 248; language of, 


Belgians (modern), 195. 

Belgium, 56, 64, 195; divided 
into Walloons and Flemings, 
57; Alpines in, 116, 138, 140; 
Walloons in, 146. 

Benin, Bight of, 82. 

Berbers, 25, 63, 152, 223; lan- 
guage of, 204, 233; related 
to the Spaniards and South 
Italians, 152. 

Berserker, 231. 

Bessarabia, Rumanian language 
in, 245. 

Birth control, 48-49; increase, 
51; privilege of, 6; rate in 
upper and lower classes, 47-52, 
91 ; unconscious part played by 
church in, 52. 

Black Belt of Mississippi, 76. 

Black Breed of Scotland, 107. 

Black Sea, 125, 136, 144, 165; 
Alpines north of, 136. 

Blends, 14. 

Blond Hair, 24, 25. 

Blond type, 24-26; 229, 230; 
crossed with brunet, 14, 18, 
26, 28, 202; origin of, 214. 

Blondness, 25, 26; associated 
with glabrous skin, 32; with 
red hair, 32; of Ainus, 224; of 
Albanians and Greeks, 163; of 
Berbers, 223; of Libyans, 223; 
of Swiss, 136; of Tamahu, 223; 
in Asia, 224; in Bosnia, 190; 
in central Europe in Roman 
times, 131; in Ireland, 201; in 
literature as special trait, 229; 
in Poland, 190; in Russia, 190; 
in Spain, 192; of Christ, 230. 

Blonds, mixed with brunets, 202. 

Bohemia, 59, 183; revolt of, 187; 
loss of population in during 
Thirty Years' War, 184. 

Bohemian national revival, 58. 

Bone-carving, 112. 

Borreby type (see Beaker Mak- 
ers), 164. 

Borussian language, 242. 

Bosnia, 190. 

Boundaries, of Catholics and 
Protestants, 185; of Nordics 
and Alpines, 185-186; of East- 
ern and Western Empires, 179. 

Bow and arrow in the Paleo- 
lithic Period, 112, 113, 115. 

Brachycephalic, as a term, 19; 
races, first appearance of, 116. 

Brachycephaly, 19, 116, 122, 



127-128, 136-138, 144, 146, 
I5 1 . I 57» I 7 2 l increase of in 
France, 197; Russian, 136. 

Brahmans, 257. 

Brandenburg, population of, 72. 

Brazil, Negro blood in, 78. 

Brenner Pass, 189. 

Brennus, 157. 

Bretons, 62 ; Asiatic origin of, 63. 

Britain, 128, 131, 194; Alpine in- 
vasion of, 239; Angles in, 206, 
248-249; Aryan language in, 
234; Beaker Makers in, 138; 
Belgae in, 248, 251; bronze in, 
127; Bronze Age in, 163; Cel- 
tic language in, 247; Celts in, 
248; Danes in, 249; Goidels 
in, 174, 248; iron in, 130- 
131; land connection of, with 
France, 199; with Ireland, 
199; loss of Roman power in, 
250; Mediterraneans in, 123, 
127, 248; (see also British Isles 
and England) ; Neolithic popu- 
lation of, 123; Normans in, 
249; Norse in, 249; Paleo- 
lithic population of, 123; Pro- 
to-Mediterraneans in, 150; 
race mixture in, 248; racial 
composition of, 199; Round 
Barrow Men in, 163; Saxons 
in, 248-249; Welsh in, 248- 

British, 29; native British stat- 
ure, 29. 

British Empire, 57. 

British Isles {see also Britain and 
England); Alpines absent in, 
63; absence of round skulls in, 
63, 137, 138, 247, 249; an- 
thropology of, 249; brunets 
of, 28, 29, 149, 150; conquered 
by Saxons, 180; Celtic lan- 
guages in, 249-250; Iberian 
substratum in, 249; invaded 
by Belga? or Cymry, 199; by 
Brythons, 199; by Goidels, 

199; Mediterraneans in, 149, 
198, 266; Nordics in, 188, 199- 
206, 269, 271; Saxon and Dan- 
ish parts of, 88; Saxons in, 
180; Teutonic languages in, 
249; Vikings in, 249. 

Brittany, 81 , 129, 146, 202, 248; 
(see Armorica); Alpines in, 
146, 267; Armorican language 
in, 248; Celtic language in, 
250-252; Celts in, 250-251; 
dolmens in, 129; megaliths in, 
155; ravaged by the Saxons, 

Bronze, 132, 155; associated with 
Alpines, 128, 136; composi- 
tion and invention of, 126; 
effect of, 127, 128, 129; fab- 
ulous value of, 126; imple- 
ments, wide diffusion of com- 
mon types, 128; in Crete, 128; 
in England, 128, 137; in Ire- 
land, 137; in Italy, 127-128; 
in megalithic monuments, 129; 
in north Africa, 128; in Scan- 
dinavia, 128; in Sweden, 137; 
introduction of, 157, 158; on 
Atlantic coasts, 128; absence 
of in dolmens, 127. 

Bronze Period (Age), 120-122, 
126-133, 137, 163, 174, 199, 
213, 238, 267; and Beaker 
Makers, 138; in the South 
contemporary with the north- 
ern neolithic, 129. 

Brunet, crossed with blond, 14, 
18, 26, 28, 202. 

Brunetness, among Greeks, 163; 
in central Europe, 131; in 
literature, as a special char- 
acter, 229; in England and 
America, 150, 153; in Scotland, 
150, 153, 204. 

Briinn-Pfedmost race, 113, 114, 

Brutus, 217. 

Brythonic elements, in Scotland, 



203; (Cymric) invasion, 247; 

language, 248; in France, 248; 

in Wales, 205. 
Brythons, 203, 247-249, 269; on 

the continent, 174; in England, 

175, 200, 206; in Ireland, 200, 

Bukowina, Rumanian language 

in, 245. 
Bulgaria, Mongoloid characters 

in, 144; Mediterraneans in, 

Bulgarian national revival, 58. 
Bulgarians and Christianity, 65; 

domination of in Thrace, 246. 
Bulgars, 145. 
Burgund, 142. 
Burgundians, 70, 72, 145, 177, 

194; in Gaul, 180. 
Burgundy, 30, 182-183. 
Byzantine Army, 189; Empire, 

65, 165-166, 179, 181, 189, 

221, 237, 246; decline of, 221; 

Greeks in, 165. 
Byzantium, 92, 166. 

Cacocracy, 79. 

Caesar, 69, 140, 182, I93~i95, 
200, 217, 221, 248, 251. 

Caithness, 249. 

Calabrian, language, 244. 

California, II, 75. 

Californians, 79. 

Caligula, 217. 

Campignian Period, 120, 121; 
culture of, 132. 

Canada, 23; Nordics in, 81; 
French Canada, 47. 

Canadians (French), II, 47, 58, 
81; origin of, 81; Alpine char- 
acter of, 81; language of, 81; 
(Irish), II; Indian, 9, 87. 

Cantabrian Alps, 140, 267. 

Carpathian Mountains, 124, 136, 
141, 142, 143. 244-245. 

Carthage, 126, 165, 180; ancient 
civilization of, 153. 

Carthaginians, 228. 

Caspian Sea (see also Caspian- 
Aral Sea), 171, 257. 

Caspian-Aral Sea, 170, 214, 225, 
254. 258. 

Cassiterides, 127. 

Cassius, 217. 

Castes, 70. 

Castilian language, 156, 244. 

Catalan language, 156, 244. 

Catholic boundaries in Europe, 

Catholic colonies, the half-breed 
in, 85. 

Caucasian race, 3, 32, 34, 65, 66, 
67; hair of, 34; in the United 
States, 65 ; origin of the name, 

Caucasus, 66, 144, 225, 238-239, 
253; Cimmerian raids in, 254; 
Nordics in, 214, 258. 

Caucasus Mountains, 66, 214, 

Cavalier type, 185. 
Caverns of France and Spain, 

112, 132. 
Celtiberians, 192; language of, 


Celtic dialects, 62, 130. 

Celtic languages, 62; antedating 
Anglo-Saxons in England, and 
Romans in France, 63; in 
Spain, 155, 234; Celtic and 
High German, 189; Celtic in 
France, 194, 248; Celtic lan- 
guage of the Nordics, 194; 
first crosses the Rhine west- 
ward, 246; introduced into 
Britain, 247-250; in Brittany, 
250-251; in Gaul, 250; de- 
scendants of, 250; remnants 
of, 155-156. 

Celtic Nordics, 139. 

Celtic race, 3, 62-64. 

Celtic-speaking nations, 130, 131, 
139. 173-177. 189, 192, 199; 
physical characters of, 175. 

45 2 


Celtic tribes, 250; in Armorica, 

Celto-Scyths, 174. 

Celts, 62, 63, 194; in the Rhine 
valley, 174; in the Danube 
valley, 174; expulsion of from 
Germany, 174; physical char- 
acters of, 175; mixed with 
Mediterraneans and Alpines, 
177; "Q" and "P," 247-248. 

Central America, 61, 75. 

Centum group of Aryan lan- 
guages, 256. 

Cephalic index, 19-24; in Eng- 
land, 137; increase of in 
France, 197. 

Cereals, 138. 

Ceylon, 258; Mediterranean race 
in, 148; Negroids in, 149; 
Veddahs in, 149. 

Chalons, battle of, 250, 272. 

Channel coasts, 201; depression 
of, 199. 

Characters, unit, 13 et seq. 

Charlemagne, 182, 187, 191, 195; 
capital of, 182; coronation of, 
182; empire of, 182; language 
of the court of, 182. 

Charles V, 183. 

Charles Martel, 181. 

Chase, the, 122. 

Chellean Period, 104-105, 132; 
Pre-Chellean, 104-105. 

Cherbourg, 201. 

China, whites in, 78. 

Chinese, II, 79, 119, 260; in 
California and Australia, 79; 
Nordic elements among, 224. 

Chinese civilization, 119. 

Chinese coolie, 11. 

Chinese-Turkestan, Wu-Suns in, 
260; Tokharian language in, 

Chivalry, 228. 

Christ, 227; blondness of, 230. 

Christianity, 181-183, 221-222. 

Chronological table, 132-133. 

Chronology, Hebrew, 4. 
Church, and birth control, 52; 

harboring defective strains, 

Church of Rome and democracy, 

, 85 ' . 
Cimbri, 177. 

Cimmerians, 173, 189, 214, 225, 
253, 258, 269. 

Cinque cento, 215. 

Circassians, 237. 

Cisalpine Gaul, 157. 

Cities, consumers of men, 209; 
Alpines in, 94; Mediterraneans 
in, 94, 209; Nordics in, 94, 209. 

Civil War, 16, 42-43, 81, 86, 88, 

Civilization, foundation of Eu- 
ropean, 164, 165; and race 
mixture, 161; of Nordics and 
Mediterraneans, 214-216. 

Climate and arboreal man, 101. 

Climatic conditions, 38-42, 215. 

Cnossos, 165. 

Colonial American families, 46- 
48, 51, 83-85. 

Colonial population, of America, 
48, 83, 84. 

Colonial Wars, causes of, 85. 

Colonies, American, Nordic 
blood in, 84; Catholic, in New 
France and New Spain, 85. 

Colonization, 93. 

Columbaria, 220. 

Competition of races, 46-55. 

Conquistadores, 73, 193. 

Conscript Armies, 197-198. 

Constantine, 166. 

Constantinople, 166 (see Byzan- 

Consumption, 55. 

Continuity of physical charac- 
ters, 262. 

Copper, 125, 132; in Egypt, 125; 
first appearance of in Europe, 
122; implements, 121; mines, 



Cornish language, 248. 

Cornwales, 178. 

Cornwall, 178; racial types in, 
206; Phoenicians in, 127. 

Cotentin, 201. 

"Crackers," 39. 

Cretans, 228. 

Crete, 99, 165; ancient civiliza- 
tion of, 153; bronze in, 128; 
Hellenes in, 162; Minoan cul- 
ture of, 99, 164; Pre- Aryan 
language, remnants in, 233. 

Crimea, 176; Gauls in, 174. 

Croats, 143. 

Cro-Magnon, race, 105-107, 
108-115, 132; and art, 112, 
114; and Esquimaux, 112; 
cranial capacity of, 109; cul- 
ture of, m-113; direction of 
entrance of, into Europe, 1 1 1 ; 
disappearance of, 1 1 0-1 1 1 , 
115; disharmonic features of, 
no; distribution of, in; first 
appearance of, 108, 1 1 1 ; genius 
of, 109; in France, 265; origin 
of, in; race characters of, 
108-109; remnants of, 15, no; 
skull of, 15, no; weapons of, 
112, 113. 

Crossing, brunets and blonds, 14, 
18, 26, 28, 202. 

Crucifixion, in art, 230. 

Crusades, 182, 191. 

Cuba, 76. 

Culture, European, derivation 
of, 164. 

Cumberland Mountains, 39. 

Cymric invasions, 174; (Bry- 
thonic), 247. 

Cymric language, 248; Anaryan 
syntax of, 204; in Britain, 248; 
in central Europe, 248 ; in Nor- 
mandy, 251 ; in Wales, 205. 

Cymry, 145, 174, 205-206, 247, 
269, 271; and La Tene, 131; 
in Britain, 175, 200; in France, 
175. 251. 

Cyprus, mines of, 125; My- 
cenaean culture of, 164. 
Cyrus, 254. 
Czechs, 143. 

Da Vinci, Leonardo, 215. 

Dacia, 245. 

Dacian Plain, 176, 244-245; oc- 
cupation of, 143. 

Dalmatian Alps, 30; coast, 138. 

Danes, 69, 145, 177, 196, 206, 
211 ; along the Atlantic coasts, 
180; in Britain, 249; invasion 
of, 201 ; Nordic, 64; of Ireland, 
63-64, 201 ; of Schleswig, Ger- 
manization of, 58-59. 

Danish barbarians, identified 
with Normans, 252; Danish 
blood of American settlers, 83 ; 
Danish Peninsula, 200. 

Dante, 215. 

Danube, 244-245; Alpines, in 
valley of, 116, 127, 136, 167; 
lake dwellings of, 131, 122; 
Nordics in, 174; routes of, 125. 

Dardanelles, 256. 

Darius, 254-255; Nordic type, 

Dark Ages, 99. 

Dart, barbed, 112; poisoned, 113. 

David, fairness of, 223; mother 
of, 223-224. 

Dawn Man, 105. 

Dawn stones, 102-103. 

DeGeer, Baron, 169. 

Delphi, Galatians at, 158. 

Democracy, 5, 8, 10, 12, 78, 79; 
and socialism, 79. 

Democratic forms of govern- 
ment, 5. 

Denmark, Alpines in, 136, 911 ; 
kitchen middens of, 123; Mag- 
lemose culture in, 117, 123, 
169; Teutons from, 174. 

Dinaric race, or type, 138, 163- 
164, 190. 

Diogenes, 227. 



Diseases, 54, 55. 

Disharmonic combinations of 

physical characters, 14, 28, 35, 

Dnieper river, 143. 
Dog, the, domesticated, 117, 123; 

Paleolithic, 112. 
Dolichocephalic, as a term, 19; 

Dolichocephalics, earliest races 

in Europe, 116. 
Dolichocephaly, 24, 107, 108, 

I 14, 116, 122, 136, 148-149, 

151. 172. 
Dolichocephs and megaliths, 

Dolmens, of Brittany, absence of 

bronze in, 129. 
Domesticated animals, 117, 122- 

123, 138. 
Dominion of Canada, 81. 
Dordogne, stature in, 198. 
Dorian dialects, 164, 243; inva- 
sion of Greece, 99, 159-160. 
Dorians, 159-160, 164, 189, 269. 
Dravidians, 148, 257; mixed with 

Mediterraneans, 150. 
Dutch, 61 ; in the East Indies, 78; 

in New York, 80, 84; in South 

Africa, 80. 

East Indies, whites in, 78; Dutch 
in, 78. 

Eastern Empire of Rome, 165- 
166, 176, 179, 221. 

Ecclesiastics among Normans, 
brachycephalic, 208. 

Egypt, Alpines in, 128, 140; 
ancient civilization of, 119, 
153, 164; bronze weapons in, 
127; copper in, 125; culture 
synchronous with the northern 
Neolithic, 125; (lower) earliest 
fixed date of, 1 25 ; fellaheen of, 
15 ; freed menof,ii6; Hellenized, 
220; invaded by Libyans, 
223; iron in, 129; Macedonian 
dynasties of, 162; Mediter- 

ranean race in, 148; monu- 
ments in, 155; national revival 
of, 58; Nordics in, 223. 

Egyptians, 15, 63; ancient, 152; 
language of, 233. 

Elam, 147. 

Elimination of the weak and un- 
fit, 49-54. 

Eneolithic Period, 121, 128, 132. 

Energy of the Nordics, 215. 

England, 10, 21, 26, 56, 62, 185- 
186; Alpines in, 137; Angles in, 
200; blond elements in, 63; 
bronze introduced into, 128; 
Brythons in, 175; cephalic in- 
dex in, 137, 138; conquered by 
the Danes, 69, 201; by the 
Normans, 69, 206-207 ; by the 
Norsemen, 69; by the Saxons, 
69; blonds mixed with bru- 
nets in, 202; deterioration of, 
209; economic change in, 43, 
209; ethnic elements in, 201- 
210; Goidelic elements in, 201 ; 
Goidelic speech in, 200; 
Iberian substratum in, 201; 
iron in, 129-131; land connec- 
tion of with Ireland and 
France, 128, 199; loss of Nor- 
dics in, 168, 191; Mediter- 
ranean race in, 26, 83, 150, 153, 
J 55» 203, 208-210; megaliths 
in, 155; nobility in, 191; Nor- 
dic race in, 26, 188, 199-210; 
decline of Nordic element in, 
190, 191, 208-210; Norman 
type in, 206-208, 252 ; physical 
types in, 249; Post-Roman in- 
vaders of, 73 ; race elements in, 
64, 249; Round Barrow men 
of, 137-138; Saxon invasion 
of, 200-201; Saxon speech of, 
69; severed from France and 
Ireland, 128; stone weapons in, 
120-121; in world war, 191, 

English, the, 61, 67; brunet, 149- 



150; borderers, 40; characters, 
26, 29, 64; in the Bahamas, 40; 
in New York, 80; in South 
Africa, 80; modern, 67; Nor- 
man type among, 207; Round 
Barrow survivals among, 164; 
typical hair shade of, 26. 

English Channel, 199. 

English language, 61; a world 
language, 80, 204. 

English race related to the Fris- 
ians, 73. 

Environment, 4, 16, 19, 28, 38- 
39, 98-99; effects of, 262. 

Eoanthropus, 105-106. 

Eolithic culture, 103; man, 97- 
103; Period, 102-103, I0 5> I 3 2 - 

Eoliths, 102-103. 

Ephtalites, 254. 

Epirus, 164. 

Erse language, 247. 

Esquimaux, and Cro-Magnons, 
no, 112, 225. 

Esthonians, 234; language of, 
234, 236, 243; immigration of, 

Esths, 236, 243. 

Eternal City, 153. 

Ethiopia, 151. 

Ethiopian Negro, 24, 151. 

Etruria, 153, 165; ancient civili- 
zation of, 153; struggles of 
with the Latins, 154; empire 
of, 165. 

Etruscans, 154, 157, 244; lan- 
guage of, 234, 244; empire of, 
I 57: power of destroyed, 157; 
learn Aryan, 244. 

Eugenics, ideal in, 48. 

Eurasia, 100, 202. 

Europe, 20, 21, 24, 27, 30, 44, 56, 
60, 62, 63, 68; abandoned to 
invaders, 179; Alpines in, 117; 
Anaryan survivals in, 234-235 ; 
brain capacity of, 53; Cro- 
Magnons in, 108, 115; dolicho- 
cephalic, 116; early man in, 

102; glaciation in, 101-102; 
not the home of the Alpines, 
43; nor of the Slavs, 65; Ger- 
man types in, 73; iron in, 129- 
131; (mediaeval), 10, 52, 59; 
megaliths in, 155; Mongols in, 
65; Nordic aristocracy in, 188; 
see also Aristocracy; Nordics 
in, 188; peninsula of Asia 
or Eurasia, 100; Pre-Aryan 
speech in, 235; Teutonic, 179- 
187; Turkish language in, 237; 
(western) introduction of Ar- 
yan speech into, 234. 

Europe (Paleolithic), 23. 

European culture, derivation of, 

European man, 25,000 years ago, 

European races, 18-21, 24, 28- 
30, 32, 33, 35, 60, 66, 131; 
natural habitat of, 37 ; physical 
characters of, 21, 31, 34; pres- 
ent distribution of, 272-273. 

European wars and Nordics, 73, 
74; causes of, 56. 

Europeans, in Brazil, 78; mod- 
ern, cranial capacity of, 109. 

Euskarian language; see also 
Basque, 140, 235. 

Euskarians (Basques), 234. 

Eye color, 13, 24, 25, 35, 135, 
168, 175. 

Farms, immigrants on, 209; 
nurseries of nations, 209. 

Fellaheen, 152. 

Fen districts, Mediterraneans 
in, 153. 

Ferdinand of Hapsburg, 187. 

Fertility and infertility of races, 

Feudalism, 228. 

Finland, 59, 236; Alpines in, 211; 
colonized by Sweden, 211; con- 
quered by the Varangians, 177. 



Finlanders, language of, 234, 236, 

Finnic dialects, 234. 

Finns, 58, 243; round-skulled, 
invasion of, 236. 

Firbolgs, 108, 203. 

Flanders, 182; Nordics in, 188, 
210, 231. 

Flemings, 57, 61, 195, 210; lan- 
guage of, 195; descended from 
the Franks, 210. 

Flints, chipped, 102-104, 113, 
1 19-12 1 ; polished, 1 19-120. 

Foot, as a race character, 31. 

Forests, 124. 

Forty-Niners, 75. 

France, 23, 56, 60, 63; and the 
church, 181; and the Hugue- 
nots, 53; Alpines in, 138, 140, 
142, 194; Aryan language in, 
234; Athenian versatility of, 
161; Basques in, 140; Bronze 
Age in, 129, 131; Brythonic 
language in, 248; caverns in, 
112; Celtic language in, 194, 
248-251; connection of by 
land with Britain, 199; ce- 
phalic index in, 197; conquered 
by Gauls, 173; Cro-Magnon 
race in, no; Cymry or Belgae 
in, 175, 251; decline of inter- 
national power in, 197; first 
Alpines in, 116; Hallstatt relics 
in, 131; in Caesar's time, 194- 
195; invasion of by Gauls, 199; 
loss through war, 197; Medi- 
terraneans in, 149, 156, 194; 
megaliths in, 129; mercenaries 
i n » *35; Nordic aristocracy in, 
140; Nordics in, 188, 231; 
Normans in, 201; Paleolithic, 
remnants in, no; racial com- 
position of, 194; religious wars 
of, 185, 196; Saxons in, 201; 
severed from England, 128; 
stature in, 198; Tardenoisian 

Period of, 115; variation of 
physical characters in, 23. 

Francis I, 183. 

Franco-Prussian War, 198. 

Frankish aristocracy, 196; dynas- 
ties, 195; kingdom, 196. 

Franks, 67, 70, 145, 177, 181, 
251; founders of France, 195; 
in Belgium, 195; in Gaul, 206; 
conquer the Lombards, 181; 
conversion of, 181; control 
western Christendom, 181 ; de- 
feat the Moslems, 181; king- 
dom of, 180-196. 

French, 67; stature of, 197-198; 
conscripts, 198; language, 244; 
Revolution, 6. 

French Canadians, n, 58. 

Frisia, 73. 

Frisian coast, 210; dialect (Taal), 
South Africa, 80. 

Frisians, 177; Nordic character 

of, 73- 
Friulian language, 244. 
Frontiersmen of America, 45, 74- 

75, 85. 
Furfooz-Grenelle race, 116, 132, 

136, 138. 
"Furor Normanorum," 130. 

Gaelic, 247, 249. 

Galatia, 158, 225. 

Galatians, 158; physical char- 
acter of, 175. 

Galicia, 245; Nordics in, 156. 

Gallicia, Slavs in, 143. 

Gaul, 60, 131; Cisalpine Gaul, 
157; Roman Gaul, 69; Alpines 
in, 124, 240; Belgae in, 251; 
Burgundians in, 180; Celtic 
speech in, 250; conquered by 
the Goths and Franks, 251; 
Franks in, 206; Goidels in, 248; 
languages in, 69-70; Latinized, 
194; Latin speech in, 251; 
Mediterraneans in, 123; Nor- 
dics in, 193-194; Nordics or 



Celts cross into, 173, 194; 
Teutonic speech in, 251; Visi- 
goths in, 180. 

Gauls, 68, 131, 145, 156, 189, 
194; ancient, 229; conquer 
France, 174; enter Spain, 174, 
192; in Asia Minor, 158; in the 
Crimea, 174; in France, 199; 
in Galatia, 225; in Greece, 158; 
in Italy, 1 57, 1 74, 225 ; in south 
Russia, 174; in Thrace, 225; 
mixed with Alpines, 247 ; mixed 
with Mediterraneans, 192, 247; 
physical characters of, 175; 
as a ruling class, 247. 

Genius and leaders, 98; and edu- 
cation or environment versus 
race, 98; in Greece, 109; in 
various states, 99; genius- pro- 
ducing type and rate of in- 
crease, 51, 99. 

Georgia, 39, 99. 

Georgians, 237. 

Gepidse, 177. 

German, Emperor, 182-183; Em- 
pire, 184; immigrants to 
America, 84, 86, 87, 184; in 
the Civil War, 87; in Brazil, 
78; language, 61, 182, 188-189; 
Revolution, of 1848, 87; type, 


Germans, 61, 67; Austrian Ger- 
mans, 145; defeat Mongols, 
260; descendants of Wends, 
72; immediate forerunners of, 
194; in America, 84; in Brazil, 
78; in Civil War, 87; of the 
Palatinate, 84; Russification 
of, 58; stature of, 154. 

Germany, 65, 72, 200; Alpines in, 
64, 72, 73, 124, 135, 141-142, 
184-187, 189, 232; Celts in, 
173-174, 248; change of race 
in, 141-142, 184-185; Chris- 
tian overlordship of, 183; early 
Nordics in, 124, 131; gentry 
of, 185, 198; Goidels in, 247- 

248; imperial idea in, 187; 
loss of population of during 
Thirty Years' War, 183; Medi- 
terraneans in, 123; in Middle 
Ages, 183; modern population 
of, 186, 231-232; nobility of, 
185; Nordics in, 73, 124, 131, 
141-142, 170, 174, 184, 187- 
188, 210, 213, 231; peasantry 
(Alpine) in, 185; race con- 
sciousness of, 57; race mixture 
m i l 35't racial composition of, 
72, 73, 184; Slavic substratum 
in, 72, 131, 141-142; Teutons 
m » 7 2 » 73. 184-189; Thirty 
Years' War, effect of, 183- 
187, 198; unified, 56-57, 186; 
Wends in, 236; women of, 228; 
in world war, 186-187, 231. 

Ghalcha, 255, 259. 

Ghalchic, 261. 

Ghettos, 209. 

Gizeh round skulls, 127. 

Glacial stages, 101, 105-106, 133. 

Glaciation, 100-106, 132. 

Goidelic dialects, 200-201, 248; 
elements in Scotland, 203; 
language, Anaryan syntax in, 
204; in Wales, 205; older in 
central Europe, 248. 

Goidels, 131, 173-174, I94"i95» 
200, 247, 269, 271; crossed 
with Mediterraneans, 248-249; 
invade Britain, 199; late wave 
of from Ireland to Scotland, 
250; a ruling class, 247. 

Gold, 125. 

Gothic language in Spain, 156. 

Goths, 66, 73, 142, 145, 176-177, 
180-181, 189, 192, 206, 211, 
251, 270; early home of, 176; 
in Italy, 157. 

Graeculus, 163. 

Greece, 59; ancient, absence of 
Dinaric type in, 164; ancient 
civilization of, 153; classic 
period of, 99, 160-161; con- 



quered by Achaeans, 158; cul- 
ture of, contrasted with that 
of the Persians, 255; dark 
period of, 99; Dorian invasion 
of. 99, J59J Homeric, 163-164; 
Homeric-Mycenaean culture of, 
99; Mediterranean substratum 
in, 152; modern, 161-164; 
Hellenes in, 162; Mycenaean 
culture of, 164; Nordics in, 
159-160, 173, 214; Pelasgians 
in, 158; race mixture in, 161; 
war of with Persia, 255. 
Greek language, 179; origin of, 

Greek states, 162. 
Greeks, in Asia Minor, 160. 

ancient, cranial capacity of, 
109; brunets among, 159, 
163; blonds among, 159, 
163; genius of, 109; lan- 
guage of, 158; Mediter- 
raneans, 153, 158 
classic, 161, 256; blondness 
of, 159, 163; brunets 
among, 160-161; charac- 
ter of, 154, 160; language 
of, 161; Nordic type of, 
162 ; physical character of, 
163; race mixture among, 
modern, 68; Alpines among, 
65; language of, 163; 
physical character of, 162- 
Greenland, 211. 
Gregory, Pope, 230. 
Grenelle race, 116, 132, 136, 138, 

Gulf States, Negroes in, 76. 
Giinz glaciation, 101, 132. 
Giinz-Mindel glaciation, 132. 
Gustavus Adolphus, 210. 

Hair, of the head, 33; character 
of, 33-34- 

Hair color, 13, 24, 25, 28, 32, 35, 
135. 168, 175. 

Hairiness, 31, 168; of the Ainus, 
224; of the Australoids, 224; 
of the Scandinavians, 224. 

Haiti, 76, 77. 

Hallstatt iron culture, 129, 130- 

Hamitic peoples, 152; speech, 

Hannibal, 217. 

Hanover, 73. 

Hapsburg, House of, 183; Ferdi- 
nand of, 187. 

Harold, King of England, 120. 

Hebrew chronology, 4. 

Heidelberg jaw, 102; man, 106, 

118, 133. 

Hellas, ancient civilization of, 
153, 160, 215; conquered by 
Macedon, 161-162. 

Hellenes, 68, 158-163, 215, 243; 
language of, 233-234. 

Hellenic colonies, 165; language, 
233-234; states, 165. 

Henry VIII, 183. 

Henry the Fowler, 142. 

Heredity, 4, 13 et seq.; in relation 
to environment, 16; unaltera- 
ble, 16-19. 

Heroes, blondness of, 159, 229. 

Heruli, 177. 

Hidalgo, meaning of the term, 
192. ( 

High German, and Teutonized 
Alpines, 189; and Celtic ele- 
ments, 189; High German peo- 
ple, 73; High and Low Ger- 
man, 258. 

Highlanders, Scottish, 62. 

Highlands, Goidelic speech in, 
250; language of, 247. 

Himalayas, western, 22; Alpines 
in, 134- 

Hindu Kush, 20, 256; Alpines in, 

Hindus, 18, 21, 70, 159, 216; 



Aryan speech of, 67; languages 
of, 148, 216, 257. 

Hindustan, 67, 70, 148-149, 255; 
Mediterraneans in, 149; Nor- 
dic invaders of, 67, 70; physi- 
cal types of, 257; whites in, 

Hittite empire, 256; language, 


Hittites, ancestors of the Ar- 
menians, 239; and iron, 129. 

Hiung-Nu, 224. 

Hohenstaufen emperors, 186. 

Holland, 26, 73, 182, 210; Al- 
pines in, 136; bronze in, 127; 
Nordics in, 188, 210. 

Hollanders, related to Anglo- 
Saxons of England, 80. 

Holstein, 73. 

Holy Roman Empire, 182, 184. 

Homer, 159, 189. 

Homeric-Mycenaean civilization, 


Homo, 32, 33, 167; eoanthropus, 
105-106; europcBus, 167; heidel- 
bergensis, 102, 106, 118; pithe- 
canthropus, 101. 

Horse, 112. 

"House of Refuge," 115. 

Hudson Bay Company, 9. 

Huguenots, exterminated in 
France, 53: in exile, 53; in 
America, 84. 

Humboldt, skull of, 226. 

Hungarian nation, 59. 

Hungarians, 143; modern, 145. 

Hungary, 144; Alpines and Nor- 
dics in, 210; early Nordics in, 
131; independent, 59; lan- 
guages in, 236; Saxons in, 201 ; 
Slavs in, 131. 

Huns, 176. 

Hunting, 113, 122. 

Hybridism, 14, 17, 18, 60, 188. 

Iberian language, 194, 235. 
Iberian Peninsula, Aryan lan- 

guage in, 192; Mediterraneans 
in, 152, 156; states, 60. 

Iberian subspecies, 20, 148 
(see Mediterranean race); as 
substratum in British Isles, 
249; in England, 201; in Ire- 
land, 201. 

Iberian type or race, 148, 202 
(see Mediterranean race); re- 
surgence of, in Scotland, 249. 

Iberians, 68, 156, 193, 201, 249. 

Iceland, 211. 

Illyria, stature in, 190. 

Illyrian language, 164; origin of, 


Illyrians, mixed with Slavs, 153, 

Immigrants, 71, 74, 84, 100, 218; 
Americanization of, 90-9 1 ; and 
American institutions and en- 
vironment, 90; in America, II, 
12, 84, 86-92, 209, 2ii, 218; 
German and Irish, 84, 86, 87; 
large families among, 47; Nor- 
wegian, 211; Scandinavian, 
211; skulls of, 17; Teutonic 
and Nordic types of, 184. 

Immigration, and decline of 
American birth rate, 91; Ger- 
man, in Brazil, 78; Italian, in 
Brazil, 78; Japanese and Chi- 
nese, 79; result of, in the 
United States, II, 12, 89-94. 

Immigration Commission, Con- 
gressional, report of, 17. 

Immutability of characters, 15, 

Imperial idea, 182; of Germany, 

Implements, bronze, 121, 122; 
copper, 125: flint, 103-104; 
wide diffusion of, 128. 

Incineration, 128. 

Increase of native Americans, 
88, 89; and immigration, 89. 

India, 22, 33, 66, 78, 119, 171, 
241, 261; Aryan languages in, 



173, 216, 237, 257-261; con- 
quering classes in, 70, 71; 
Dravidians in, 148; fossil de- 
posits in, 101 ; Mediterraneans 
in, 150-151, 261; Negroids in, 
149; Nordics in, 257; physical 
types of, 257; Pre-Dravidians 
in, 149; prehistoric remains in, 
101; race mixture in, 150; 
Saca in, 257-258; Sanskrit 
introduced into, 216; selection 
in, 150; whites in, 78. 

Indian languages, 173, 216, 237, 

Indians, 9, 18, 23, 33, 55, 65, 76, 
77, 85, 87. 

Individualism, 12. 

Indo-European race, 3, 66; Indo- 
Germanic race, 3, 66; Indo- 
Iranian group of Aryan lan- 
guages, 261. 

Inequality, law of nature, 79. 

Inheritance of genius, 15, 18, 98. 

Inhumation, 128. 

Inquisition, in selection, 53. 

Instep, as race character, 31. 

Intellect, privilege of, 6. 

Interglacial periods, 102, 104, 
105, 133- 

Invaded countries, effect on lan- 
guage and population in, 70- 


Ionia, Pelasgians in, 160. 

Ionian language, 163-164, 243. 

Ionians, 159. 

Iran, Alpines in, 134, 261. 

Iranian, division of Aryan lan- 
guages, 255, 259, 261; pla- 
teaux, 116, 238. 

Ireland, 59; Alpines in, 128; 
blond elements in, 63, 201; 
Celtic language in, 247; con- 
nection of, by land, with 
Britain, 199; Danes in, 201; 
Erse language in, 247; Goidelic 
element in, 201 ; Goidelic in- 
vasion of, 199, 200; Goidelic 

speech in, 200; Goidels leave 
Ireland for Scotland, 250; 
Iberian substratum in, 201; 
Mediterraneans in, 203; Nor- 
dics in, 201 ; Paleolithic man 
in, 202-203; Paleolithic rem- 
nants in, 108; religion in, 203; 
severed from England, 128. 

Irish, 29, 58; immigrants, II, 86, 
87; instability and versatility 
of, 229; intellectual inferiority 
of, 203; Neanderthal type of, 
108; race elements in, 63, 64, 
175, 201-203, 22 9; r ed hair 
of, 175; stature of, 29. 

Irish Canadians, 1 1 ; Irish Cath- 
olic immigrants to America, 
84, 86, 87; Irish coasts, Norse 
language on, 249-250; Irish 
immigrants in the Civil War, 
87; Irish language, Pre-Aryan 
syntax of, 204, 249; Irish na- 
tional movement, 58, 64; Irish 
recruits, pigmentation of, 202 ; 
Irish type, 202. 

Iron, 123, 124, 129, 132; discov- 
ery and effect of, 129; fabulous 
value of, 126; first appearance 
of, 121; in Asia Minor, 129; 
in eastern Europe, 129; in 
Egypt, 129 ; in western Europe, 
130; weapons, 126, 159, 200. 

Iroquois, 85. 

Islam, 59. 

Isle of Man, language of, 247. 

Italia Irredenta Movement, 58. 

Italians, 68, 91; decline of, 217; 
descended from slaves, 216; 
loss in war, 216; (south) im- 
migrants in Brazil, 78 ; (south) 
mixture of, 71; related to the 
Berbers, 152. 

Italy, 29, 120; Alpines in, 64, 
127, 139-140, 157; and the 
Huguenots, 53; bronze in, 127; 
introduction of, from Crete, 
128; Eneolithic Period in, 121, 



128; Gauls in, 174, 225; Goths 
in, 157; Lake dwellings in, 139; 
languages in, 234, 244; Lom- 
bards in, 157, 180; Mediter- 
raneans in, 29, 123, 152, 157- 
158; mercenaries in, 135; My- 
cenaean culture in, 164; Nor- 
dics in, 42, 145, 157, 173, 174. 
180, 189, 215, 220-221, 269- 
271; Ostrogoths in, 180; races 
in the north, 157, 189; races in 
the south, 158; Terramara 
Period in, 122; Teutons in, 
176, 180; slaves in, 218; 
Saxons in, 201 ; Umbrians and 
Oscans in, 173; under Austria, 
183; unification of, 56, 57. 
Ivory carving, 112. 

Jamaica, population of, 76. 

Japan, Ainus of, 224. 

Japanese, 1 1 ; in California and 
Australia, 79. 

Java, connection of with main- 
land, 101 ; prehistoric remains 
in, 101. 

Jews, 16-18, 82, 91, 227. 

Jutes, 177. 

Jutland, 200. 

Kalmucks, 144. 

Kassites, 214, 239; language of, 
239; Aryan names among, 253. 

Kentish dialect, related to Fris- 
ian and Taal, 80. 

Kentucky, 39, 40. 

Kiptchak, 254. 

Kirghizes, 259. 

Kitchen Middens, 123. 

Kurd, 100. 

Kurdish dialect, 255. 

Kurgans, Russian, 265. 

Lacedaemonian power, 160. 
Ladin language, 244. 
Lake Dwellers, 121, 123, 139; 
physical characters of, 139. 

Lake Dwellings, 132; bronze in, 

Languages, 3, 4, 233-263; and 
nationality, 56-57; changes in, 
249-252; through superposi- 
tion, 204; in invaded countries, 
70; a measure of culture, 240; 
nationalities founded on, 56, 
57; no indication of race,**6o- 
68. See also under various 

Languedoc, Mediterraneans in, 
156; Nordics in, 180. 

Langue d'oll, 140, 180, 244. 

Lapps, language of, 234, 236. 

La Tene culture, 131; Period, 
130-132, 266. 

Latifundia, 218. 

"Latin America," 61. 

Latin language, 69; ancestral 
forms of, 234; derivation of, 
244; descendants of, 244; in 
Gaul, 182, 251; in Normandy, 
251; in Spain, 156; limiting 
Western Roman Empire on 
the east, 179; Teutons adopt it 
in Artois and Picardy, 210; 
Vlachs in Thrace adopt it, 246; 
Latin nations, 61; race, 3, 61, 
76, 154; stock, 61; type, 76. 

Latins, struggle of with Etruria, 


Leaders and genius, 98. 

Legendary characters and physi- 
cal types, 229-230. 

Leonardo da Vinci, 215. 

Lettish language, 212, 242. 

Levant, Hellenization of, 162, 

Libya, 152. 

Libyans, blondness of, 223; in- 
vade Egypt, 223. 

Liguria, Mediterraneans in, 152, 

Ligurian language, 140, 234. 
Lips, as race character, 31. 



Literary characters and physical 
types, 229-230. 

Lithuanian language, 212, 242. 

"Litus Saxonicum," 252. 

Livonian language, 236. 

Livonians, or Livs, 236. 

Lombards, 73, 142, 145, 177, 271 ; 
in Italy, 157, 180; overthrow 
of, by Franks, 181, 191. 

Lombardy, 25, 35, 183; Nordics 
in, 189, 221. 

London, 29, 153. 

Long skulls in India, 261. 

Lorraine, 182; Alpines in, 140. 

Low Countries and the Hugue- 
nots, 53. 

Low German language, 258 ; and 
the Nordics, 188-189. 

Low German people, 73. 

Lower Paleolithic, 104-106, 132. 

Loyalists, 6. 

Lusitania (Portugal), occupied 
by the Suevi, 180. 

Luxemburg, 183. 

Macedon, 161-162. 

Macedonian dynasties, 162. 

Macedonians, mixed with Asiat- 
ics, 161-162. 

Magdalenian bow, 112-113; 
Period, 105, ill, 112, 114, 115, 
132; art, 114. 

Magi, 254. 

Maglemose culture, 117, 123, 
132, 169, 265. 

Magna Gracia, 158. 

Magyar language, 236, 244. 

Magyars, 143, 144. 

Malay Peninsula, Negroids in, 

Male, as indicating the trend of 
the race, 27. 

Man, ancestry of, 104-118; ar- 
boreal, 101; ascent of, 97-98; 
classification of, 32; definition 
of, 104; earliest skeletal evi- 
dence of, in Europe, 101, 102; 

evolution of, 101 ; phases of 
development of , 101-103; place 
of origin, 100; predisposition 
to mismate, 22 ; race, language, 
and nationality of, 3, 4; three 
distinct subspecies of, in Eu- 
rope, 19-22. 

Manx language, 247. 

Marcomanni, 177. 

Maritime architecture, 165, 199. 

Marius, 177, 217. 

Marriages between contrasted 
races, 60. 

Mas d'Azil, 115, 265. 

Massachusetts, genius produced 
in, 99. 

Massageta? (see Sacae), 214, 254, 
257, 270; physical characters 
of, 259. 

Massif Central, 141. 

Medes, 173, 216, 254; Nordics in 
the Empire of, 254. 

Media, 147; language of, 239; 
introduction of Aryan lan- 
guage into, 254; Nordics in, 


Mediaeval Europe, 10, 52, 179- 
188. See also Middle Ages. 

Medic language (see Media, also 
Zendic language), 255. 

Mediterranean basin, 89, in, 
123; immigrants from to 
America, 89. 

Mediterranean race, or sub- 
species, 20, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 
31, 34, 66, 68, 69, in, 134, 
145, 148-167, 226; and Alpine 
race, 146, 181; and ancient 
civilization, 153, 214-215; and 
Aryan speech, 155, 233, 235, 
237-238, 257; and Celtic lan- 
guage, 247-251; and Gauls, 
156; and Negroes, 151; and 
Negritos, 151; and synthetic 
languages, 237; as sailors, 227- 
228; classic civilization due to, 
!53» 165-166; Celticized, 248; 



crossed with Goidels, 248; de- 
scription of, 20, 148; distribu- 
tion of, 148-149, 241 ; distribu- 
tion in the Neolithic, 123, 148- 
149; in the Paleolithic, 147; 
to-day, 20, 148 seq., 152, 167, 
273; habitat of, 44, 45; hair of, 
20, 26, 31, 34; expansion of, 
266; eye color of, 20; fore- 
runners of, 117; handsomest 
types of, 158; in Afghanistan, 
148; Africa, 148, 151-152, 155; 
Algeria, 44; America, 44, 45; 
Arabia, 153; Argentine, 78; 
Asia, 148-150, 257; Azilian 
Period, 117; Baluchistan, 148; 
Britain (see also British Isles 
and England), 123, 149, 247- 
249; British Isles, 137, 149- 
153, 177 (Pre-Nordic), 153, 
198-199, 247; Bronze Age, 
128, 155; Eastern Bulgaria, 
145; Canada, 44; Ceylon, 148; 
cities, 94, 209; north and 
western Europe, 149, 155; 
Egypt, 148; England, or the 
British Isles, 64, 83, 123, 127, 
137, 149, 150, 153, 208-210, 
249; France, 44, 149, 156, 194, 
197; Greece, 158-161; Iberian 
Peninsula, 152, 156; India, 66, 
148, 150, 257, 261; Italy, 122, 
127, 157, 158; Languedoc, 156; 
Liguria, 152, 157; Morocco, 
148; Nile Valley, 151; Paleo- 
lithic Period, 149; Persia, 66, 
148; Po Valley, 157; Provence, 
156; Rome, 153-154; Sahara, 
151; Scotland, 150, 153, 203- 
204 ; Senegambian regions, 151; 
i n Sicily, 1 58 ; in South America , 
78; in Spain, 149, 151, 155-156, 
192; in the Terramara Period, 
122; in Wales, 62,63, 153, 177, 
203, 205; increasing in Amer- 
ica, 45; language of, 155-158, 
233; (in Spain, Italy, and 

France, 238); knowledge of 
metallurgy, 146; mental char- 
acteristics of, 229; mixed with 
Celts, 177; with Dra vidians, 
150; with Gauls, 192; with 
Negroids, 150, 241; with Nor- 
dics, 161 ; with other ethnic 
elements, 149-166; never in 
Scandinavia, 150-151; not in 
the Alps, 149, 151; not purely 
European, 155, 241; origin of, 
241; original language of, 235; 
physical characters of, 34, 117, 
134, 148; racial aptitudes of, 
228-229; ri3e °fi m Europe, 
190; route of migration of, 155; 
resurgence of, 190, 196; in 
England, 83, 208; skulls of, 20, 
24, 117, 134; stature of, 20, 29; 
underlying the Alpines and 
Nordics', in western Europe, 
150; victims of tuberculosis, 
45; yielding to the Alpines at 
the present time, 177; Proto- 
Mediterraneans, 132, 149, 150. 

Mediterranean Sea, 71, 89, 111, 
117, 123, 148, 155, 165, 179. 

Megalithic monuments, 128-129; 
distribution of, 155, 265. 

Melanesians, 33. 

Melting Pot, 16, 263. 

Mendelian characters, 13. 

Mercenaries, 135, 216. 

Mesaticephaly, 19. 

Mesopotamia, 147, 239; chron- 
icles of, 253; city states of, 1 19; 
copper in, 125; culture syn- 
chronous with the northern 
Neolithic, 125; earliest fixed 
date of, 126. 

Messapian language, 234. 

Messina, Pelasgians in, 160. 

Mesvinian river terraces, 133. 

Metallurgy, 120, 122, 123, 125- 
132, 146, 238-240, 267. 

Metals, 120-132. 

Mexican War, 86. 



Mexico, 17, 76; peons of, 9. 

Michael Angelo, 215. 

Microliths, 113. 

Middle Ages, 65, 135, 156, 183, 
185, 189, 197, 202, 227; civili- 
zation of, 165; elimination of 
good strains of, 52-53. 

Middle Paleolithic Period, 104, 
106, 132. 

Middle West, settlement of by 
poor whites, 40. 

Migrating types, 10, 208. 

Mikklegard, 179. 

Mindel glaciation, 133. 

Mindel-Riss Interglacial stage, 
102, 133. 

Minoan culture of Crete, 99, 164; 
Minoan Empire, 164. 

Miocene Period, 101-102. 

Miscegenation, 60. 

Mississippi, 99; black belt of, 76. 

Missouri, 40; river, 40. 

Mitanni, 214; Aryan names 
among, 253; Empire of, 239. 

Mixture of races, 18, 34, 60; see 
also race mixture. 

Mohammedan invasion of Eu- 
rope, 181. 

Moldavia, Vlachs in, 246. 

Mongolian elements in Europe, 


Mongolians, see Mongols. 

Mongoloid race, 33, 144, 237; 
hair of, 34; invasions of Eu- 
rope by, 65, 259-260, 272. 

Mongols, 31, 33, 34, 65, 134, 139, 
144, 224, 241, 260; crossed 
with Ainus, 225; crossed with 
Esquimaux, 225; in Russia, 65. 

Monosyllabic languages, 240. 

Moors, in Spain, 156, 181, 192. 

Moral, intellectual and physical 
characters, race differences in, 
226 et seq. 

Mordvins, 144. 

Morocco, bronze in, 128; Medi- 
terranean race in, 148. 

Mosaics, 13. 
Moscovy, 212. 
Moslems in Europe, 181. 
Mound burials, 129. 
Mousterian Period, 104, 106-107, 

Muscovite expansion in Europe, 

Mycenae, ancient civilization of, 


Mycenaean civilization, 159, 161, 
164; culture, of Crete, 164; of 
Greece, 99; of Sardinia, 164. 

Myrmidons, 159. 

Napoleon, 186. 

Napoleonic Wars, 197. 

National consciousness of Ameri- 
cans, 90. 

National movements, 57, 58; 
types, absorption of higher by 
lower, 58, 59. 

Nationalities, formed around 
language and religion, 57, 58. 

Nationality, 3, 4; artificial group- 
ing, 56; and language, 56-68. 

Navigation, development of , 165, 

Neanderthal man, 15, 104-107, 
in, 114, 118, 132; habits of, 
107; race characters of, 107; 
remnants or survivals of, 15, 
107-108; skull of, 15, 107-108. 

Neanderthaloids, 106-107; rem- 
nants of, 114. 

Negritos, and Mediterraneans, 
151 ; as substratum in southern 
Asia, 148-149. 

Negroes, 16, 18, 23, 24, 31, 33, 
34, 40, 65, 76, 80, 88, 152; 
African, 80; American, pro- 
venience of, 82; and genius, 
109; and the Mediterranean 
race, 151-152; and socialism, 
87; citizenship of, 218; hair of, 
34; in Africa, 23, 24, 33, 79, 80; 
America, 82; Brazil, 78; Haiti, 



76, 77; Mexico, 76; New Eng- 
land, 86; South America, 76, 
78 ; Southern States, 42 ; United 
States, 16, 40, 65, 76, 82, 85- 
87, 99; West Indies, 76; Nor- 
dic blood in, 82; rapid multi- 
plication of, 79; replacing 
whites in the South, 76-78; a 
servient race, 87, 88; station- 
ary character of their devel- 
opment, 77. 

Negroids, 33, III, 149; crossed 
with Mediterraneans, 150, 241, 
257; hair of, 34; (in India) 
physical character of, 261. 

Neo-Celtic languages, 248. 

Neo-Latin, 250. 

Neolithic (New Stone Age), 29, 
105, 136, 139. 148, 157, 169, 
199, 205, 213-214, 248; Beaker 
Makers in, 138; beginning of, 
118-122; duration of, 121; 
distribution of races during, 
123-124; in western Europe, 
121; northern Neolithic con- 
temporary with southern 
Bronze, 129; Pre-Neolithic, 
117, 207; Upper or Late Neo- 
lithic, 121, 132; and writing, 

Neolithic ancestors of the Proto- 
Mediterraneans, 149; invasion 
of the Alpines, 138. 

Nero, 217. 

New England, 11, 38, 41, 55; 
immigrants in, 11, 72; lack 
of race consciousness in, 86; 
Negro in, 86; Nordic in Co- 
lonial times, 83; race mixture 
in, 72; settlers of, 83. 

New England type, 83. 

New France, Catholic colonies 
in, 85. 

New Spain, Catholic colonies in, 

New Stone Age, 119; see Neo- 

New York, 5, 41, 80; immigrants 
in, 91, 92. 

New Zealand, whites in, 79. 

Nile river, 80; Nile valley, Medi- 
terraneans in, 151. 

Nobility (French), Oriental and 
Mediterranean strains in, 197. 

Nomads, 10, 209, 258, 259; see 
also migratory types. 

Non-Aryan, 204. See Anaryan. 

Nordic aristocracy, 213; see also 
aristocracy; in Austria, 141; 
Britain, 247 ; eastern Germany, 
141; France, 140, 196-197; 
Gaul, 247; Germany, 187; 
Greece, 153; Italy, 215; Lom- 
bardy, 189; Persia, 254; Rome, 
154; Russia, 142; Spain, 192, 
247; southern Europe, 188; 
Venice, 189; loss of through 
war, 191. 

Nordic broodland, 141, 213 et 
seq.; Nordic conquerors of In- 
dia, 71, 216; fatherland, 213- 
222; immigrants to America, 
211; invaders of Italy, 215; 
invasions of Asia, 257-259; 
nations, 142. 

Nordic race, or subspecies, 20, 
24, 31, 61, 131, 133, 149, 151, 
167-178; adventurers, pioneers 
and sailors, 74; affected by the 
actinic rays, 84; allied to the 
Mediterraneans, 24; depleted 
by war, 73-74; a European 
type, 167; in the Great War, 
168; habitat of, 37-38; hair of, 
34; in Italy, 42; in the sub- 
tropics and elsewhere outside 
of its native habitat, 41-42; 
location of, in Roman times, 
131; mixed with Alpines, 25, 
35-36, 135-136; mixed with 
other types in the United 
States, 82-94; passing of, 168; 
physical character of, 20, 26, 
2 7i 29, 31, 32, 167-168; at the 



present time, 168; racial apti- 
tudes of, 226-228; red-haired 
branch of, 32. 

Nordic stature, 29. 

Nordic substratum in eastern 
Germany and Poland, 141; 
in Russia, 172. 

Nordic troops of Philip and Alex- 
ander, 161. 

Nordic type, 40; among native 
Americans, 88; in California, 
75; in Scotland, 249. 

Nordic vice, 55. 

Nordics, 58, 61, 72, 129; absorp- 
tion of by conquered nations, 
176; and alcoholism, 55; and 
consumption, 55; and Low 
German, 188-189; an d Aryan 
languages, 240-242 ; and Proto- 
Slavic languages, 143; and 
specialized features, 92 ; around 
the Caspian-Aral Sea, 214; 
among the Amorites, 223; 
among the Philistines, 223; 
as mercenaries, 155, 216; as 
officers, 142; as raiders, 130; 
Celtic dialects of, 157, 194; 
Celtic and Teutonic Nordics, 
139; centre of evolution of, 
169-171; checked by the 
Etruscans in their advance 
southward, 157; carriers of 
Aryan speech, 234; conquer 
Alpines, 145, 147; continental, 
73; cross the Rhine westward, 
J 73> I 94i 2 4°; decline of, 190, 
196; (in England) 208-210, 
(in India) 216, (in Europe and 
Asia) 260, (in Spain) 192; 
destroyed by war, 230-231; 
distribution of, 242; early 
movements of, 253 ; energy of, 
215; expansion of, 174, 188- 
212; first, 130-132; first ap- 
pearance of along the Baltic, 
169; first appearance of in 
Scandinavia, 117; founders of 

France, England and America, 
206; in agriculture, 209; 
Africa, 223; Afghan passes, 
257; the ^Egean region, 253; 
the Alps, 151: Austria, 210; 
Asia, 214, 224; Asia Minor, 
214, 225; the Balkan Penin- 
sula, 189; the British Isles, 
188; the Caucasus, 214, 225; 
south of the Caucasus, 253- 
254; cities, 94, 209; colonies, 
84; England (Britain), 64, 137, 
188, 249; France, 188, 231; 
Flanders, 188, 210, 231; Gaul, 
69, 193-194; Germany, 170, 
174, 188, 210, 231; Europe, 
188; Hindustan, 67; Holland, 
188; Galicia, 156; Greece, 158- 
160, 214; India, 257; Ireland, 
201 ; Italy, 189, 220-221 ; Lom- 
bardy, 221; Persia, 254; Po- 
land, 188; Portugal, 192; the 
Punjab, 257-258; Rome, 154; 
Russia, 188, 214, 231; Scan- 
dinavia, 188, 210; Scotland, 
188; Spain, 156; Styria, 210; 
Thrace, 214; the Tyrol, 210; 
invade Greece, 158-160; 
landed gentry in Wales, 205; 
later in central Europe, 141; 
long skulls of, 134; loss of 
through war, 184, 191-193, 
196-197; mixed with Alpines, 
134-135, I5i» 163; with Medi- 
terraneans, 161, 192; Neo- 
lithic location of, 124; outside 
of Europe, 223-224; owners 
of fertile lands and valleys, 
141; physical characters of, 
214; Protestants, 228; reach 
the MediterraneanjjSea through 
the Alpines, 145, id**; seize the 
Po valley, 157. 

Norman language, spoken by 
French Canadians, 81. 

Norman type, in England and 
America, 207. 



Normandy, 23, 206; conquest of, 
196; Belgae in, 251; change of 
language in, 251; Cymric lan- 
guage in, 251 ; Latin speech in, 
251; Normans in, 252; Norse 
pirates in, 70; ravaged by 
Saxons, 251-252. 

Normans, 201, 206-207; char- 
acters of in Sicily, 207; eccle- 
siastics among, 208; in Britain, 
249; in England, 252; language 
of, 252; racial aptitudes of, 
207-208 ; racial mixture among, 
208; settle Normandy, 252; 
transformation of, 252. 

Norse, along the Atlantic coasts, 
180; Norse blood of American 
settlers, 83; Norse in Britain, 
200, 249; in Ireland, 64; in 
Scotland, 203; Norsemen, 201 ; 
Norse pirates, 70 ; language of, 
250; Norse Vikings, see Vik- 

North Europeans, 67. 

North Germans, 61. 

North Sea, 20, 73, 166, 168, 171. 

Northmen, 145, 196; invasion of, 
201 ; language of, 70. 

Norway, 201; Alpines in, 136, 
2ii ; bronze in, 127; intellec- 
tual anaemia of, 210. 

Norwegian immigrants, 211. 

Nose form, 13, 30, 31. 

Of net race, 116. 

Oklahoma, 87. 

Old Persian, 254-255, 258. 

Old Prussian, 212, 242. 

Old Sanskrit, 257. 

Old Saxon (related to Frisian and 
Taal), 80. 

Old South, 42-43. 

Old Stone Age {see also Paleo- 
lithic), 120, 123. 

Oscan language, 234. 

Oscans, 157, 160, 173, 244, 269. 

Osmanli Turks, 237. 

Ossetes, 66; language of, 66. 
Ostrogoths, 176; in Italy, 180. 
Ottoman Turks, 166. 

Paintings, polychrome, 112. 

Palatine Germans, 84. 

Paleolithic Period, 23, 38; art of, 
112, 114; close of, 117, 149; 
dates of, 104; man, 104-118, 
107-108, 124, 149, 227, 247; 
in Ireland, 202 ; remnants of in 
England, 64; in Wales, 205; 
races of the Paleolithic Period, 
118; Lower Paleolithic Period, 
104-106, 133; Middle Paleo- 
lithic Period, 104, 106, 133; 
Upper Paleolithic Period, 100, 
105, 108, in, 113, 132; close 
of, 115. 

Palestine, 223; bronze weapons 
in, 127; language of, 239. 

Pamirs, the, 20, 254, 261; Al- 
pines in, 134; language of, 259. 

Pan-Germanic movement, 58. 

Pan-Rumanian movement, 58. 

Pan-Slavic movement, 58. 

Parthian language, 255. 

Patagonia, 23. 

Patricians in Rome, II, 217. 

Pax Romana, 195. 

Peasant, European, 117; see also 
under Alpines and Racial 

Pehlevi language, 255. 

Pelasgians, 158-161, 215; at 
Troy, 159; language of, 158, 
233, 243. 

Peloponnesus, 160. 

Pennsylvania Dutch, 84. 

Peons, Mexican, 9. 

Pericles, 263. 

Persia, 22, 66, 147, 171, 241, 254; 
Aryan language in, 237; Ary- 
anization of, 225; language of 
(see Old Persian), 255; Medi- 
terraneans in, 148; physical 



types in, 257; wars of with 
Greece, 255. 
Persian Empire, organization of, 


Persians, 63, 73, 161, 214, 216, 
2 53 _ 256, 269; culture of, 255; 
date of separation of, from the 
Sacae, 258; expansion of, 225; 
Hellenization of, 256; as Nor- 
dics, 255; physical character 
of, 259. 

Pharsalia, 217. 

Philip of Macedon, 161. 

Philippi, 217. 

Philippines, 33; Spanish in, 78; 
whites in, 78. 

Philistines, Nordics among, 223. 

Phoenicia, 165; ancient civiliza- 
tion of, 153. 

Phoenician language in Spain, 

Phoenicians, 228; colonies of, 126; 
in Spain, 156; voyages of, 126- 

Phrygians, 173, 225, 253, 256; 
invade Asia Minor, 159; lan- 
guage of, 256. 

Physical types and literary or 
legendary characters, 229-230; 
physical types of Normans, 
207-208; of British soldiers 
and sailors, 208; see also under 
various races. 

Picardy, 210. 

Pictish language, 204, 247. 

Picts, 204. 

Pile dwellings, 121, 127, 132. 

Piltdown man, 105-106. 

Pindus mountains, Vlachs in, 

Pioneers, 45, 74-75. 

Pithecanthropus erectus, 1 01, 133. 

Plebeians or Plebs of Rome, 11, 
154, 217-218. 

Pleistocene Period, 100. 

Pliocene Period, 22, 101. 

Po valley, Alpines in, 157; as 

Cisalpine Gaul, 157; Mediter- 
raneans in, 157; seized by Nor- 
dics, 157; Terramara settle- 
ments in, 127. 

Poetry, 241. 

Poland, 59; Alpines in, 44, 124, 
141-142; blondness in, 190; 
dolichocephaly in, 190; Nor- 
dics in, 124, 131, 170, 188-213; 
Nordic substratum in, 141; 
Slavs in, 131, 142; stature in, 

Poles, 58, 72, 143; increase in 
East Germany, 184. 

Polesia, 143. 

Polish Ghettos, immigrants from, 

Polish Jews, 16; in New York, 


Polished Stone Age, see Neo- 
lithic; beginning of, n 8-1 19. 
Polygamy, among the Turks, 


Pompey, 217. 

"Poor Whites," 39-40; physical 
types of, 40. 

Population, direction of pressure 
of, 171; effect of foreign in- 
vasion on, 69-71; infiltration 
into, of slaves or immigrants, 
71; value and efficiency of a, 

Portugal, Nordics in, 192; occu- 
pied by the Suevi, 180, 192. 

Portuguese language, 156, 244. 

Posen, 72. 

Post-Glacial Periods, 105-106, 

Post-Roman invaders of Britain, 


Pottery, 138, 146, 241; first ap- 
pearance of, 122-123. 

Pre-Aryan language, 204, 233, 
235, 247; in the British Isles, 

Pre-Dravidians, 149; physical 
character of, 261. 



Pre-Neolithic culture on the 
Baltic, 117. 

Pre-Nordic brunets in New Eng- 
land, 83. 

Pre- Nordics, 29, 63; of Ireland, 

Primates, 3, 24, 106; erect, 101. 

Pripet swamps, 143. 

Procopius, 189. 

Propontis, 179. 

Proto- Alpines, 135; language of, 
2 35"> physical characters of, 


Proto-Aryan language, 67, 233, 
242; and Alpines, 237; Nordic 
origin of, 61. 

Proto-Mediterranean Race, 132; 
descended from the Neolithic, 

Proto- Nordics, 224, 233; in Rus- 
sia, 64, 170. 

Proto-Slavic language, Aryan 
character of, 143. 

Proto- Teutonic race, 169. 

Provencal, 244; Provencal lan- 
guage, 244. 

Provencals, 156. 

Provence, 23; Mediterraneans in, 

Prussia, Spartan culture of, 161. 

Prussian, Old (Borussian), lan- 
guage, •312, 242. 

Prussians, ethnic origin of, 72. 

Punic Wars, 217. 

Punjab, the, 257; entrance of 
Aryans into, 258; decline of 
Nordics in, 261. 

Puritans, 55. 

Pyrenees, caverns of, 115. 

Quebec Frenchmen, 81. 

Race, 3, 4; Aryan, 3; Caucasian, 
3; Celtic, 3; Indo-Germanic, 3; 
Latin, 3; adjustment to habi- 
tat of, 93 ; characters, 13 et seq.; 
consciousness, 4, 57, 60, 90; in 

Germany, 57; in Sweden, 57; 
in the United States, 86; de- 
generation, 39-43, 109; deter- 
mination, 15, 19, 24, 28; dis- 
harmonic combinations of, 14, 
28, 35, no; distinguished from 
language and nationality, 34; 
effect of democracy on, 5; feel- 
ing, 222; importance of, 98- 
100; physical basis of, 13-16; 
positions of the three main 
races in Roman times, 131; 
resistance to foreign invasion, 
71; selection, 46, 50,154, 55, 
215; versus species and sub- 
species, 22. 
Race mixture, 18, 34, 60, 77, 85, 
116, 262; among the Gauls, 
145; among the Normans, 208; 
among the Turks, 237; among 
the Umbrians, 145; and civili- 
zation, 214-216; in North 
Africa, 151; in South Africa, 
80; in the Argentine, 78; in 
Brazil, 78; in Britain, 248; in 
Canada, 81; in Europe, 261- 
262; in Germany, 135; in 
Greece, 161; in Jamaica, 76; 
in large cities, 92 ; in Macedon, 
161; in Mexico, 76; in the 
Roman Empire, 71; in Rome, 
154, 220; in Russia, 174; in 
Spain, 192; in Switzerland, 
135; in the United States, 77, 
82-94; in Venezuela, 76; in 
Tunis, 158; of Alpines and 
Celts, 177; of Alpines and Nor- 
dics, 151 ; of Alpines and Medi- 
terraneans, 151; of Ainus and 
Mongols, 225; of Belgse and 
Teutonic tribes, 248; of Celts 
and Mediterraneans, 177; of 
Goidels and Mediterraneans, 
248; of Mediterraneans and 
Dra vidians and Negroids, 150; 
of Nordics and Negroes, 82; 
of late Nordics and Paleoliths, 



149; of Slavs and Illyrians, 
153, 190- 

Race supplanting, 77, 46-48, no. 

Races, European distribution of 
during the Neolithic, 123; in 
Europe, 131 ; laws of distribu- 
tion of, 37; evolution of 
through selection, 37 et seq. 

Racial, aptitudes, 226-232; of 
Alpines, 138-139, 146; of 
Negroes, 77, 109; of Normans, 
207-208 ; elements of the Great 
War, 187; resistance of accli- 
mated populations, 71; types, 
intellectual and moral differ- 
ences of, 206. 

Raphael, 215. 

Ravenna, surrender of, 189. 

Recapitulation of development 
in infants, 30. 

Reformation, the, 191, 210, 228; 
in England, 10. 

Regiments, German, composi- 
tion of, 142. 

Religion, 64; nationalities 
founded on, 57, 58. 

Renaissance, 215, 231. 

Republic, a true, 7, 8. 

Resurgence of types, 15; of Al- 
pines in Europe, 146-147, 184, 
190-191, 196, 210; of Iberians 
in Scotland, 249; of Mediter- 
raneans, 190, 196; in England, 
83, 208. 

Revolution, 6; French, 6, 16, 
191, 196, 197; German, 87. 

Revolutionary Wars, 197. 

Riss glaciation, 105, 133. 

Riss-Wurm, 105; interglacial, 


Robenhausian culture, 132; Pe- 
riod, 121; Upper, 122, 265. 

Rollo, 263. 

Romaic language, origin of, 243. 

Roman, abandonment of Britain, 
200; aristocracy, 217; busts, 
154; church, 53, 85; Empire, 

10, 71-72, 142, 176, 179-182, 
187, 217-222; component 
states of, 183; fall of, 221; 
Eastern Empire, 165-166; 
population of, 216, 220; slaves 
in, 216; Western Empire, re- 
established, 182; ideals, 153; 
occupation of Britain, effect 
of, ethnically, 200; provinces, 
Teutonized, 191; Republic, 
71, 154, 217, 219; State, an- 
cient civilization of, 153, 216; 
stature, 154; stock, extinction 
of, 51. 

Romance tongues, 61, 238, 244. 

Romans, 68, 156, 174-176, 193, 
194, 216-221, 246; decline of, 
217-222; features of, 154; in 
Britain, 200, 250; in France, 
63; in Spain, 156; a modified 
race in Gaul, 69; stature of, 


Romansch language, 244. 

Rome, 11, 52, 61, 70, 92, 130, 
154, 157, 158, 165, 179, 180, 
191, 195, 215-221, 245, 251; 
Alpines, Nordics and Mediter- 
raneans in, 130, 153, 154; 
change of race in, 218-220; 
change of religion in, 219; 
early struggles in, 154; in 
Dacia, 245; language of, 61, 
70; Northern qualities of, 153- 
154; race mixture in, 154, 220; 
slaves in, 71, 100, 216, 218- 
220; stormed by Brennus, 157. 

Rough Stone Age, see Paleo- 

Round Barrows, 1 37-1 38, 163, 
247, 267; brachycephalic sur- 
vivals of, 163-164. 

Round skulls, absence of in 
Britain, 249. See also physi- 
cal characters of the Alpines, 
Armenoids, etc. 

Rumania, 59, 245; Alpines in, 65; 
Mediterraneans in, 153. 



Rumanian language, 244-246; 
origin of, 244-245; distribu- 
tion of, 245. 

Rumanians, 21, 145; and Chris- 
tianity, 65; descent of, 244- 
246; Latin language of, 244- 

Russia, 38, 143, 253; Alans and 
Goths in, 66; Alpines in, 44, 
131, 136, 142-144, 147; An- 
aryan survivals in, 235, 243; 
Asiatic types in, 144; Baltic 
provinces of, Nordic, 212; 
blondness in, 190; Bulgars 
from, 145; burial mounds or 
kurgans in, 172; changes m 
racial predominance in, 142- 
144, 147; dolichocephaly in, 
190; early Nordics in, 124, 131, 
142; Esthonians in, 236; Finns 
in, 236; Gauls in, 174; grass- 
lands and steppes of, 240, 253- 
254, 2 57". language in, 235-236, 
243; Livs in, 236; Mongols in, 
65, 142; Muscovite expansion 
in, 65; Nordic substratum in, 
64, 142; Nordics in, 170, 188, 
213-214, 231; organized by 
Sweden, 180; race mixture in, 
174; races in, 142; Saxons in, 
201; Slavs or Alpines in, 64, 
131, 142; Slavic dialects in, 
143; Slavic future of, 147; stat- 
ure in, 190; Swedes in, 211; 
Varangians in, 177; water con- 
nections across, 170. 

Russian brachycephaly, 136- 
137; settlements of Siberia, 

Russians and Christianity, 65. 

Ruthenia, 245; Slavs in, 143. 

Sacae, 173, 214, 216, 254 (see 
Massagetae); date of separa- 
tion from Persia, 258 ; evidence 
of conquests of, 261 ; identified 
with the Wu-Suns, 260; in In- 

dia, 257-258; language of, 259; 
physical characters of, 259, 

Sahara, the, 33, 44; Mediter- 
raneans in, 1 51-152. 

St. Bartholomew, Massacre of, 

Sakai, 149. 

Sangre Azul, derivation of the 
term, 192. 

Sanskrit, 148, 243, 255, 257-258, 
261; introduction of into In- 
dia, 173, 216. See Old San- 

Santa Fe Trail, 40. 

Sardinia, 29; Mediterraneans in, 
152; Mycenaean culture of, 164. 

Sardinian, the, 28; stature of, 28. 

Sarmatians, 143, 245, 269, 272. 

Satem group of Aryan languages, 

Saviour, the, blondness of, 230. 

Savoy, Alpines in, 146. 

Savoyard, 21, 23. 

Saxon blood of American settlers, 
83; in Normandy and Scot- 
land, 208; Saxon type, 40. 

Saxons, 69, 73, 141-142, 145, 177, 
180, 195, 206; in Britain, 248- 
249; in Brittany, 251-252; in 
England, 200-201; in France, 
201 ; in Hungary, 201 ; in Italy, 
201; in Russia, 201; invaders, 
201; invasions of, 200-201, 
252, 270; origin of, 200; ravage 
Normandy, 251-252. 

Saxony, 73, 200-201. 

Scandinavia, brunets in, 151; 
centre of radiation of the Teu- 
tons, 168; character of the 
population of, 169; first Nor- 
dics in, 117, 124, 169; first oc- 
cupation of by human beings, 
169; introduction of bronze 
into, 128; megaliths in, 155; 
Mediterraneans never in, 150- 
151; Neolithic culture in, 117, 



122; Nordics in, 117, 124, 188, 

Scandinavian blood in Nor- 
mandy and Scotland, 208; 
place names in Scotland, 249; 
states, 4, 20, 60. 

Scandinavians, 61, 68; hairiness 
of, 224. 

Schleswig, 58, 73. 

Sclaveni, 141. 

Scotch, 29; brunet type of, 150; 
red hair of, 175; stature of, 28, 

Scotch borders, 40; Highlanders, 

Scotch-Irish in America, 84. 

Scotland, 40, 69; Angles in, 203; 
blond elements in, 63; blonds 
mixed with brunets in, 202; 
brunetness in, 153, 204; Bry- 
thonic elements in, 203; Gaelic 
area in, 249; Goidelic element 
in, 201, 203; Goidelic speech 
in, 200; Goidels invade from 
Ireland, 250; Iberian substra- 
tum in, 201 ; language in, 204, 
249-250; Mediterraneans in, 
J 53» 2 °3I Neanderthal type in, 
107; Nordic type in, 249; 
Nordics in, 188; Norse pirates 
in, 200, 203 ; racial elements in, 
203-204, 208; resurgence of 
types in, especially the Iberian, 
249 ; Scandinavian place names 
in, 249. 

Scots, 28. 

Scottish Highlands, language of, 

Scythians, 66, 214, 257. 

Selection, 37, 46-55, 215, 225; 
by elimination of the unfit, 
50-54; in Colonial times, 92; 
in colonies, 93; in tenements 
and factories, 92; practical 
measures in, 46-55; through 
alcoholism, 55; through dis- 

ease, 54-55; through social 
environment, 46. 

Seljukian Turks, 237. 

Semitic language, 239; race, 147. 

Senegambian regions, Mediter- 
raneans in, 151. 

Senlac Hill, 120. 

Serbian national revival, 58. 

Serbs, 53, 143; and Christianity, 
65; in Bulgaria, 145. 

Serfs and serfdom, 10. 

Servile wars in Rome, 217. 

Ship-building, 165, 199. 

Siberia, Russian settlements of, 

Siberian tundras, 65. 

Sicily, Alpines in, 128, 140; 
Mediterraneans in, 158; Nor- 
mans in, 207. 

Sidon, 126, 165. 

Sikhs, 261. 

Silesia, 72, 260. 

Sinai Peninsula, mines of, 125. 

Singalese, 258. 

Siwalik Hills, fossil deposits of, 

Skin color and quality, 27-28. 

Skull shape, 13, 15, 17, 19, 139, 
226; among immigrants, 17; 
antiquity of distinction be- 
tween long and round, 23, 24; 
as a race character, 151 ; of the 
Ainus, 224 ; African, 23 ; Ameri- 
can Indian, 23; Asiatic, 22; 
Cro-Magnon, no; European, 
19-21; Neanderthal, 107; best 
method of determining race, 
19-24; see also Brachyceph- 
aly, Dolichocephaly, Mesati- 
cephaly, and the physical char- 
acters of the various races. 

Slave trade, 79. 

Slavery, 8-1 1, 42, 86. 

Slaves, 9-11, 16; in Italy, 218; 
in Rome, 71, 100, 216, 218, 
220; source of, 82, 200. 

Slavic Alpines in Germany, 72; 



homeland, 245; languages, 
141-145, 238-237, 244-245; 
Proto-Slavic, 143; race, 64, 
72; as an Alpine race, 64, 131. 

Slavs, 63, 64, 124, 172, 190; of 
Alpine race, 64, 131; area of 
distribution of, 143; expansion 
of, 272; in Austria, 141 ; in the 
Balkans, 153; eastern Europe, 
65; eastern Germany, 1 41-142, 
Greece, 65; Middle Ages, 65; 
Poland, 142; Russia, 214; 
mixed with Illyrians, 153, 190; 
northern and southern, 143. 

Slovaks, 91, 143. 

Social environment, 46. 

Social wars in Rome, 217. 

Socialism, 12, 79. 

Socrates, 227. 

Sogdiana, 254. 

Solutrean Period, 105, m-113; 
culture of and the Brunn- 
Pfedmost race, 114, 132; and 
the Cro-Magnon race, 132. 

Sorb, 142. 

South Africa, 79, 80; Dutch and 
English in, 80. 

South America, 61, 73, 75, 76, 78. 

Southern States of America, 71, 
99; brunets in, 84; Mediter- 
ranean element in, 44, 45: 
Nordic type in, 83, 84; "poor 
whites" of, 39, 40; race con- 
sciousness in, 86. 

Southerners, effect of climate on, 

Spain, 115, 149, 176, 202; Al- 
pines in, 140; Arabic spoken 
in, 156; Arabs in, 156; aris- 
tocracy of, 192; Basques in, 
140; blondness in, 192; bow 
and arrow of the Azilians in, 
115; cause of the collapse of, 
193; caverns in, 112; Celtic 
language in, 155, 234; decline 
of the Nordic element in, 193; 
elimination of genius-produc- 

ing classes in, 53; Gauls in, 
174, 192; Gothic language in, 
156; Goths in, 192; Latin lan- 
guage in, 156; Mediterraneans 
in, 123, 149, 152, 155-156; 
megaliths in, 155; Moorish 
conquest of, 181; Moors in, 
156; Nordics in, 155-156, 174, 
192-193, 269; Phoenician lan- 
guage in, 156; Phoenicians in, 
126, 156; racial change in, 192; 
Romans in, 156; Teutons in, 
180; tin mines in, 126; types 
in, 156; Vandals in, 192; Visi- 
goths in, 180, 192. 

Spaniards or Spanish (modern), 
53, 68; (ancient), 68; in Mex- 
ico, 17; and Nordics, 73; in the 
Philippines, 78; related to the 
Berbers, 152. 

Spanish conquistadores, 76, 193; 
infantry, 193; Inquisition in 
selection, 53; Spanish Main, 
44; islands and coasts of, 76; 
Spanish-American War, 74. 

Sparta, 160, 162. 

Spartans, 160, 164; and Dinaric 
race, 164; physical character 
of, 164. 

Specializations, racial, recent, 37, 
18, 24. 

Species, significance of the term, 
21, 22. 

Stature, 13, 28-30, 35; affected 
by war, 197-198; of the Ro- 
mans, 154; in Albania, 190; 
in France, 198; in Illyria and 
the Tyrol, 190; in the Scottish 
Highlands, 28-29, 20 3'< m Sar- 
dinia, 28-29. 

Sterilization of the unfit, 51, 52. 

Stoicism, 221. 

Stone weapons in England, 120- 
121. For Stone Ages see Neo- 
lithic and Paleolithic. 

Styria, 183; Alpines in, 210; 
Nordics in, 210. 



Suevi, 156, 177, 181, 270; in 

Portugal, 180, 192. 
Sumer, 119, 147; language of, 


Susa, 147; language of, 239. 

Swabians, 141. 

Sweden, 52, 59, 176, 194, 211; 
centre of Nordic purity, 168, 
170; colonizes Finland, 211; 
colonizes Russia, 211; cradle of 
Teutonic branch of the Nor- 
dics, 124, 177; bronze intro- 
duced into, 137; first Nordics 
in, 117; intellectual anaemia of, 
210; Kitchen Middens in, 123; 
Nordic race in, 117, 124, 135- 
136, 168-170, 210-21 1 ; race 
consciousness in, 57; saves 
Protestantism, 210; unity of 
race in, 169. 

Swedes, 23 ; organization of Rus- 
sia by, 180; Russification of, 

Swiss, 135; blondness of, 136; 
Swiss Lake Dwellers, 121, 127. 

Switzerland, 12 1, 127, 183; Al- 
pines in, 44, 135, 141; Lake 
Dwellings in, 139; mercenaries 
in, 135; Nordics in, 135; race 
mixture in, 135. 

Sylla, 217. 

Synthetic languages, 165, 216, 
233, 237, 239-240, 243. 

Syr Darya, 119. 

Syria, hellenized, 220; round 
skull invasion of, 140. 

Syrians, 16, 91. 

Taal dialect, 80. 

Tamahu, blondness of, 223. 

Tardenoisian Period, 115, 117, 

Tatars, 139, 144. 
Tchouds, language of, 236. 
Tennessee, 39, 40. 
Terramara Period, 122, 127, 266. 
Terramara settlements, bronze 

in, 127; copper in, 122; human 
remains in, 122. 

Teutobergian forest, 154. 

Teutonic, as a term, 231-232; 
branch of the Nordic race, 20, 
61, 62, 72, 124, 131, 139, 146, 
168-170, 210, 211, 231, 232, 
248; expansion of, 270, 271; 
invaders of Gaul, 69; inva- 
sions, 63, 69, 179-184, 189, 
194-196; languages of, 61, 139, 
249-251; duration of Teutonic 
language in Gaul, 182; Teu- 
tonic tribes mixed with the 
Belgae, 248; speech in the 
British Isles, 249-250; Proto- 
Teutonics, 169. 

Teutons, 72, 141-142, 144, 173- 
174, 176-177. 189, 194-196; 
division of in the Great War, 
184; physical characters of, 
175; route of expansion of, 174. 

Thebes, 162. 

Thessaly, 245. 

Thibet, 22, 134. 

Thirty Years' War, 184-187, 198. 

Thrace, Nordics in, 214; early 
inhabitants of, 246; Gauls in, 

Thracian language, 130, 256; 
origin of, 243. 

Tin, 126-127. 

Tin Isles of Ultima Thule, 127. 

Titian, 215. 

Tokharian language, 260-261. 

Tools, 102-104, 112, 120-121, 
123, 126, 129, 155. 

Tours, battle of, 181. 

Trade routes, 119, 123-125. 

Trajan, 244. 

Transylvania, Rumanian lan- 
guage in, 245; Vlachs in, 246. 

Trapping, 122. 

Trinitarian faith of the Franks, 

Tripoli, round skull invasion of, 



Trojans, 159. 

Troy, siege of, 159. 

Tunis, Alpines in, 128, 140, 158; 

bronze in, 128; race mixture in, 

Turcomans, 238; or Turkomans, 

Turkestan, 254, 257; Nomads of, 

259; Tokharian language in, 

Turki or Turks, 100, 144-145, 

166, 237, 238, 254; language 

of, 237-238; race mixture 

among, 237. 
Tuscan language, 244. 
Tyre, 126, 165. 
Tyrol, the, 30, 36, 129; Alpines 

in, 141, 210; Dinaric race in, 

138; Nordics in, 200; stature 

in, 190. 
Tyrolese, 135; physical character 

of, 190. 
Tyrrhenians, 157. 

Ugrian language, 243. 

Ukraine, 213. 

Ultima Thule, 126. 

Umbrian language, 130, 234, 244. 

Umbrians, 145, 157, 160, 173, 
244, 269. 

Unit characters, 13, 14, 30, 31; 
intermixture of, 14; unchang- 
ing, 15-18, 139. 

Unitarian faith of the barbarians, 

United States of America, af- 
fected by immigration, 89 et 
seqj; as a European colony, 
racially, 83, 84; German and 
Irish immigrants in, 84, 86; 
Indian element in, 87; Negroes 
of, 16, 40, 65, 76, 82, 85, 87, 99; 
Nordic blood in the colonies, 
83-85; race consciousness in, 
86; Nordics in, 81; in the 
world war, 187; see also 

Upper Neolithic, 121. 

Upper Paleolithic, 100, 105, 108, 

113, 132; close of, 115. 
Upper Robenhausian, 122. 
Ural mountains, 65, 213. 
Ural-Altaic speech, 236. 
Urmia, Lake, 253. 
Ussher, Archbishop, 4. 

Vagrancy, 10. 

Valais, 178. 

Vandal kingdom, destruction of, 

181 ; conquests, 223. 
Vandals, 73, 142, 145, 156, 176- 

177, 181, 195, 223, 270; in 

Africa, 180; in Spain, 176-177, 

Varangians, 177, 189. 
Varus, 154. 
Vassalage, 9. 
Vedas, 257-259. 
Veddahs, 149. 
Venethi, 141, 143, 245. 
Veneto, 183. 

Venezuela, population of, 76. 
Venice, Nordic aristocracy of, 

Vikings, 129, 177, 206-207, 2IO » 

211, 249, 271; in America, 211, 

249; see also Norse pirates. 
Villein, 10. 
Virginia, 84. 
Visigoths, 156, 176, 195, 270; 

in Gaul, 180; in Spain, 180, 

192; kingdom of destroyed, 

Vlachs, 178, 245-246. 
Volga river, 145. 
Voluntary childlessness, 217. 
Volunteer armies, 198. 

Wahlstatt, battle of, 260. 
Wales, Celtic language in, 63; 

Cymric language in, 205, 248; 

derivation of the name, 178; 

Goidelic language in, 205; 

Mediterraneans in, 63, 153, 



203; Nordics in, 203; racial 
elements and survivals in, 

Wallachia, Little and Great, 246. 

Wallachian, 178. 

Walloons, 57, 140, 178, 195; lan- 
guage of, 244. 

War and racial elements, 91; 
effect of on populations, 183- 
187, 191-193, 196-198, 216, 
231 ; Great World War, 73, 74, 
168, 186, 187, 191, 230-232. 

Wars, European, 56, 191, 198, 
230-232; losses from, 185, 196- 
198; Nordic element in, 73, 74, 
231; of the Roses, 191; Punic, 
217; Servile, 217; Social, 217. 

Wealth, privilege of, 6. 

Weapons, 103, 113-115, 120-121, 
126-130, 155, 159, 200. 

Welsh, 62, 63, 177-178; in 
Britain, 248; Round Barrow 
survivals among, 164. 

Wends, 72, 141-143, 236, 269, 
272; increase of in east Ger- 
many, 184. 

West Indian sugar planters, II. 

West Indies, Negroes in, 76. 

West Prussia, 72. 

Western Empire, 179, 180, 216. 

Westphalia, 26. 

White Huns, 254. 

White race, 79. 

White Sea, 171. 

Whites, 76-77; in the Argentine, 
78; in Australia, 79; in Brazil, 
78; in China, 78; in the East 
Indies, 78; in India, 78; in 
Jamaica, 76; in Mexico, 76; 
in the Philippines, 78; in New 
Zealand, 79; see also Nor- 
dics, the Nordic race, and 

Women, lighter in pigmentation 
than men, 26, 27; more primi- 
tive, 27; social status of among 
the races, 228. 

Writing, 115, 241. 

Wu-Suns, 224, 260. 

Wiirm glaciation, 106, 133, 170, 

Wurtemberg, Alpines in, 140- 
141 ; loss of population in dur- 
ing the Thirty Years' War, 

Wurtembergers, 135. 

Zanzibar, 82. 

Zendavesta, 258. 

Zendic language, 255, 259. 


cop. 2 

Grant, Madison 

The passing of the great